Abstract

Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the “similarity sorting” procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for “blue” are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single “blue” term is basic.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Berlin and P. Kay, Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution (University of California, 1969).
  2. C. P. Biggam, The Semantics of Colour: A Historical Approach (Cambridge University, 2012).
  3. G. G. Corbett and I. R. L. Davies, “Establishing basic colour terms: measures and techniques,” in Color Categories in Thought and Language, C. L. Hardin and L. Maffi, eds. (Cambridge University, 1997), pp. 197–223.
  4. U. Sutrop, “List task and a cognitive salience index,” Field Methods 13, 263–276 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Kerttula, “Relative basicness of color terms,” in Anthropology of Color, R. E. MacLaury, G. V. Paramei, and D. Dedrick, eds. (John Benjamins, 2007), pp. 151–169.
  6. P. Kay and T. Regier, “Resolving the question of color naming universals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 9085–9089 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Sandford, “Blu, Azzurro, Celeste: what color is blue for Italian speakers compared to English speakers?” in Colour and Colorimetry Multidisciplinary Contributions, M. Rossi, ed. (Maggioli S.p.A., 2012), Vol. XIII B, pp. 281–288.
  8. G. Paggetti and G. Menegaz, “Exact location of consensus and consistency colors in the OSA-UCS for the Italian language,” Col. Res. Appl. 38, 437–447 (2013)..
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. V. Paramei and G. Menegaz, “‘Italian blues’: a challenge to the universal inventory of basic colour terms,” in Colour and Colorimetry Multidisciplinary Contributions, M. Rossi, ed. (Maggioli S.p.A., 2013), Vol. IX B, pp. 164–167.
  10. G. Paggetti and G. Menegaz, “Is light blue (azzurro) color name universal in the Italian language?” in Trends and Topics in Computer Vision: ECCV 2010, Revised Selected Papers Part II, K. N. Kutulakos, ed. (Springer, 2012), pp. 90–103.
  11. M. Uusküla, “Living under the Mediterranean sky and by the Mediterranean Sea: terms for blue in Italian,” in The Language of Color in the Mediterranean, A. Borg, ed., 2nd ed. (Otto Harrassowitz, 2014).
  12. G. V. Paramei, “Russian ‘blues’: controversies of basicness,” in Anthropology of Color, R. E. MacLaury, G. V. Paramei, and D. Dedrick, eds. (John Benjamins, 2007), pp. 75–106.
  13. G. Thierry, P. Athanasopoulos, A. Wiggett, B. Dering, and J.-R. Kuipers, “Unconscious effects of language-specific terminology on preattentive color perception,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 4567–4570 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Franklin and I. R. L. Davies, “Converging evidence for pre-linguistic colour categorisation,” in Progress in Colour Studies: Psychological Aspects, C. P. Biggam and N. Pitchford, eds. (John Benjamins, 2006), pp. 101–120.
  15. D. Roberson, I. R. L. Davies, G. Corbett, and M. Vandervyver, “Free sorting of colors across cultures: are there universal grounds for grouping?” J. Cogn. Cult. 5, 349–386 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. Davies and G. Corbett, “A cross-cultural study of colour grouping: evidence for weak linguistic relativity,” Br. J. Psychol. 88, 493–517 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Laws, I. Davies, and C. Andrews, “Linguistic structure and non-linguistic cognition: English and Russian blues compared,” Lang. Cogn. Processes 10, 59–94 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Winawer, N. Witthoft, M. C. Frank, L. Wu, A. R. Wade, and L. Boroditsky, “Russian blues reveal effects of language on color discrimination,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 7780–7785 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. N. Witthoft, J. Winawer, L. Wu, M. Frank, A. Wade, and L. Boroditsky, “Effects of language on color discriminability,” in Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (Lawrence Erlbaum, 2003), pp. 1247–1252.
  20. A. Androulaki, N. Gômez-Pestaña, C. Mitsakis, J. L. Jover, K. Coventry, and I. R. L. Davies, “Basic colour terms in modern Greek: twelve terms including two blues,” J. Greek Linguist. 7, 3–47 (2006).
  21. P. Athanasopoulos, “Cognitive representation of colour in bilinguals: the case of Greek blues,” Bilingual Lang. Cogn. 12, 83–95 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. I. R. L. Davies, G. G. Corbett, and J. B. Margalef, “Colour terms in Catalan: an investigation of eighty informants, concentrating on the purple and blue regions,” Trans. Philol. Soc. 93, 17–49 (1995).
  23. A. Borg, “Towards a diachrony of Maltese basic colour terms,” in New Directions in Colour Studies, C. P. Biggam, C. A. Hough, C. J. Kay, and D. R. Simmons, eds. (John Benjamins, 2011), pp. 73–90.
  24. E. Özgen and I. R. L. Davies, “Turkish color terms: tests of Berlin and Kay’s color theory of color universals and linguistic relativity,” Linguistics 36, 919–956 (1998).
  25. K. Rätsep, “Turkish basic colour terms with an emphasis on blue,” in New Directions in Colour Studies, C. P. Biggam, C. A. Hough, C. J. Kay, and D. R. Simmons, eds. (John Benjamins, 2011), pp. 133–145.
  26. A. P. M. Coxon, Sorting Data: Collection and Analysis (Sage, 1999).
  27. S. C. Weller and A. R. Romney, Systematic Data Collection (Sage, 1988).
  28. A. D. Symonds, In the Key of Blue (Macmillan, 1893).
  29. M. Uusküla, “Linguistic categorisation of blue in Standard Italian,” in Colour Studies: A Broad Spectrum, W. Anderson, C. P. Biggam, C. Hough, and C. Kay, eds. (John Benjamins, 2014).
  30. A. Hård, L. Sivik, and G. Tonnquist, “NCS natural color system—From concept to research and applications, Part I,” Col. Res. Appl. 21, 180–205 (1996).
  31. R. Fletcher, The City University Colour Vision Test, 2nd ed. (Keeler, 1980).
  32. C. Gini, “On the measure of concentration with special reference to income and statistics,” Colorado College Publication, General Series 208, 73–79 (1936).
  33. D. L. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and M. Uusküla, “Applying Points-of-View analysis to individual variations in colour sorting data,” J. Cogn. Culture (to be published).
  34. A. G. Ramat, “Colori germanici nel mondo romanzo,” in Atti e Memorie dell’Accademia Toscana di Scienze e Lettere “La Colombaria”, L. S. Olschki, ed. (Firenze, 1967).
  35. G. Paggetti and G. Menegaz, “Is the ‘azul’ class unique in the Spanish language?” Perception 40, S80 (2011).
  36. S. Harkness, “Universal aspects of learning color codes: a study in two cultures,” Ethos 1, 175–200 (1973).
  37. R. Bolton, “Black, white, and red all over: the riddle of color term salience,” Ethnology 17, 287–311 (1978).
  38. N. Alvarado and K. A. Jameson, “The use of modifying terms in the naming and categorization of color appearances in Vietnamese and English,” J. Cogn. Cult. 2, 53–80 (2002).
  39. K. Rätsep and D. Bimler, “Estonian case study: sorting and naming the blue,” (submitted).

2013 (1)

G. Paggetti and G. Menegaz, “Exact location of consensus and consistency colors in the OSA-UCS for the Italian language,” Col. Res. Appl. 38, 437–447 (2013)..
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

G. Paggetti and G. Menegaz, “Is the ‘azul’ class unique in the Spanish language?” Perception 40, S80 (2011).

2009 (2)

P. Athanasopoulos, “Cognitive representation of colour in bilinguals: the case of Greek blues,” Bilingual Lang. Cogn. 12, 83–95 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Thierry, P. Athanasopoulos, A. Wiggett, B. Dering, and J.-R. Kuipers, “Unconscious effects of language-specific terminology on preattentive color perception,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 4567–4570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Winawer, N. Witthoft, M. C. Frank, L. Wu, A. R. Wade, and L. Boroditsky, “Russian blues reveal effects of language on color discrimination,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 7780–7785 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. Androulaki, N. Gômez-Pestaña, C. Mitsakis, J. L. Jover, K. Coventry, and I. R. L. Davies, “Basic colour terms in modern Greek: twelve terms including two blues,” J. Greek Linguist. 7, 3–47 (2006).

2005 (1)

D. Roberson, I. R. L. Davies, G. Corbett, and M. Vandervyver, “Free sorting of colors across cultures: are there universal grounds for grouping?” J. Cogn. Cult. 5, 349–386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. Kay and T. Regier, “Resolving the question of color naming universals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 9085–9089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. Alvarado and K. A. Jameson, “The use of modifying terms in the naming and categorization of color appearances in Vietnamese and English,” J. Cogn. Cult. 2, 53–80 (2002).

2001 (1)

U. Sutrop, “List task and a cognitive salience index,” Field Methods 13, 263–276 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

E. Özgen and I. R. L. Davies, “Turkish color terms: tests of Berlin and Kay’s color theory of color universals and linguistic relativity,” Linguistics 36, 919–956 (1998).

1997 (1)

I. Davies and G. Corbett, “A cross-cultural study of colour grouping: evidence for weak linguistic relativity,” Br. J. Psychol. 88, 493–517 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Hård, L. Sivik, and G. Tonnquist, “NCS natural color system—From concept to research and applications, Part I,” Col. Res. Appl. 21, 180–205 (1996).

1995 (2)

I. R. L. Davies, G. G. Corbett, and J. B. Margalef, “Colour terms in Catalan: an investigation of eighty informants, concentrating on the purple and blue regions,” Trans. Philol. Soc. 93, 17–49 (1995).

G. Laws, I. Davies, and C. Andrews, “Linguistic structure and non-linguistic cognition: English and Russian blues compared,” Lang. Cogn. Processes 10, 59–94 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

R. Bolton, “Black, white, and red all over: the riddle of color term salience,” Ethnology 17, 287–311 (1978).

1973 (1)

S. Harkness, “Universal aspects of learning color codes: a study in two cultures,” Ethos 1, 175–200 (1973).

1936 (1)

C. Gini, “On the measure of concentration with special reference to income and statistics,” Colorado College Publication, General Series 208, 73–79 (1936).

Alvarado, N.

N. Alvarado and K. A. Jameson, “The use of modifying terms in the naming and categorization of color appearances in Vietnamese and English,” J. Cogn. Cult. 2, 53–80 (2002).

Andrews, C.

G. Laws, I. Davies, and C. Andrews, “Linguistic structure and non-linguistic cognition: English and Russian blues compared,” Lang. Cogn. Processes 10, 59–94 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Androulaki, A.

A. Androulaki, N. Gômez-Pestaña, C. Mitsakis, J. L. Jover, K. Coventry, and I. R. L. Davies, “Basic colour terms in modern Greek: twelve terms including two blues,” J. Greek Linguist. 7, 3–47 (2006).

Athanasopoulos, P.

G. Thierry, P. Athanasopoulos, A. Wiggett, B. Dering, and J.-R. Kuipers, “Unconscious effects of language-specific terminology on preattentive color perception,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 4567–4570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Athanasopoulos, “Cognitive representation of colour in bilinguals: the case of Greek blues,” Bilingual Lang. Cogn. 12, 83–95 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berlin, B.

B. Berlin and P. Kay, Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution (University of California, 1969).

Biggam, C. P.

C. P. Biggam, The Semantics of Colour: A Historical Approach (Cambridge University, 2012).

Bimler, D.

K. Rätsep and D. Bimler, “Estonian case study: sorting and naming the blue,” (submitted).

Bimler, D. L.

D. L. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and M. Uusküla, “Applying Points-of-View analysis to individual variations in colour sorting data,” J. Cogn. Culture (to be published).

Bolton, R.

R. Bolton, “Black, white, and red all over: the riddle of color term salience,” Ethnology 17, 287–311 (1978).

Borg, A.

A. Borg, “Towards a diachrony of Maltese basic colour terms,” in New Directions in Colour Studies, C. P. Biggam, C. A. Hough, C. J. Kay, and D. R. Simmons, eds. (John Benjamins, 2011), pp. 73–90.

Boroditsky, L.

J. Winawer, N. Witthoft, M. C. Frank, L. Wu, A. R. Wade, and L. Boroditsky, “Russian blues reveal effects of language on color discrimination,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 7780–7785 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Witthoft, J. Winawer, L. Wu, M. Frank, A. Wade, and L. Boroditsky, “Effects of language on color discriminability,” in Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (Lawrence Erlbaum, 2003), pp. 1247–1252.

Corbett, G.

D. Roberson, I. R. L. Davies, G. Corbett, and M. Vandervyver, “Free sorting of colors across cultures: are there universal grounds for grouping?” J. Cogn. Cult. 5, 349–386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Davies and G. Corbett, “A cross-cultural study of colour grouping: evidence for weak linguistic relativity,” Br. J. Psychol. 88, 493–517 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Corbett, G. G.

I. R. L. Davies, G. G. Corbett, and J. B. Margalef, “Colour terms in Catalan: an investigation of eighty informants, concentrating on the purple and blue regions,” Trans. Philol. Soc. 93, 17–49 (1995).

G. G. Corbett and I. R. L. Davies, “Establishing basic colour terms: measures and techniques,” in Color Categories in Thought and Language, C. L. Hardin and L. Maffi, eds. (Cambridge University, 1997), pp. 197–223.

Coventry, K.

A. Androulaki, N. Gômez-Pestaña, C. Mitsakis, J. L. Jover, K. Coventry, and I. R. L. Davies, “Basic colour terms in modern Greek: twelve terms including two blues,” J. Greek Linguist. 7, 3–47 (2006).

Coxon, A. P. M.

A. P. M. Coxon, Sorting Data: Collection and Analysis (Sage, 1999).

Davies, I.

I. Davies and G. Corbett, “A cross-cultural study of colour grouping: evidence for weak linguistic relativity,” Br. J. Psychol. 88, 493–517 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Laws, I. Davies, and C. Andrews, “Linguistic structure and non-linguistic cognition: English and Russian blues compared,” Lang. Cogn. Processes 10, 59–94 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Davies, I. R. L.

A. Androulaki, N. Gômez-Pestaña, C. Mitsakis, J. L. Jover, K. Coventry, and I. R. L. Davies, “Basic colour terms in modern Greek: twelve terms including two blues,” J. Greek Linguist. 7, 3–47 (2006).

D. Roberson, I. R. L. Davies, G. Corbett, and M. Vandervyver, “Free sorting of colors across cultures: are there universal grounds for grouping?” J. Cogn. Cult. 5, 349–386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Özgen and I. R. L. Davies, “Turkish color terms: tests of Berlin and Kay’s color theory of color universals and linguistic relativity,” Linguistics 36, 919–956 (1998).

I. R. L. Davies, G. G. Corbett, and J. B. Margalef, “Colour terms in Catalan: an investigation of eighty informants, concentrating on the purple and blue regions,” Trans. Philol. Soc. 93, 17–49 (1995).

A. Franklin and I. R. L. Davies, “Converging evidence for pre-linguistic colour categorisation,” in Progress in Colour Studies: Psychological Aspects, C. P. Biggam and N. Pitchford, eds. (John Benjamins, 2006), pp. 101–120.

G. G. Corbett and I. R. L. Davies, “Establishing basic colour terms: measures and techniques,” in Color Categories in Thought and Language, C. L. Hardin and L. Maffi, eds. (Cambridge University, 1997), pp. 197–223.

Dering, B.

G. Thierry, P. Athanasopoulos, A. Wiggett, B. Dering, and J.-R. Kuipers, “Unconscious effects of language-specific terminology on preattentive color perception,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 4567–4570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, R.

R. Fletcher, The City University Colour Vision Test, 2nd ed. (Keeler, 1980).

Frank, M.

N. Witthoft, J. Winawer, L. Wu, M. Frank, A. Wade, and L. Boroditsky, “Effects of language on color discriminability,” in Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (Lawrence Erlbaum, 2003), pp. 1247–1252.

Frank, M. C.

J. Winawer, N. Witthoft, M. C. Frank, L. Wu, A. R. Wade, and L. Boroditsky, “Russian blues reveal effects of language on color discrimination,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 7780–7785 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Franklin, A.

A. Franklin and I. R. L. Davies, “Converging evidence for pre-linguistic colour categorisation,” in Progress in Colour Studies: Psychological Aspects, C. P. Biggam and N. Pitchford, eds. (John Benjamins, 2006), pp. 101–120.

Gini, C.

C. Gini, “On the measure of concentration with special reference to income and statistics,” Colorado College Publication, General Series 208, 73–79 (1936).

Gômez-Pestaña, N.

A. Androulaki, N. Gômez-Pestaña, C. Mitsakis, J. L. Jover, K. Coventry, and I. R. L. Davies, “Basic colour terms in modern Greek: twelve terms including two blues,” J. Greek Linguist. 7, 3–47 (2006).

Hård, A.

A. Hård, L. Sivik, and G. Tonnquist, “NCS natural color system—From concept to research and applications, Part I,” Col. Res. Appl. 21, 180–205 (1996).

Harkness, S.

S. Harkness, “Universal aspects of learning color codes: a study in two cultures,” Ethos 1, 175–200 (1973).

Jameson, K. A.

N. Alvarado and K. A. Jameson, “The use of modifying terms in the naming and categorization of color appearances in Vietnamese and English,” J. Cogn. Cult. 2, 53–80 (2002).

Jover, J. L.

A. Androulaki, N. Gômez-Pestaña, C. Mitsakis, J. L. Jover, K. Coventry, and I. R. L. Davies, “Basic colour terms in modern Greek: twelve terms including two blues,” J. Greek Linguist. 7, 3–47 (2006).

Kay, P.

P. Kay and T. Regier, “Resolving the question of color naming universals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 9085–9089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Berlin and P. Kay, Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution (University of California, 1969).

Kerttula, S.

S. Kerttula, “Relative basicness of color terms,” in Anthropology of Color, R. E. MacLaury, G. V. Paramei, and D. Dedrick, eds. (John Benjamins, 2007), pp. 151–169.

Kirkland, J.

D. L. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and M. Uusküla, “Applying Points-of-View analysis to individual variations in colour sorting data,” J. Cogn. Culture (to be published).

Kuipers, J.-R.

G. Thierry, P. Athanasopoulos, A. Wiggett, B. Dering, and J.-R. Kuipers, “Unconscious effects of language-specific terminology on preattentive color perception,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 4567–4570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laws, G.

G. Laws, I. Davies, and C. Andrews, “Linguistic structure and non-linguistic cognition: English and Russian blues compared,” Lang. Cogn. Processes 10, 59–94 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Margalef, J. B.

I. R. L. Davies, G. G. Corbett, and J. B. Margalef, “Colour terms in Catalan: an investigation of eighty informants, concentrating on the purple and blue regions,” Trans. Philol. Soc. 93, 17–49 (1995).

Menegaz, G.

G. Paggetti and G. Menegaz, “Exact location of consensus and consistency colors in the OSA-UCS for the Italian language,” Col. Res. Appl. 38, 437–447 (2013)..
[CrossRef]

G. Paggetti and G. Menegaz, “Is the ‘azul’ class unique in the Spanish language?” Perception 40, S80 (2011).

G. Paggetti and G. Menegaz, “Is light blue (azzurro) color name universal in the Italian language?” in Trends and Topics in Computer Vision: ECCV 2010, Revised Selected Papers Part II, K. N. Kutulakos, ed. (Springer, 2012), pp. 90–103.

G. V. Paramei and G. Menegaz, “‘Italian blues’: a challenge to the universal inventory of basic colour terms,” in Colour and Colorimetry Multidisciplinary Contributions, M. Rossi, ed. (Maggioli S.p.A., 2013), Vol. IX B, pp. 164–167.

Mitsakis, C.

A. Androulaki, N. Gômez-Pestaña, C. Mitsakis, J. L. Jover, K. Coventry, and I. R. L. Davies, “Basic colour terms in modern Greek: twelve terms including two blues,” J. Greek Linguist. 7, 3–47 (2006).

Özgen, E.

E. Özgen and I. R. L. Davies, “Turkish color terms: tests of Berlin and Kay’s color theory of color universals and linguistic relativity,” Linguistics 36, 919–956 (1998).

Paggetti, G.

G. Paggetti and G. Menegaz, “Exact location of consensus and consistency colors in the OSA-UCS for the Italian language,” Col. Res. Appl. 38, 437–447 (2013)..
[CrossRef]

G. Paggetti and G. Menegaz, “Is the ‘azul’ class unique in the Spanish language?” Perception 40, S80 (2011).

G. Paggetti and G. Menegaz, “Is light blue (azzurro) color name universal in the Italian language?” in Trends and Topics in Computer Vision: ECCV 2010, Revised Selected Papers Part II, K. N. Kutulakos, ed. (Springer, 2012), pp. 90–103.

Paramei, G. V.

G. V. Paramei and G. Menegaz, “‘Italian blues’: a challenge to the universal inventory of basic colour terms,” in Colour and Colorimetry Multidisciplinary Contributions, M. Rossi, ed. (Maggioli S.p.A., 2013), Vol. IX B, pp. 164–167.

G. V. Paramei, “Russian ‘blues’: controversies of basicness,” in Anthropology of Color, R. E. MacLaury, G. V. Paramei, and D. Dedrick, eds. (John Benjamins, 2007), pp. 75–106.

Ramat, A. G.

A. G. Ramat, “Colori germanici nel mondo romanzo,” in Atti e Memorie dell’Accademia Toscana di Scienze e Lettere “La Colombaria”, L. S. Olschki, ed. (Firenze, 1967).

Rätsep, K.

K. Rätsep, “Turkish basic colour terms with an emphasis on blue,” in New Directions in Colour Studies, C. P. Biggam, C. A. Hough, C. J. Kay, and D. R. Simmons, eds. (John Benjamins, 2011), pp. 133–145.

K. Rätsep and D. Bimler, “Estonian case study: sorting and naming the blue,” (submitted).

Regier, T.

P. Kay and T. Regier, “Resolving the question of color naming universals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 9085–9089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roberson, D.

D. Roberson, I. R. L. Davies, G. Corbett, and M. Vandervyver, “Free sorting of colors across cultures: are there universal grounds for grouping?” J. Cogn. Cult. 5, 349–386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Romney, A. R.

S. C. Weller and A. R. Romney, Systematic Data Collection (Sage, 1988).

Sandford, J.

J. Sandford, “Blu, Azzurro, Celeste: what color is blue for Italian speakers compared to English speakers?” in Colour and Colorimetry Multidisciplinary Contributions, M. Rossi, ed. (Maggioli S.p.A., 2012), Vol. XIII B, pp. 281–288.

Sivik, L.

A. Hård, L. Sivik, and G. Tonnquist, “NCS natural color system—From concept to research and applications, Part I,” Col. Res. Appl. 21, 180–205 (1996).

Sutrop, U.

U. Sutrop, “List task and a cognitive salience index,” Field Methods 13, 263–276 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Symonds, A. D.

A. D. Symonds, In the Key of Blue (Macmillan, 1893).

Thierry, G.

G. Thierry, P. Athanasopoulos, A. Wiggett, B. Dering, and J.-R. Kuipers, “Unconscious effects of language-specific terminology on preattentive color perception,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 4567–4570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tonnquist, G.

A. Hård, L. Sivik, and G. Tonnquist, “NCS natural color system—From concept to research and applications, Part I,” Col. Res. Appl. 21, 180–205 (1996).

Uusküla, M.

D. L. Bimler, J. Kirkland, and M. Uusküla, “Applying Points-of-View analysis to individual variations in colour sorting data,” J. Cogn. Culture (to be published).

M. Uusküla, “Linguistic categorisation of blue in Standard Italian,” in Colour Studies: A Broad Spectrum, W. Anderson, C. P. Biggam, C. Hough, and C. Kay, eds. (John Benjamins, 2014).

Vandervyver, M.

D. Roberson, I. R. L. Davies, G. Corbett, and M. Vandervyver, “Free sorting of colors across cultures: are there universal grounds for grouping?” J. Cogn. Cult. 5, 349–386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wade, A.

N. Witthoft, J. Winawer, L. Wu, M. Frank, A. Wade, and L. Boroditsky, “Effects of language on color discriminability,” in Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (Lawrence Erlbaum, 2003), pp. 1247–1252.

Wade, A. R.

J. Winawer, N. Witthoft, M. C. Frank, L. Wu, A. R. Wade, and L. Boroditsky, “Russian blues reveal effects of language on color discrimination,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 7780–7785 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weller, S. C.

S. C. Weller and A. R. Romney, Systematic Data Collection (Sage, 1988).

Wiggett, A.

G. Thierry, P. Athanasopoulos, A. Wiggett, B. Dering, and J.-R. Kuipers, “Unconscious effects of language-specific terminology on preattentive color perception,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 4567–4570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Winawer, J.

J. Winawer, N. Witthoft, M. C. Frank, L. Wu, A. R. Wade, and L. Boroditsky, “Russian blues reveal effects of language on color discrimination,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 7780–7785 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Witthoft, J. Winawer, L. Wu, M. Frank, A. Wade, and L. Boroditsky, “Effects of language on color discriminability,” in Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (Lawrence Erlbaum, 2003), pp. 1247–1252.

Witthoft, N.

J. Winawer, N. Witthoft, M. C. Frank, L. Wu, A. R. Wade, and L. Boroditsky, “Russian blues reveal effects of language on color discrimination,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 7780–7785 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Witthoft, J. Winawer, L. Wu, M. Frank, A. Wade, and L. Boroditsky, “Effects of language on color discriminability,” in Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (Lawrence Erlbaum, 2003), pp. 1247–1252.

Wu, L.

J. Winawer, N. Witthoft, M. C. Frank, L. Wu, A. R. Wade, and L. Boroditsky, “Russian blues reveal effects of language on color discrimination,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 7780–7785 (2007).
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N. Witthoft, J. Winawer, L. Wu, M. Frank, A. Wade, and L. Boroditsky, “Effects of language on color discriminability,” in Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (Lawrence Erlbaum, 2003), pp. 1247–1252.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Munsell specifications for the 51 nonyellow papers: Value (lightness), vertical axis against Hue, horizontal axis. Symbols indicate Italian modal names for the stimuli, as in Fig. 2(a). Blu scuro, “dark blue”; grigio, “gray”; lilla, “lilac” or “light purple”; verde acqua, “aqua”; verde, “green”; viola, “purple.”

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

MDS solution for Italian participants. Horizontal and vertical axes roughly correspond to hue and lightness, respectively. (a) Symbols indicate modal names, including centroids of “best-example” nominations for blu, azzurro, and celeste. (b) Size of circles indicates degree of naming consensus for each tile (Gini index).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

MDS solution for English participant groups. Symbols as in Fig. 2(a).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

MDS solution for Russian participants. (a) Symbols identify Russian modal names: birjuzovyj, “turquoise”; černyj, “black”; fioletovyj, “purple”; lilovyj, “lilac” “light purple”; salatovyj, “lettuce green”; seryj, “gray”; temno-fioletovyj, “dark-purple”; temno-sinij, “dark-blue”; zelenyj, “green.” (b) Size of circles indicates degree of naming consensus.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Details of the 55 CAC Tiles, Including Color-Space Coordinates, Modal Names Given to Each Tile by Italian and Russian Participants, and Gini Indices for Naming Distributions

Equations (1)

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Cluster=DINTER/(DINTER+DINTRA),

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