Abstract

To investigate the effect of induced intraocular straylight on the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test performance in individuals with light and dark irides, 28 young subjects were tested both with and without a quantified light-scattering filter. The filter produced a significant increase in the total error scores (p<0.05), but no significant correlation was found between the level of straylight and error score (p>0.05). The development of a tritan-like defect in the dark-eyed participants can be attributed to the effect of light attenuation caused by filter absorption, which markedly affects S-cone mediated color discrimination. The combined effect of higher short-wavelength absorption of melanin and macular pigment in the dark eyes may be involved.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. G. Gilbert, “Age changes in color matching,” J. Gerontol. 12, 210–215 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Ohta and H. Kato, “Color perception changes with age: test results by P-N anomaloscope,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 345–352 (1976).
  3. R. Lakowski, “Age and color vision,” Adv. Sci. 15, 231–236 (1958).
  4. R. Lakowski, “Is the deterioration of color discrimination with age due to lens or retinal changes?” Die Farbe 11, 69–86 (1962).
  5. G. Verriest, “Further studies on acquired deficiency of color discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 185–195 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Verriest, J. Van Laethem, and A. Uvijls, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test scores,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 635–642 (1982).
  7. V. Smith, J. Pokorny, and A. S. Pass, “Color axis determination on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176–182 (1985).
  8. B. E. Schefrin, K. Shinomori, and J. S. Werner, “Contributions of neural pathways to age-related losses in chromatic discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12, 1233–1241 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Mäntyjärvi, “Normal test scores in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 102, 73–80 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. R. Kinnear and A. Sahraie, “New Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test norms of normal observers for each year of age 5-22 and for age decades 30–70,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 1408–1411 (2002).
  11. G. V. Paramei, “Color discrimination across four life decades assessed by the Cambridge color test,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A290–A297 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Beirne, L. McIlreavy, and M. B. Zlatkova, “The effect of age-related lens yellowing on Farnsworth–Munsell 100 hue error score,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 28, 448–456 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. de Waard, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, and P. T. V. M. de Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers; dependence on angle, age and pigmentation,” Vis. Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. L. Barbur, A. J. Harlow, and C. Williams, “Light scattered in the eye and its effect on the measurement of the color constancy index,” in Color Vision Deficiencies XIII, C. R. Cavonius, ed. (Kluver Academic, 1997), pp. 439–448.
  15. J. E. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Wavelength dependence of intraocular straylight,” Exp. Eye Res. 82, 688–692 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. S. Ginis, G. M. Perez, J. M. Bueno, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Wavelength dependence of the ocular straylight,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 3702–3708 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Analysis of intraocular straylight, especially in relation to age,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 72, 52–59 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. van de Kraats, and D. van Norren, “Wavelength dependence of the Stiles–Crawford effect explained by perception of backscattered light from the choroid,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1445–1451 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Grading of iris color with an extended photographic reference set,” J. Optom. 1, 36–40 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. V. C. Smith, J. A. M. van Everdingen, and J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of arrangement tests as evaluated in normals at reduced levels of illumination,” Colour Vision Deficiencies X, Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Springer, 1991), Vol. 54, pp. 177–185.
  21. D. Farnsworth, “The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test for the Examination of Color Discrimination, Revised 1957 (Munsell Color Company, 1957).
  22. P. R. Kinnear, “Proposals for scoring and assessing the 100 hue test,” Vis. Res. 10, 423–433 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. A. Aspinall, “Inter-eye comparison on the 100 hue test,” Acta Ophthalmol. 52, 307–316 (1974).
  24. M. B. Zlatkova, E. E. Coulter, and R. S. Anderson, “The effect of simulated lens yellowing and opacification on blue-on-yellow acuity and contrast sensitivity,” Vis. Res. 46, 2432–2442 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 768–776 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. J. Dain, S. M. Pereir, B. Palmer, P. Lewis, and T. Hammond, “Illuminance and the FM 100 hue test,” in Color Vision Deficiencies, V. G. Verriest, ed. (Adam Hilger, 1980), Chap. 3, pp. 162–163.
  27. S. J. Dain, M. O. Scase, and D. H. Foster, “An assessment of the ‘mesopization’ model of blue-yellow color vision defects,” in Color Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, and A. Serra, eds. (Kluwer Academic, 1991), pp. 187–197.
  28. K. Knoblauch, F. Saunders, M. Kusuda, R. Hynes, M. Podgor, K. E. Higgins, and F. M. de Monasterio, “Age and illuminance effects in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1441–1448 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  29. G. C. Woo and M. H. Lee, “Are ethnic differences in the F–M 100 scores related to macular pigmentation?,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 85, 372–377 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. J. Dain, V. T. Cassimaty, and D. T. Psarakis, “Differences in FM 100-Hue test performance related to iris color may be due to pupil size as well as presumed amounts of macular pigmentation,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 87, 322–325 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  31. B. R. Hammond, K. Fuld, and D. M. Snodderly, “Iris color and macular pigment optical density,” Exp. Eye Res. 62, 293–297 (1996).
  32. T. A. Ciulla, J. Curran-Celantano, D. A. Cooper, B. R. Hammond, R. P. Danis, L. M. Pratt, K. A. Riccardi, and T. G. Filloon, “Macular pigment optical density in a Midwestern sample,” Ophthalmology, 108, 730–737 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  33. B. R. Hammond and M. Caruso-Avery, “Macular pigment optical density in a Southwestern sample,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 1492–1497 (2000).
  34. J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and T. Yeh, “Analysis of tritan detection thresholds and discrimination errors,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 3 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1990), pp. 94–97.
  35. T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination with variation in chromaticity and luminance: data and theory,” Vis. Res. 33, 1835–1845 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  36. V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and T. Yeh, “Pigment tests evaluated by a model of chromatic discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1773–1784 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  37. B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 1132–1137 (1994).
  38. D. Kaimbo Wa Kaimbo, W. Spileers, and L. Missotten, “Le test de Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue dans la population bantoue,” J. Fr. Ophthalmol. 100, 664–667 (1994).

2013

H. S. Ginis, G. M. Perez, J. M. Bueno, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Wavelength dependence of the ocular straylight,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 3702–3708 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2008

R. Beirne, L. McIlreavy, and M. B. Zlatkova, “The effect of age-related lens yellowing on Farnsworth–Munsell 100 hue error score,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 28, 448–456 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Grading of iris color with an extended photographic reference set,” J. Optom. 1, 36–40 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. B. Zlatkova, E. E. Coulter, and R. S. Anderson, “The effect of simulated lens yellowing and opacification on blue-on-yellow acuity and contrast sensitivity,” Vis. Res. 46, 2432–2442 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 768–776 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Wavelength dependence of intraocular straylight,” Exp. Eye Res. 82, 688–692 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. J. Dain, V. T. Cassimaty, and D. T. Psarakis, “Differences in FM 100-Hue test performance related to iris color may be due to pupil size as well as presumed amounts of macular pigmentation,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 87, 322–325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

G. C. Woo and M. H. Lee, “Are ethnic differences in the F–M 100 scores related to macular pigmentation?,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 85, 372–377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Kinnear and A. Sahraie, “New Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test norms of normal observers for each year of age 5-22 and for age decades 30–70,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 1408–1411 (2002).

2001

M. Mäntyjärvi, “Normal test scores in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 102, 73–80 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. van de Kraats, and D. van Norren, “Wavelength dependence of the Stiles–Crawford effect explained by perception of backscattered light from the choroid,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1445–1451 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Ciulla, J. Curran-Celantano, D. A. Cooper, B. R. Hammond, R. P. Danis, L. M. Pratt, K. A. Riccardi, and T. G. Filloon, “Macular pigment optical density in a Midwestern sample,” Ophthalmology, 108, 730–737 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

B. R. Hammond and M. Caruso-Avery, “Macular pigment optical density in a Southwestern sample,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 1492–1497 (2000).

1996

B. R. Hammond, K. Fuld, and D. M. Snodderly, “Iris color and macular pigment optical density,” Exp. Eye Res. 62, 293–297 (1996).

1995

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Analysis of intraocular straylight, especially in relation to age,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 72, 52–59 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Schefrin, K. Shinomori, and J. S. Werner, “Contributions of neural pathways to age-related losses in chromatic discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12, 1233–1241 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 1132–1137 (1994).

D. Kaimbo Wa Kaimbo, W. Spileers, and L. Missotten, “Le test de Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue dans la population bantoue,” J. Fr. Ophthalmol. 100, 664–667 (1994).

1993

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination with variation in chromaticity and luminance: data and theory,” Vis. Res. 33, 1835–1845 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and T. Yeh, “Pigment tests evaluated by a model of chromatic discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1773–1784 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. de Waard, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, and P. T. V. M. de Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers; dependence on angle, age and pigmentation,” Vis. Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987

1985

V. Smith, J. Pokorny, and A. S. Pass, “Color axis determination on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176–182 (1985).

1982

G. Verriest, J. Van Laethem, and A. Uvijls, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test scores,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 635–642 (1982).

1976

Y. Ohta and H. Kato, “Color perception changes with age: test results by P-N anomaloscope,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 345–352 (1976).

1974

P. A. Aspinall, “Inter-eye comparison on the 100 hue test,” Acta Ophthalmol. 52, 307–316 (1974).

1970

P. R. Kinnear, “Proposals for scoring and assessing the 100 hue test,” Vis. Res. 10, 423–433 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1963

1962

R. Lakowski, “Is the deterioration of color discrimination with age due to lens or retinal changes?” Die Farbe 11, 69–86 (1962).

1958

R. Lakowski, “Age and color vision,” Adv. Sci. 15, 231–236 (1958).

1957

J. G. Gilbert, “Age changes in color matching,” J. Gerontol. 12, 210–215 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R. S.

M. B. Zlatkova, E. E. Coulter, and R. S. Anderson, “The effect of simulated lens yellowing and opacification on blue-on-yellow acuity and contrast sensitivity,” Vis. Res. 46, 2432–2442 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Artal, P.

H. S. Ginis, G. M. Perez, J. M. Bueno, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Wavelength dependence of the ocular straylight,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 3702–3708 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Aspinall, P. A.

P. A. Aspinall, “Inter-eye comparison on the 100 hue test,” Acta Ophthalmol. 52, 307–316 (1974).

Barbur, J. L.

J. L. Barbur, A. J. Harlow, and C. Williams, “Light scattered in the eye and its effect on the measurement of the color constancy index,” in Color Vision Deficiencies XIII, C. R. Cavonius, ed. (Kluver Academic, 1997), pp. 439–448.

Beirne, R.

R. Beirne, L. McIlreavy, and M. B. Zlatkova, “The effect of age-related lens yellowing on Farnsworth–Munsell 100 hue error score,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 28, 448–456 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berendschot, T. T. J. M.

Bueno, J. M.

H. S. Ginis, G. M. Perez, J. M. Bueno, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Wavelength dependence of the ocular straylight,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 3702–3708 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Caruso-Avery, M.

B. R. Hammond and M. Caruso-Avery, “Macular pigment optical density in a Southwestern sample,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 1492–1497 (2000).

Cassimaty, V. T.

S. J. Dain, V. T. Cassimaty, and D. T. Psarakis, “Differences in FM 100-Hue test performance related to iris color may be due to pupil size as well as presumed amounts of macular pigmentation,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 87, 322–325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ciulla, T. A.

T. A. Ciulla, J. Curran-Celantano, D. A. Cooper, B. R. Hammond, R. P. Danis, L. M. Pratt, K. A. Riccardi, and T. G. Filloon, “Macular pigment optical density in a Midwestern sample,” Ophthalmology, 108, 730–737 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, D. A.

T. A. Ciulla, J. Curran-Celantano, D. A. Cooper, B. R. Hammond, R. P. Danis, L. M. Pratt, K. A. Riccardi, and T. G. Filloon, “Macular pigment optical density in a Midwestern sample,” Ophthalmology, 108, 730–737 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Coppens, J. E.

L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Grading of iris color with an extended photographic reference set,” J. Optom. 1, 36–40 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 768–776 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Wavelength dependence of intraocular straylight,” Exp. Eye Res. 82, 688–692 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coulter, E. E.

M. B. Zlatkova, E. E. Coulter, and R. S. Anderson, “The effect of simulated lens yellowing and opacification on blue-on-yellow acuity and contrast sensitivity,” Vis. Res. 46, 2432–2442 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Curran-Celantano, J.

T. A. Ciulla, J. Curran-Celantano, D. A. Cooper, B. R. Hammond, R. P. Danis, L. M. Pratt, K. A. Riccardi, and T. G. Filloon, “Macular pigment optical density in a Midwestern sample,” Ophthalmology, 108, 730–737 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dain, S. J.

S. J. Dain, V. T. Cassimaty, and D. T. Psarakis, “Differences in FM 100-Hue test performance related to iris color may be due to pupil size as well as presumed amounts of macular pigmentation,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 87, 322–325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Dain, S. M. Pereir, B. Palmer, P. Lewis, and T. Hammond, “Illuminance and the FM 100 hue test,” in Color Vision Deficiencies, V. G. Verriest, ed. (Adam Hilger, 1980), Chap. 3, pp. 162–163.

S. J. Dain, M. O. Scase, and D. H. Foster, “An assessment of the ‘mesopization’ model of blue-yellow color vision defects,” in Color Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, and A. Serra, eds. (Kluwer Academic, 1991), pp. 187–197.

Danis, R. P.

T. A. Ciulla, J. Curran-Celantano, D. A. Cooper, B. R. Hammond, R. P. Danis, L. M. Pratt, K. A. Riccardi, and T. G. Filloon, “Macular pigment optical density in a Midwestern sample,” Ophthalmology, 108, 730–737 (2001).
[CrossRef]

de Jong, P. T. V. M.

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. de Waard, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, and P. T. V. M. de Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers; dependence on angle, age and pigmentation,” Vis. Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
[CrossRef]

de Monasterio, F. M.

de Waard, P. W. T.

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. de Waard, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, and P. T. V. M. de Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers; dependence on angle, age and pigmentation,” Vis. Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, D. B.

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 1132–1137 (1994).

Farnsworth, D.

D. Farnsworth, “The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test for the Examination of Color Discrimination, Revised 1957 (Munsell Color Company, 1957).

Filloon, T. G.

T. A. Ciulla, J. Curran-Celantano, D. A. Cooper, B. R. Hammond, R. P. Danis, L. M. Pratt, K. A. Riccardi, and T. G. Filloon, “Macular pigment optical density in a Midwestern sample,” Ophthalmology, 108, 730–737 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Foster, D. H.

S. J. Dain, M. O. Scase, and D. H. Foster, “An assessment of the ‘mesopization’ model of blue-yellow color vision defects,” in Color Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, and A. Serra, eds. (Kluwer Academic, 1991), pp. 187–197.

Franssen, L.

L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Grading of iris color with an extended photographic reference set,” J. Optom. 1, 36–40 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 768–776 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Wavelength dependence of intraocular straylight,” Exp. Eye Res. 82, 688–692 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fuld, K.

B. R. Hammond, K. Fuld, and D. M. Snodderly, “Iris color and macular pigment optical density,” Exp. Eye Res. 62, 293–297 (1996).

Gilbert, J. G.

J. G. Gilbert, “Age changes in color matching,” J. Gerontol. 12, 210–215 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Ginis, H. S.

H. S. Ginis, G. M. Perez, J. M. Bueno, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Wavelength dependence of the ocular straylight,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 3702–3708 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hammond, B. R.

T. A. Ciulla, J. Curran-Celantano, D. A. Cooper, B. R. Hammond, R. P. Danis, L. M. Pratt, K. A. Riccardi, and T. G. Filloon, “Macular pigment optical density in a Midwestern sample,” Ophthalmology, 108, 730–737 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Hammond and M. Caruso-Avery, “Macular pigment optical density in a Southwestern sample,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 1492–1497 (2000).

B. R. Hammond, K. Fuld, and D. M. Snodderly, “Iris color and macular pigment optical density,” Exp. Eye Res. 62, 293–297 (1996).

Hammond, T.

S. J. Dain, S. M. Pereir, B. Palmer, P. Lewis, and T. Hammond, “Illuminance and the FM 100 hue test,” in Color Vision Deficiencies, V. G. Verriest, ed. (Adam Hilger, 1980), Chap. 3, pp. 162–163.

Harlow, A. J.

J. L. Barbur, A. J. Harlow, and C. Williams, “Light scattered in the eye and its effect on the measurement of the color constancy index,” in Color Vision Deficiencies XIII, C. R. Cavonius, ed. (Kluver Academic, 1997), pp. 439–448.

Higgins, K. E.

Hynes, R.

IJspeert, J. K.

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. de Waard, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, and P. T. V. M. de Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers; dependence on angle, age and pigmentation,” Vis. Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kaimbo Wa Kaimbo, D.

D. Kaimbo Wa Kaimbo, W. Spileers, and L. Missotten, “Le test de Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue dans la population bantoue,” J. Fr. Ophthalmol. 100, 664–667 (1994).

Kato, H.

Y. Ohta and H. Kato, “Color perception changes with age: test results by P-N anomaloscope,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 345–352 (1976).

Kinnear, P. R.

P. R. Kinnear and A. Sahraie, “New Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test norms of normal observers for each year of age 5-22 and for age decades 30–70,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 1408–1411 (2002).

P. R. Kinnear, “Proposals for scoring and assessing the 100 hue test,” Vis. Res. 10, 423–433 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Knoblauch, K.

Kusuda, M.

Lakowski, R.

R. Lakowski, “Is the deterioration of color discrimination with age due to lens or retinal changes?” Die Farbe 11, 69–86 (1962).

R. Lakowski, “Age and color vision,” Adv. Sci. 15, 231–236 (1958).

Lee, M. H.

G. C. Woo and M. H. Lee, “Are ethnic differences in the F–M 100 scores related to macular pigmentation?,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 85, 372–377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, P.

S. J. Dain, S. M. Pereir, B. Palmer, P. Lewis, and T. Hammond, “Illuminance and the FM 100 hue test,” in Color Vision Deficiencies, V. G. Verriest, ed. (Adam Hilger, 1980), Chap. 3, pp. 162–163.

Mäntyjärvi, M.

M. Mäntyjärvi, “Normal test scores in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 102, 73–80 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McIlreavy, L.

R. Beirne, L. McIlreavy, and M. B. Zlatkova, “The effect of age-related lens yellowing on Farnsworth–Munsell 100 hue error score,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 28, 448–456 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Missotten, L.

D. Kaimbo Wa Kaimbo, W. Spileers, and L. Missotten, “Le test de Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue dans la population bantoue,” J. Fr. Ophthalmol. 100, 664–667 (1994).

Ohta, Y.

Y. Ohta and H. Kato, “Color perception changes with age: test results by P-N anomaloscope,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 345–352 (1976).

Palmer, B.

S. J. Dain, S. M. Pereir, B. Palmer, P. Lewis, and T. Hammond, “Illuminance and the FM 100 hue test,” in Color Vision Deficiencies, V. G. Verriest, ed. (Adam Hilger, 1980), Chap. 3, pp. 162–163.

Paramei, G. V.

Pass, A. S.

V. Smith, J. Pokorny, and A. S. Pass, “Color axis determination on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176–182 (1985).

Pennos, A.

H. S. Ginis, G. M. Perez, J. M. Bueno, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Wavelength dependence of the ocular straylight,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 3702–3708 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pereir, S. M.

S. J. Dain, S. M. Pereir, B. Palmer, P. Lewis, and T. Hammond, “Illuminance and the FM 100 hue test,” in Color Vision Deficiencies, V. G. Verriest, ed. (Adam Hilger, 1980), Chap. 3, pp. 162–163.

Perez, G. M.

H. S. Ginis, G. M. Perez, J. M. Bueno, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Wavelength dependence of the ocular straylight,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 3702–3708 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, N. J.

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 1132–1137 (1994).

Podgor, M.

Pokorny, J.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and T. Yeh, “Pigment tests evaluated by a model of chromatic discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1773–1784 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination with variation in chromaticity and luminance: data and theory,” Vis. Res. 33, 1835–1845 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Smith, J. Pokorny, and A. S. Pass, “Color axis determination on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176–182 (1985).

V. C. Smith, J. A. M. van Everdingen, and J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of arrangement tests as evaluated in normals at reduced levels of illumination,” Colour Vision Deficiencies X, Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Springer, 1991), Vol. 54, pp. 177–185.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and T. Yeh, “Analysis of tritan detection thresholds and discrimination errors,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 3 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1990), pp. 94–97.

Pratt, L. M.

T. A. Ciulla, J. Curran-Celantano, D. A. Cooper, B. R. Hammond, R. P. Danis, L. M. Pratt, K. A. Riccardi, and T. G. Filloon, “Macular pigment optical density in a Midwestern sample,” Ophthalmology, 108, 730–737 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Psarakis, D. T.

S. J. Dain, V. T. Cassimaty, and D. T. Psarakis, “Differences in FM 100-Hue test performance related to iris color may be due to pupil size as well as presumed amounts of macular pigmentation,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 87, 322–325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Riccardi, K. A.

T. A. Ciulla, J. Curran-Celantano, D. A. Cooper, B. R. Hammond, R. P. Danis, L. M. Pratt, K. A. Riccardi, and T. G. Filloon, “Macular pigment optical density in a Midwestern sample,” Ophthalmology, 108, 730–737 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sahraie, A.

P. R. Kinnear and A. Sahraie, “New Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test norms of normal observers for each year of age 5-22 and for age decades 30–70,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 1408–1411 (2002).

Saunders, F.

Scase, M. O.

S. J. Dain, M. O. Scase, and D. H. Foster, “An assessment of the ‘mesopization’ model of blue-yellow color vision defects,” in Color Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, and A. Serra, eds. (Kluwer Academic, 1991), pp. 187–197.

Schefrin, B. E.

B. E. Schefrin, K. Shinomori, and J. S. Werner, “Contributions of neural pathways to age-related losses in chromatic discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12, 1233–1241 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shinomori, K.

B. E. Schefrin, K. Shinomori, and J. S. Werner, “Contributions of neural pathways to age-related losses in chromatic discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12, 1233–1241 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smith, V.

V. Smith, J. Pokorny, and A. S. Pass, “Color axis determination on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176–182 (1985).

Smith, V. C.

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination with variation in chromaticity and luminance: data and theory,” Vis. Res. 33, 1835–1845 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and T. Yeh, “Pigment tests evaluated by a model of chromatic discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1773–1784 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and T. Yeh, “Analysis of tritan detection thresholds and discrimination errors,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 3 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1990), pp. 94–97.

V. C. Smith, J. A. M. van Everdingen, and J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of arrangement tests as evaluated in normals at reduced levels of illumination,” Colour Vision Deficiencies X, Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Springer, 1991), Vol. 54, pp. 177–185.

Snodderly, D. M.

B. R. Hammond, K. Fuld, and D. M. Snodderly, “Iris color and macular pigment optical density,” Exp. Eye Res. 62, 293–297 (1996).

Spileers, W.

D. Kaimbo Wa Kaimbo, W. Spileers, and L. Missotten, “Le test de Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue dans la population bantoue,” J. Fr. Ophthalmol. 100, 664–667 (1994).

Uvijls, A.

G. Verriest, J. Van Laethem, and A. Uvijls, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test scores,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 635–642 (1982).

van de Kraats, J.

van den Berg, T. J. T. P.

L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Grading of iris color with an extended photographic reference set,” J. Optom. 1, 36–40 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 768–776 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Wavelength dependence of intraocular straylight,” Exp. Eye Res. 82, 688–692 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Analysis of intraocular straylight, especially in relation to age,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 72, 52–59 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. de Waard, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, and P. T. V. M. de Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers; dependence on angle, age and pigmentation,” Vis. Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
[CrossRef]

van Everdingen, J. A. M.

V. C. Smith, J. A. M. van Everdingen, and J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of arrangement tests as evaluated in normals at reduced levels of illumination,” Colour Vision Deficiencies X, Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Springer, 1991), Vol. 54, pp. 177–185.

Van Laethem, J.

G. Verriest, J. Van Laethem, and A. Uvijls, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test scores,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 635–642 (1982).

van Norren, D.

Verriest, G.

G. Verriest, J. Van Laethem, and A. Uvijls, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test scores,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 635–642 (1982).

G. Verriest, “Further studies on acquired deficiency of color discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 185–195 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Werner, J. S.

B. E. Schefrin, K. Shinomori, and J. S. Werner, “Contributions of neural pathways to age-related losses in chromatic discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12, 1233–1241 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Whitaker, D.

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 1132–1137 (1994).

Williams, C.

J. L. Barbur, A. J. Harlow, and C. Williams, “Light scattered in the eye and its effect on the measurement of the color constancy index,” in Color Vision Deficiencies XIII, C. R. Cavonius, ed. (Kluver Academic, 1997), pp. 439–448.

Winn, B.

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 1132–1137 (1994).

Woo, G. C.

G. C. Woo and M. H. Lee, “Are ethnic differences in the F–M 100 scores related to macular pigmentation?,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 85, 372–377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, T.

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination with variation in chromaticity and luminance: data and theory,” Vis. Res. 33, 1835–1845 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and T. Yeh, “Pigment tests evaluated by a model of chromatic discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1773–1784 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and T. Yeh, “Analysis of tritan detection thresholds and discrimination errors,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 3 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1990), pp. 94–97.

Zlatkova, M. B.

R. Beirne, L. McIlreavy, and M. B. Zlatkova, “The effect of age-related lens yellowing on Farnsworth–Munsell 100 hue error score,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 28, 448–456 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Zlatkova, E. E. Coulter, and R. S. Anderson, “The effect of simulated lens yellowing and opacification on blue-on-yellow acuity and contrast sensitivity,” Vis. Res. 46, 2432–2442 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Acta Ophthalmol.

P. A. Aspinall, “Inter-eye comparison on the 100 hue test,” Acta Ophthalmol. 52, 307–316 (1974).

Adv. Sci.

R. Lakowski, “Age and color vision,” Adv. Sci. 15, 231–236 (1958).

Am. J. Ophthalmol.

G. Verriest, J. Van Laethem, and A. Uvijls, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test scores,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 635–642 (1982).

V. Smith, J. Pokorny, and A. S. Pass, “Color axis determination on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176–182 (1985).

Appl. Opt.

Br. J. Ophthalmol.

P. R. Kinnear and A. Sahraie, “New Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test norms of normal observers for each year of age 5-22 and for age decades 30–70,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 1408–1411 (2002).

Clin. Exp. Optom.

G. C. Woo and M. H. Lee, “Are ethnic differences in the F–M 100 scores related to macular pigmentation?,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 85, 372–377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Dain, V. T. Cassimaty, and D. T. Psarakis, “Differences in FM 100-Hue test performance related to iris color may be due to pupil size as well as presumed amounts of macular pigmentation,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 87, 322–325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Die Farbe

R. Lakowski, “Is the deterioration of color discrimination with age due to lens or retinal changes?” Die Farbe 11, 69–86 (1962).

Doc. Ophthalmol.

M. Mäntyjärvi, “Normal test scores in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 102, 73–80 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Eye Res.

B. R. Hammond, K. Fuld, and D. M. Snodderly, “Iris color and macular pigment optical density,” Exp. Eye Res. 62, 293–297 (1996).

J. E. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Wavelength dependence of intraocular straylight,” Exp. Eye Res. 82, 688–692 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

H. S. Ginis, G. M. Perez, J. M. Bueno, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Wavelength dependence of the ocular straylight,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 3702–3708 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 768–776 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Hammond and M. Caruso-Avery, “Macular pigment optical density in a Southwestern sample,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 1492–1497 (2000).

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 1132–1137 (1994).

J. Fr. Ophthalmol.

D. Kaimbo Wa Kaimbo, W. Spileers, and L. Missotten, “Le test de Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue dans la population bantoue,” J. Fr. Ophthalmol. 100, 664–667 (1994).

J. Gerontol.

J. G. Gilbert, “Age changes in color matching,” J. Gerontol. 12, 210–215 (1957).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

G. Verriest, “Further studies on acquired deficiency of color discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 185–195 (1963).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Schefrin, K. Shinomori, and J. S. Werner, “Contributions of neural pathways to age-related losses in chromatic discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12, 1233–1241 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Optom.

L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Grading of iris color with an extended photographic reference set,” J. Optom. 1, 36–40 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol.

Y. Ohta and H. Kato, “Color perception changes with age: test results by P-N anomaloscope,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 345–352 (1976).

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.

R. Beirne, L. McIlreavy, and M. B. Zlatkova, “The effect of age-related lens yellowing on Farnsworth–Munsell 100 hue error score,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 28, 448–456 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmology

T. A. Ciulla, J. Curran-Celantano, D. A. Cooper, B. R. Hammond, R. P. Danis, L. M. Pratt, K. A. Riccardi, and T. G. Filloon, “Macular pigment optical density in a Midwestern sample,” Ophthalmology, 108, 730–737 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Optom. Vis. Sci.

T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “Analysis of intraocular straylight, especially in relation to age,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 72, 52–59 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Res.

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. de Waard, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, and P. T. V. M. de Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers; dependence on angle, age and pigmentation,” Vis. Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Kinnear, “Proposals for scoring and assessing the 100 hue test,” Vis. Res. 10, 423–433 (1970).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Zlatkova, E. E. Coulter, and R. S. Anderson, “The effect of simulated lens yellowing and opacification on blue-on-yellow acuity and contrast sensitivity,” Vis. Res. 46, 2432–2442 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Yeh, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Chromatic discrimination with variation in chromaticity and luminance: data and theory,” Vis. Res. 33, 1835–1845 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and T. Yeh, “Analysis of tritan detection thresholds and discrimination errors,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 3 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1990), pp. 94–97.

S. J. Dain, S. M. Pereir, B. Palmer, P. Lewis, and T. Hammond, “Illuminance and the FM 100 hue test,” in Color Vision Deficiencies, V. G. Verriest, ed. (Adam Hilger, 1980), Chap. 3, pp. 162–163.

S. J. Dain, M. O. Scase, and D. H. Foster, “An assessment of the ‘mesopization’ model of blue-yellow color vision defects,” in Color Vision Deficiencies X, B. Drum, J. D. Moreland, and A. Serra, eds. (Kluwer Academic, 1991), pp. 187–197.

J. L. Barbur, A. J. Harlow, and C. Williams, “Light scattered in the eye and its effect on the measurement of the color constancy index,” in Color Vision Deficiencies XIII, C. R. Cavonius, ed. (Kluver Academic, 1997), pp. 439–448.

V. C. Smith, J. A. M. van Everdingen, and J. Pokorny, “Sensitivity of arrangement tests as evaluated in normals at reduced levels of illumination,” Colour Vision Deficiencies X, Documenta Ophthalmologica Proceedings Series (Springer, 1991), Vol. 54, pp. 177–185.

D. Farnsworth, “The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test for the Examination of Color Discrimination, Revised 1957 (Munsell Color Company, 1957).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Mean FM-100 scores measured with or without opacity filter. (a) Square root of total error scores (TES). (b) Square root of B-Y partial scores (PESBY). (c) Square root of R-G partial scores ( PES R-G).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Group means of the difference between BY and RG PES demonstrating the change in the error axis with and without opacity filter for the two groups with light and dark irides.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of individual TES for dark eyed subjects with and without filter with norms for 20–29 years group and 60–69 years group obtained by Verriest et al. [6] and Mäntyjärvi [9] for monocular viewing. The vertical lines are 95% confidence intervals based on standard deviation of the normative data.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Individual FM 100 total error scores versus the corresponding values of straylight parameter as measured with C-Quant. Vertical dashed line shows the straylight norm for 90 years of age; horizontal dashed line shows the TES normative value for 20–29 years of age obtained by Verriest et al. [6] for monocular viewing.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

TvI curve in log S-Td units adapted from Pokorny et al. [34]. The symbols designate hypothetical pairs of caps that subjects with light irides are able to discriminate (empty circles) but become nondiscriminable for subjects with dark irides (filled triangles) under conditions of reduced retinal illuminance (lower pair of points). Points that lie on or above the curve define stimuli that are discriminable.

Metrics