Abstract

The distribution of the soluble NSF-attachment protein receptor protein syntaxin-4 and the Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC) were investigated in the outer plexiform layer of human retina using immunohistochemistry. Both proteins, which are proposed to be components of a gamma-aminobutyric acid mediated feed-forward circuit from horizontal cells directly to bipolar cells, were enriched beneath S-cones. The expression pattern of syntaxin-4 was further analyzed in baboon and marmoset to determine if the synaptic specialization is common to primates. Syntaxin-4 was enriched beneath S-cones in both species, which together with the human results indicates that this specialization may have evolved for the purpose of mediating unique color vision capacities that are exclusive to primates.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. Puller, S. Haverkamp, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Synaptic elements for GABAergic feed-forward signaling between HII horizontal cells and blue cone bipolar cells are enriched beneath primate S-cones,” PloS 1 (to be published).
  2. C. Puller, M. B. Manookin, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Syntaxin-4 is highly enriched beneath S-cone pedicles in the primate retina,” ARVO Meeting Abstracts 53, 6323 (2012).
  3. A. A. Hirano, J. H. Brandstatter, A. Vila, and N. C. Brecha, “Robust syntaxin-4 immunoreactivity in mammalian horizontal cell processes,” Vis. Neurosci. 24, 489–502 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. M. Sherry, R. Mitchell, K. M. Standifer, and B. du Plessis, “Distribution of plasma membrane-associated syntaxins 1 through 4 indicates distinct trafficking functions in the synaptic layers of the mouse retina,” BMC Neurosci. 7, 54 (2006).
  5. H. Lee and N. C. Brecha, “Immunocytochemical evidence for SNARE protein-dependent transmitter release from guinea pig horizontal cells,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 31, 1388–1401 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Duebel, S. Haverkamp, W. Schleich, G. Feng, G. J. Augustine, T. Kuner, and T. Euler, “Two-photon imaging reveals somatodendritic chloride gradient in retinal ON-type bipolar cells expressing the biosensor clomeleon,” Neuron 49, 81–94 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Vardi, L. L. Zhang, J. A. Payne, and P. Sterling, “Evidence that different cation chloride cotransporters in retinal neurons allow opposite responses to GABA,” J. Neurosci. 20, 7657–7663 (2000).
  8. L. Peichl, “Morphology of interneurons: horizontal cells,” in Encyclopedia of the Eye, D. A. Dart, ed. (Academic, 2010), Vol. 3.
  9. H. Wässle, D. M. Dacey, T. Haun, S. Haverkamp, U. Grünert, and B. B. Boycott, “The mosaic of horizontal cells in the macaque monkey retina: with a comment on biplexiform ganglion cells,” Vis. Neurosci. 17, 591–608 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Wässle, B. B. Boycott, and J. Röhrenbeck, “Horizontal cells in the monkey retina: cone connections and dendritic network,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 1, 421–435 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Ahnelt and H. Kolb, “Horizontal cells and cone photoreceptors in primate retina: a golgi-light microscopic study of spectral connectivity,” J. Comp. Neurol. 343, 387–405 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Ahnelt and H. Kolb, “Horizontal cells and cone photoreceptors in human retina: a golgi-electron microscopic study of spectral connectivity,” J. Comp. Neurol. 343, 406–427 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. M. Dacey, B. B. Lee, D. K. Stafford, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Horizontal cells of the primate retina: cone specificity without spectral opponency,” Science 271, 656–659 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. K. Goodchild, T. L. Chan, and U. Grünert, “Horizontal cell connections with short-wavelength-sensitive cones in macaque monkey retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 13, 833–845 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. L. Chan and U. Grünert, “Horizontal cell connections with short wavelength-sensitive cones in the retina: a comparison between New World and Old World primates,” J. Comp. Neurol. 393, 196–209 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Kolb, A. Mariani, and A. Gallego, “A second type of horizontal cell in the monkey retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 189, 31–44 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. D. Crook, M. B. Manookin, O. S. Packer, and D. M. Dacey, “Horizontal cell feedback without cone type-selective inhibition mediates “red-green” color opponency in midget ganglion cells of the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 31, 1762–1772 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, P. H. Li, J. L. Schnapf, and D. M. Dacey, “Blue-yellow opponency in primate S cone photoreceptors,” J. Neurosci. 30, 568–572 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Hirasawa, M. Yamada, and A. Kaneko, “Acidification of the synaptic cleft of cone photoreceptor terminal controls the amount of transmitter release, thereby forming the receptive field surround in the vertebrate retina,” J. Phys. Sci. 62, 359–375 (2012).
  20. L. J. Klaassen, I. Fahrenfort, and M. Kamermans, “Connexin hemichannel mediated ephaptic inhibition in the retina,” Brain Res. 1487, 25–38 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. Guo, A. A. Hirano, S. L. Stella, M. Bitzer, and N. C. Brecha, “Guinea pig horizontal cells express GABA, the GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD 65, and the GABA vesicular transporter,” J. Comp. Neurol. 518, 1647–1669 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Jellali, C. Stussi-Garaud, B. Gasnier, A. Rendon, J. A. Sahel, H. Dreyfus, and S. Picaud, “Cellular localization of the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter in the mouse and human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 449, 76–87 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. Kao, L. Lassova, T. Bar-Yehuda, R. Edwards, P. Sterling, and N. Vardi, “Evidence that certain retinal bipolar cells use both glutamate and GABA,” J. Comp. Neurol. 478, 207–218 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Kalloniatis, R. E. Marc, and R. F. Murry, “Amino acid signatures in the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 16, 6807–6829 (1996).
  25. S. Haverkamp, U. Grünert, and H. Wässle, “The cone pedicle, a complex synapse in the retina,” Neuron 27, 85–95 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. G. Cueva, S. Haverkamp, R. J. Reimer, R. Edwards, H. Wässle, and N. C. Brecha, “Vesicular gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter expression in amacrine and horizontal cells,” J. Comp. Neurol. 445, 227–237 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. A. Hirano, J. H. Brandstatter, C. W. Morgans, and N. C. Brecha, “SNAP25 expression in mammalian retinal horizontal cells,” J. Comp. Neurol. 519, 972–988 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. Deniz, E. Wersinger, Y. Schwab, C. Mura, F. Erdelyi, G. Szabo, A. Rendon, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and M. J. Roux, “Mammalian retinal horizontal cells are unconventional GABAergic neurons,” J. Neurochem. 116, 350–362 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  29. R. Herrmann, S. J. Heflin, T. Hammond, B. Lee, J. Wang, R. R. Gainetdinov, M. G. Caron, E. D. Eggers, L. J. Frishman, M. A. McCall, and V. Y. Arshavsky, “Rod vision is controlled by dopamine-dependent sensitization of rod bipolar cells by GABA,” Neuron 72, 101–110 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  30. H. Wässle and M. H. Chun, “GABA-like immunoreactivity in the cat retina: light microscopy,” J. Comp. Neurol. 279, 43–54 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  31. E. Agardh, B. Ehinger, and J.-Y. Wu, “GABA and GAD-like immunoreactivity in the primate retina,” Histochemistry 86, 485–490 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  32. U. Grünert and H. Wässle, “GABA-like immunoreactivity in the macaque monkey retina: a light and electron microscopic study,” J. Comp. Neurol. 297, 509–524 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J. E. Dowling, J. E. Brown, and D. Major, “Synapses of horizontal cells in rabbit and cat retinas,” Science 153, 1639–1641 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  34. H. Kolb, “The organization of the outer plexiform layer in the retina of the cat: electron microscopic observations,” J. Neurocytol. 6, 131–153 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  35. S. K. Fisher and B. B. Boycott, “Synaptic connections made by horizontal cells within the outer plexiform layer of the retina of the cat and the rabbit,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 186, 317–331 (1974).
  36. N. Vardi and P. Sterling, “Subcellular localization of GABAA receptor on bipolar cells in macaque and human retina,” Vision Res 34, 1235–1246 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  37. C. Varela, R. Blanco, and P. De la Villa, “Depolarizing effect of GABA in rod bipolar cells of the mouse retina,” Vis. Res. 45, 2659–2667 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  38. A. J. Chaffiol, Y. Cao, M. Ishii, C. Ribelayga, and S. C. Mangel, “Light/dark adaptive regulation of GABAA receptor and NKCC expression and activity modulates direct, GABA-mediated horizontal cell signaling to ON-cone bipolar cells,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 4306 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  39. C. Lytle, J. C. Xu, D. Biemesderfer, and B. Forbush, “Distribution and diversity of Na-K-Cl cotransport proteins: a study with monoclonal antibodies,” Am. J. Physiol. 269, C1496–C1505 (1995).
  40. L. L. Zhang, M. E. Fina, and N. Vardi, “Regulation of KCC2 and NKCC during development: membrane insertion and differences between cell types,” J. Comp. Neurol. 499, 132–143 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  41. L. L. Zhang, E. Delpire, and N. Vardi, “NKCC1 does not accumulate chloride in developing retinal neurons,” J. Neurophysiol. 98, 266–277 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  42. B. Li, K. McKernan, and W. Shen, “Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of Na-K-2Cl cotransporter in adult and developing mouse retinas,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 109–123 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  43. C. Puller and S. Haverkamp, “Cell-type-specific localization of protocadherin beta16 at AMPA and AMPA/Kainate receptor-containing synapses in the primate retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 519, 467–479 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  44. C. Puller, K. Ondreka, and S. Haverkamp, “Bipolar cells of the ground squirrel retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 519, 759–774 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  45. M. A. Raven, N. C. Orton, H. Nassar, G. A. Williams, W. K. Stell, G. H. Jacobs, N. T. Bech-Hansen, and B. E. Reese, “Early afferent signaling in the outer plexiform layer regulates development of horizontal cell morphology,” J. Comp. Neurol. 506, 745–758 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  46. J. Röhrenbeck, H. Wässle, and B. B. Boycott, “Horizontal cells in the monkey retina: immunocytochemical staining with antibodies against calcium binding proteins,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 1, 407–420 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  47. C. Chiquet, O. Dkhissi-Benyahya, and H. Cooper, “Calcium-binding protein distribution in the retina of strepsirhine and haplorhine primates,” Brain Res. Bull. 68, 185–194 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  48. L. Missotten, The Ultrastructure of the Human Retina (Editions Arscia, 1965).
  49. C. Puller, L. P. de Sevilla Müller, U. Janssen-Bienhold, and S. Haverkamp, “ZO-1 and the spatial organization of gap junctions and glutamate receptors in the outer plexiform layer of the mammalian retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 6266–6275 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  50. W. B. Thoreson and S. C. Mangel, “Lateral interactions in the outer retina,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 31, 407–441 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  51. D. M. Dacey and B. B. Lee, “The “blue-on” opponent pathway in primate retina originates from a distinct bistratified ganglion cell type,” Nature 367, 731–735 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  52. D. J. Calkins, Y. Tsukamoto, and P. Sterling, “Microcircuitry and mosaic of a blue-yellow ganglion cell in the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 18, 3373–3385 (1998).
  53. K. K. Ghosh and U. Grünert, “Synaptic input to small bistratified (blue-ON) ganglion cells in the retina of a new world monkey, the marmoset Callithrix jacchus,” J. Comp. Neurol. 413, 417–428 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  54. K. A. Percival, P. R. Jusuf, P. R. Martin, and U. Grünert, “Synaptic inputs onto small bistratified (blue-ON/yellow-OFF) ganglion cells in marmoset retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 517, 655–669 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  55. J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  56. D. M. Dacey, “Morphology of a small-field bistratified ganglion cell type in the macaque and human retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 10, 1081–1098 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  57. S. Chen and W. Li, “A color-coding amacrine cell may provide a blue-OFF signal in a mammalian retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 15, 954–956 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  58. L. Chang, T. Breuninger, and T. Euler, “Chromatic coding from cone-type unselective circuits in the mouse retina,” Neuron 77, 559–571 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  59. A. Sher and S. H. DeVries, “A non-canonical pathway for mammalian blue-green color vision,” Nat. Neurosci. 15, 952–953 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  60. B. Ekesten and P. Gouras, “Cone inputs to murine striate cortex,” BMC Neurosci. 9, 113 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  61. B. Ekesten and P. Gouras, “Cone and rod inputs to murine retinal ganglion cells: evidence of cone opsin specific channels,” Vis. Neurosci. 22, 893–903 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  62. B. P. Schmidt, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Neurobiological hypothesis of color appearance and hue perception,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, A195–A207 (2014).

2014

2013

L. Chang, T. Breuninger, and T. Euler, “Chromatic coding from cone-type unselective circuits in the mouse retina,” Neuron 77, 559–571 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

A. Sher and S. H. DeVries, “A non-canonical pathway for mammalian blue-green color vision,” Nat. Neurosci. 15, 952–953 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen and W. Li, “A color-coding amacrine cell may provide a blue-OFF signal in a mammalian retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 15, 954–956 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Chaffiol, Y. Cao, M. Ishii, C. Ribelayga, and S. C. Mangel, “Light/dark adaptive regulation of GABAA receptor and NKCC expression and activity modulates direct, GABA-mediated horizontal cell signaling to ON-cone bipolar cells,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 4306 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Thoreson and S. C. Mangel, “Lateral interactions in the outer retina,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 31, 407–441 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Puller, M. B. Manookin, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Syntaxin-4 is highly enriched beneath S-cone pedicles in the primate retina,” ARVO Meeting Abstracts 53, 6323 (2012).

H. Hirasawa, M. Yamada, and A. Kaneko, “Acidification of the synaptic cleft of cone photoreceptor terminal controls the amount of transmitter release, thereby forming the receptive field surround in the vertebrate retina,” J. Phys. Sci. 62, 359–375 (2012).

L. J. Klaassen, I. Fahrenfort, and M. Kamermans, “Connexin hemichannel mediated ephaptic inhibition in the retina,” Brain Res. 1487, 25–38 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

J. D. Crook, M. B. Manookin, O. S. Packer, and D. M. Dacey, “Horizontal cell feedback without cone type-selective inhibition mediates “red-green” color opponency in midget ganglion cells of the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 31, 1762–1772 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Hirano, J. H. Brandstatter, C. W. Morgans, and N. C. Brecha, “SNAP25 expression in mammalian retinal horizontal cells,” J. Comp. Neurol. 519, 972–988 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Deniz, E. Wersinger, Y. Schwab, C. Mura, F. Erdelyi, G. Szabo, A. Rendon, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and M. J. Roux, “Mammalian retinal horizontal cells are unconventional GABAergic neurons,” J. Neurochem. 116, 350–362 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Herrmann, S. J. Heflin, T. Hammond, B. Lee, J. Wang, R. R. Gainetdinov, M. G. Caron, E. D. Eggers, L. J. Frishman, M. A. McCall, and V. Y. Arshavsky, “Rod vision is controlled by dopamine-dependent sensitization of rod bipolar cells by GABA,” Neuron 72, 101–110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Puller and S. Haverkamp, “Cell-type-specific localization of protocadherin beta16 at AMPA and AMPA/Kainate receptor-containing synapses in the primate retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 519, 467–479 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Puller, K. Ondreka, and S. Haverkamp, “Bipolar cells of the ground squirrel retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 519, 759–774 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, P. H. Li, J. L. Schnapf, and D. M. Dacey, “Blue-yellow opponency in primate S cone photoreceptors,” J. Neurosci. 30, 568–572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Guo, A. A. Hirano, S. L. Stella, M. Bitzer, and N. C. Brecha, “Guinea pig horizontal cells express GABA, the GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD 65, and the GABA vesicular transporter,” J. Comp. Neurol. 518, 1647–1669 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee and N. C. Brecha, “Immunocytochemical evidence for SNARE protein-dependent transmitter release from guinea pig horizontal cells,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 31, 1388–1401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

C. Puller, L. P. de Sevilla Müller, U. Janssen-Bienhold, and S. Haverkamp, “ZO-1 and the spatial organization of gap junctions and glutamate receptors in the outer plexiform layer of the mammalian retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 6266–6275 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Percival, P. R. Jusuf, P. R. Martin, and U. Grünert, “Synaptic inputs onto small bistratified (blue-ON/yellow-OFF) ganglion cells in marmoset retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 517, 655–669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

B. Li, K. McKernan, and W. Shen, “Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of Na-K-2Cl cotransporter in adult and developing mouse retinas,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 109–123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Raven, N. C. Orton, H. Nassar, G. A. Williams, W. K. Stell, G. H. Jacobs, N. T. Bech-Hansen, and B. E. Reese, “Early afferent signaling in the outer plexiform layer regulates development of horizontal cell morphology,” J. Comp. Neurol. 506, 745–758 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Ekesten and P. Gouras, “Cone inputs to murine striate cortex,” BMC Neurosci. 9, 113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

L. L. Zhang, E. Delpire, and N. Vardi, “NKCC1 does not accumulate chloride in developing retinal neurons,” J. Neurophysiol. 98, 266–277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Hirano, J. H. Brandstatter, A. Vila, and N. C. Brecha, “Robust syntaxin-4 immunoreactivity in mammalian horizontal cell processes,” Vis. Neurosci. 24, 489–502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. M. Sherry, R. Mitchell, K. M. Standifer, and B. du Plessis, “Distribution of plasma membrane-associated syntaxins 1 through 4 indicates distinct trafficking functions in the synaptic layers of the mouse retina,” BMC Neurosci. 7, 54 (2006).

J. Duebel, S. Haverkamp, W. Schleich, G. Feng, G. J. Augustine, T. Kuner, and T. Euler, “Two-photon imaging reveals somatodendritic chloride gradient in retinal ON-type bipolar cells expressing the biosensor clomeleon,” Neuron 49, 81–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Zhang, M. E. Fina, and N. Vardi, “Regulation of KCC2 and NKCC during development: membrane insertion and differences between cell types,” J. Comp. Neurol. 499, 132–143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

C. Chiquet, O. Dkhissi-Benyahya, and H. Cooper, “Calcium-binding protein distribution in the retina of strepsirhine and haplorhine primates,” Brain Res. Bull. 68, 185–194 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Ekesten and P. Gouras, “Cone and rod inputs to murine retinal ganglion cells: evidence of cone opsin specific channels,” Vis. Neurosci. 22, 893–903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Varela, R. Blanco, and P. De la Villa, “Depolarizing effect of GABA in rod bipolar cells of the mouse retina,” Vis. Res. 45, 2659–2667 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Y. Kao, L. Lassova, T. Bar-Yehuda, R. Edwards, P. Sterling, and N. Vardi, “Evidence that certain retinal bipolar cells use both glutamate and GABA,” J. Comp. Neurol. 478, 207–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. G. Cueva, S. Haverkamp, R. J. Reimer, R. Edwards, H. Wässle, and N. C. Brecha, “Vesicular gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter expression in amacrine and horizontal cells,” J. Comp. Neurol. 445, 227–237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Jellali, C. Stussi-Garaud, B. Gasnier, A. Rendon, J. A. Sahel, H. Dreyfus, and S. Picaud, “Cellular localization of the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter in the mouse and human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 449, 76–87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

N. Vardi, L. L. Zhang, J. A. Payne, and P. Sterling, “Evidence that different cation chloride cotransporters in retinal neurons allow opposite responses to GABA,” J. Neurosci. 20, 7657–7663 (2000).

H. Wässle, D. M. Dacey, T. Haun, S. Haverkamp, U. Grünert, and B. B. Boycott, “The mosaic of horizontal cells in the macaque monkey retina: with a comment on biplexiform ganglion cells,” Vis. Neurosci. 17, 591–608 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Haverkamp, U. Grünert, and H. Wässle, “The cone pedicle, a complex synapse in the retina,” Neuron 27, 85–95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

K. K. Ghosh and U. Grünert, “Synaptic input to small bistratified (blue-ON) ganglion cells in the retina of a new world monkey, the marmoset Callithrix jacchus,” J. Comp. Neurol. 413, 417–428 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. J. Calkins, Y. Tsukamoto, and P. Sterling, “Microcircuitry and mosaic of a blue-yellow ganglion cell in the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 18, 3373–3385 (1998).

T. L. Chan and U. Grünert, “Horizontal cell connections with short wavelength-sensitive cones in the retina: a comparison between New World and Old World primates,” J. Comp. Neurol. 393, 196–209 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

D. M. Dacey, B. B. Lee, D. K. Stafford, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Horizontal cells of the primate retina: cone specificity without spectral opponency,” Science 271, 656–659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Goodchild, T. L. Chan, and U. Grünert, “Horizontal cell connections with short-wavelength-sensitive cones in macaque monkey retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 13, 833–845 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Kalloniatis, R. E. Marc, and R. F. Murry, “Amino acid signatures in the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 16, 6807–6829 (1996).

1995

C. Lytle, J. C. Xu, D. Biemesderfer, and B. Forbush, “Distribution and diversity of Na-K-Cl cotransport proteins: a study with monoclonal antibodies,” Am. J. Physiol. 269, C1496–C1505 (1995).

1994

D. M. Dacey and B. B. Lee, “The “blue-on” opponent pathway in primate retina originates from a distinct bistratified ganglion cell type,” Nature 367, 731–735 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Vardi and P. Sterling, “Subcellular localization of GABAA receptor on bipolar cells in macaque and human retina,” Vision Res 34, 1235–1246 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Ahnelt and H. Kolb, “Horizontal cells and cone photoreceptors in primate retina: a golgi-light microscopic study of spectral connectivity,” J. Comp. Neurol. 343, 387–405 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Ahnelt and H. Kolb, “Horizontal cells and cone photoreceptors in human retina: a golgi-electron microscopic study of spectral connectivity,” J. Comp. Neurol. 343, 406–427 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. M. Dacey, “Morphology of a small-field bistratified ganglion cell type in the macaque and human retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 10, 1081–1098 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

U. Grünert and H. Wässle, “GABA-like immunoreactivity in the macaque monkey retina: a light and electron microscopic study,” J. Comp. Neurol. 297, 509–524 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

H. Wässle and M. H. Chun, “GABA-like immunoreactivity in the cat retina: light microscopy,” J. Comp. Neurol. 279, 43–54 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Wässle, B. B. Boycott, and J. Röhrenbeck, “Horizontal cells in the monkey retina: cone connections and dendritic network,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 1, 421–435 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Röhrenbeck, H. Wässle, and B. B. Boycott, “Horizontal cells in the monkey retina: immunocytochemical staining with antibodies against calcium binding proteins,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 1, 407–420 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

E. Agardh, B. Ehinger, and J.-Y. Wu, “GABA and GAD-like immunoreactivity in the primate retina,” Histochemistry 86, 485–490 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1980

H. Kolb, A. Mariani, and A. Gallego, “A second type of horizontal cell in the monkey retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 189, 31–44 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977

H. Kolb, “The organization of the outer plexiform layer in the retina of the cat: electron microscopic observations,” J. Neurocytol. 6, 131–153 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974

S. K. Fisher and B. B. Boycott, “Synaptic connections made by horizontal cells within the outer plexiform layer of the retina of the cat and the rabbit,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 186, 317–331 (1974).

1966

J. E. Dowling, J. E. Brown, and D. Major, “Synapses of horizontal cells in rabbit and cat retinas,” Science 153, 1639–1641 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Agardh, E.

E. Agardh, B. Ehinger, and J.-Y. Wu, “GABA and GAD-like immunoreactivity in the primate retina,” Histochemistry 86, 485–490 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ahnelt, P.

P. Ahnelt and H. Kolb, “Horizontal cells and cone photoreceptors in primate retina: a golgi-light microscopic study of spectral connectivity,” J. Comp. Neurol. 343, 387–405 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Ahnelt and H. Kolb, “Horizontal cells and cone photoreceptors in human retina: a golgi-electron microscopic study of spectral connectivity,” J. Comp. Neurol. 343, 406–427 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Arshavsky, V. Y.

R. Herrmann, S. J. Heflin, T. Hammond, B. Lee, J. Wang, R. R. Gainetdinov, M. G. Caron, E. D. Eggers, L. J. Frishman, M. A. McCall, and V. Y. Arshavsky, “Rod vision is controlled by dopamine-dependent sensitization of rod bipolar cells by GABA,” Neuron 72, 101–110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Augustine, G. J.

J. Duebel, S. Haverkamp, W. Schleich, G. Feng, G. J. Augustine, T. Kuner, and T. Euler, “Two-photon imaging reveals somatodendritic chloride gradient in retinal ON-type bipolar cells expressing the biosensor clomeleon,” Neuron 49, 81–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bar-Yehuda, T.

Y. Kao, L. Lassova, T. Bar-Yehuda, R. Edwards, P. Sterling, and N. Vardi, “Evidence that certain retinal bipolar cells use both glutamate and GABA,” J. Comp. Neurol. 478, 207–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bech-Hansen, N. T.

M. A. Raven, N. C. Orton, H. Nassar, G. A. Williams, W. K. Stell, G. H. Jacobs, N. T. Bech-Hansen, and B. E. Reese, “Early afferent signaling in the outer plexiform layer regulates development of horizontal cell morphology,” J. Comp. Neurol. 506, 745–758 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biemesderfer, D.

C. Lytle, J. C. Xu, D. Biemesderfer, and B. Forbush, “Distribution and diversity of Na-K-Cl cotransport proteins: a study with monoclonal antibodies,” Am. J. Physiol. 269, C1496–C1505 (1995).

Bitzer, M.

C. Guo, A. A. Hirano, S. L. Stella, M. Bitzer, and N. C. Brecha, “Guinea pig horizontal cells express GABA, the GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD 65, and the GABA vesicular transporter,” J. Comp. Neurol. 518, 1647–1669 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Blanco, R.

C. Varela, R. Blanco, and P. De la Villa, “Depolarizing effect of GABA in rod bipolar cells of the mouse retina,” Vis. Res. 45, 2659–2667 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boycott, B. B.

H. Wässle, D. M. Dacey, T. Haun, S. Haverkamp, U. Grünert, and B. B. Boycott, “The mosaic of horizontal cells in the macaque monkey retina: with a comment on biplexiform ganglion cells,” Vis. Neurosci. 17, 591–608 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Wässle, B. B. Boycott, and J. Röhrenbeck, “Horizontal cells in the monkey retina: cone connections and dendritic network,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 1, 421–435 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Röhrenbeck, H. Wässle, and B. B. Boycott, “Horizontal cells in the monkey retina: immunocytochemical staining with antibodies against calcium binding proteins,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 1, 407–420 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Fisher and B. B. Boycott, “Synaptic connections made by horizontal cells within the outer plexiform layer of the retina of the cat and the rabbit,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 186, 317–331 (1974).

Brandstatter, J. H.

A. A. Hirano, J. H. Brandstatter, C. W. Morgans, and N. C. Brecha, “SNAP25 expression in mammalian retinal horizontal cells,” J. Comp. Neurol. 519, 972–988 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Hirano, J. H. Brandstatter, A. Vila, and N. C. Brecha, “Robust syntaxin-4 immunoreactivity in mammalian horizontal cell processes,” Vis. Neurosci. 24, 489–502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brecha, N. C.

A. A. Hirano, J. H. Brandstatter, C. W. Morgans, and N. C. Brecha, “SNAP25 expression in mammalian retinal horizontal cells,” J. Comp. Neurol. 519, 972–988 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Guo, A. A. Hirano, S. L. Stella, M. Bitzer, and N. C. Brecha, “Guinea pig horizontal cells express GABA, the GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD 65, and the GABA vesicular transporter,” J. Comp. Neurol. 518, 1647–1669 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee and N. C. Brecha, “Immunocytochemical evidence for SNARE protein-dependent transmitter release from guinea pig horizontal cells,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 31, 1388–1401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Hirano, J. H. Brandstatter, A. Vila, and N. C. Brecha, “Robust syntaxin-4 immunoreactivity in mammalian horizontal cell processes,” Vis. Neurosci. 24, 489–502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Cueva, S. Haverkamp, R. J. Reimer, R. Edwards, H. Wässle, and N. C. Brecha, “Vesicular gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter expression in amacrine and horizontal cells,” J. Comp. Neurol. 445, 227–237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Breuninger, T.

L. Chang, T. Breuninger, and T. Euler, “Chromatic coding from cone-type unselective circuits in the mouse retina,” Neuron 77, 559–571 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. E.

J. E. Dowling, J. E. Brown, and D. Major, “Synapses of horizontal cells in rabbit and cat retinas,” Science 153, 1639–1641 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Calkins, D. J.

D. J. Calkins, Y. Tsukamoto, and P. Sterling, “Microcircuitry and mosaic of a blue-yellow ganglion cell in the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 18, 3373–3385 (1998).

Cao, Y.

A. J. Chaffiol, Y. Cao, M. Ishii, C. Ribelayga, and S. C. Mangel, “Light/dark adaptive regulation of GABAA receptor and NKCC expression and activity modulates direct, GABA-mediated horizontal cell signaling to ON-cone bipolar cells,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 4306 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Caron, M. G.

R. Herrmann, S. J. Heflin, T. Hammond, B. Lee, J. Wang, R. R. Gainetdinov, M. G. Caron, E. D. Eggers, L. J. Frishman, M. A. McCall, and V. Y. Arshavsky, “Rod vision is controlled by dopamine-dependent sensitization of rod bipolar cells by GABA,” Neuron 72, 101–110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chaffiol, A. J.

A. J. Chaffiol, Y. Cao, M. Ishii, C. Ribelayga, and S. C. Mangel, “Light/dark adaptive regulation of GABAA receptor and NKCC expression and activity modulates direct, GABA-mediated horizontal cell signaling to ON-cone bipolar cells,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 4306 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chan, T. L.

T. L. Chan and U. Grünert, “Horizontal cell connections with short wavelength-sensitive cones in the retina: a comparison between New World and Old World primates,” J. Comp. Neurol. 393, 196–209 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Goodchild, T. L. Chan, and U. Grünert, “Horizontal cell connections with short-wavelength-sensitive cones in macaque monkey retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 13, 833–845 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chang, L.

L. Chang, T. Breuninger, and T. Euler, “Chromatic coding from cone-type unselective circuits in the mouse retina,” Neuron 77, 559–571 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

S. Chen and W. Li, “A color-coding amacrine cell may provide a blue-OFF signal in a mammalian retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 15, 954–956 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chiquet, C.

C. Chiquet, O. Dkhissi-Benyahya, and H. Cooper, “Calcium-binding protein distribution in the retina of strepsirhine and haplorhine primates,” Brain Res. Bull. 68, 185–194 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chun, M. H.

H. Wässle and M. H. Chun, “GABA-like immunoreactivity in the cat retina: light microscopy,” J. Comp. Neurol. 279, 43–54 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, H.

C. Chiquet, O. Dkhissi-Benyahya, and H. Cooper, “Calcium-binding protein distribution in the retina of strepsirhine and haplorhine primates,” Brain Res. Bull. 68, 185–194 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Crook, J. D.

J. D. Crook, M. B. Manookin, O. S. Packer, and D. M. Dacey, “Horizontal cell feedback without cone type-selective inhibition mediates “red-green” color opponency in midget ganglion cells of the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 31, 1762–1772 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cueva, J. G.

J. G. Cueva, S. Haverkamp, R. J. Reimer, R. Edwards, H. Wässle, and N. C. Brecha, “Vesicular gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter expression in amacrine and horizontal cells,” J. Comp. Neurol. 445, 227–237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dacey, D. M.

J. D. Crook, M. B. Manookin, O. S. Packer, and D. M. Dacey, “Horizontal cell feedback without cone type-selective inhibition mediates “red-green” color opponency in midget ganglion cells of the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 31, 1762–1772 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, P. H. Li, J. L. Schnapf, and D. M. Dacey, “Blue-yellow opponency in primate S cone photoreceptors,” J. Neurosci. 30, 568–572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Wässle, D. M. Dacey, T. Haun, S. Haverkamp, U. Grünert, and B. B. Boycott, “The mosaic of horizontal cells in the macaque monkey retina: with a comment on biplexiform ganglion cells,” Vis. Neurosci. 17, 591–608 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Dacey, B. B. Lee, D. K. Stafford, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Horizontal cells of the primate retina: cone specificity without spectral opponency,” Science 271, 656–659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Dacey and B. B. Lee, “The “blue-on” opponent pathway in primate retina originates from a distinct bistratified ganglion cell type,” Nature 367, 731–735 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Dacey, “Morphology of a small-field bistratified ganglion cell type in the macaque and human retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 10, 1081–1098 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Davenport, C. M.

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De la Villa, P.

C. Varela, R. Blanco, and P. De la Villa, “Depolarizing effect of GABA in rod bipolar cells of the mouse retina,” Vis. Res. 45, 2659–2667 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Sevilla Müller, L. P.

C. Puller, L. P. de Sevilla Müller, U. Janssen-Bienhold, and S. Haverkamp, “ZO-1 and the spatial organization of gap junctions and glutamate receptors in the outer plexiform layer of the mammalian retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 6266–6275 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Delpire, E.

L. L. Zhang, E. Delpire, and N. Vardi, “NKCC1 does not accumulate chloride in developing retinal neurons,” J. Neurophysiol. 98, 266–277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deniz, S.

S. Deniz, E. Wersinger, Y. Schwab, C. Mura, F. Erdelyi, G. Szabo, A. Rendon, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and M. J. Roux, “Mammalian retinal horizontal cells are unconventional GABAergic neurons,” J. Neurochem. 116, 350–362 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Detwiler, P. B.

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DeVries, S. H.

A. Sher and S. H. DeVries, “A non-canonical pathway for mammalian blue-green color vision,” Nat. Neurosci. 15, 952–953 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dkhissi-Benyahya, O.

C. Chiquet, O. Dkhissi-Benyahya, and H. Cooper, “Calcium-binding protein distribution in the retina of strepsirhine and haplorhine primates,” Brain Res. Bull. 68, 185–194 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dowling, J. E.

J. E. Dowling, J. E. Brown, and D. Major, “Synapses of horizontal cells in rabbit and cat retinas,” Science 153, 1639–1641 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Dreyfus, H.

A. Jellali, C. Stussi-Garaud, B. Gasnier, A. Rendon, J. A. Sahel, H. Dreyfus, and S. Picaud, “Cellular localization of the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter in the mouse and human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 449, 76–87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

du Plessis, B.

D. M. Sherry, R. Mitchell, K. M. Standifer, and B. du Plessis, “Distribution of plasma membrane-associated syntaxins 1 through 4 indicates distinct trafficking functions in the synaptic layers of the mouse retina,” BMC Neurosci. 7, 54 (2006).

Duebel, J.

J. Duebel, S. Haverkamp, W. Schleich, G. Feng, G. J. Augustine, T. Kuner, and T. Euler, “Two-photon imaging reveals somatodendritic chloride gradient in retinal ON-type bipolar cells expressing the biosensor clomeleon,” Neuron 49, 81–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, R.

Y. Kao, L. Lassova, T. Bar-Yehuda, R. Edwards, P. Sterling, and N. Vardi, “Evidence that certain retinal bipolar cells use both glutamate and GABA,” J. Comp. Neurol. 478, 207–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Cueva, S. Haverkamp, R. J. Reimer, R. Edwards, H. Wässle, and N. C. Brecha, “Vesicular gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter expression in amacrine and horizontal cells,” J. Comp. Neurol. 445, 227–237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eggers, E. D.

R. Herrmann, S. J. Heflin, T. Hammond, B. Lee, J. Wang, R. R. Gainetdinov, M. G. Caron, E. D. Eggers, L. J. Frishman, M. A. McCall, and V. Y. Arshavsky, “Rod vision is controlled by dopamine-dependent sensitization of rod bipolar cells by GABA,” Neuron 72, 101–110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ehinger, B.

E. Agardh, B. Ehinger, and J.-Y. Wu, “GABA and GAD-like immunoreactivity in the primate retina,” Histochemistry 86, 485–490 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ekesten, B.

B. Ekesten and P. Gouras, “Cone inputs to murine striate cortex,” BMC Neurosci. 9, 113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Ekesten and P. Gouras, “Cone and rod inputs to murine retinal ganglion cells: evidence of cone opsin specific channels,” Vis. Neurosci. 22, 893–903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Erdelyi, F.

S. Deniz, E. Wersinger, Y. Schwab, C. Mura, F. Erdelyi, G. Szabo, A. Rendon, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and M. J. Roux, “Mammalian retinal horizontal cells are unconventional GABAergic neurons,” J. Neurochem. 116, 350–362 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Euler, T.

L. Chang, T. Breuninger, and T. Euler, “Chromatic coding from cone-type unselective circuits in the mouse retina,” Neuron 77, 559–571 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Duebel, S. Haverkamp, W. Schleich, G. Feng, G. J. Augustine, T. Kuner, and T. Euler, “Two-photon imaging reveals somatodendritic chloride gradient in retinal ON-type bipolar cells expressing the biosensor clomeleon,” Neuron 49, 81–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fahrenfort, I.

L. J. Klaassen, I. Fahrenfort, and M. Kamermans, “Connexin hemichannel mediated ephaptic inhibition in the retina,” Brain Res. 1487, 25–38 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Feng, G.

J. Duebel, S. Haverkamp, W. Schleich, G. Feng, G. J. Augustine, T. Kuner, and T. Euler, “Two-photon imaging reveals somatodendritic chloride gradient in retinal ON-type bipolar cells expressing the biosensor clomeleon,” Neuron 49, 81–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fina, M. E.

L. L. Zhang, M. E. Fina, and N. Vardi, “Regulation of KCC2 and NKCC during development: membrane insertion and differences between cell types,” J. Comp. Neurol. 499, 132–143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, S. K.

S. K. Fisher and B. B. Boycott, “Synaptic connections made by horizontal cells within the outer plexiform layer of the retina of the cat and the rabbit,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 186, 317–331 (1974).

Forbush, B.

C. Lytle, J. C. Xu, D. Biemesderfer, and B. Forbush, “Distribution and diversity of Na-K-Cl cotransport proteins: a study with monoclonal antibodies,” Am. J. Physiol. 269, C1496–C1505 (1995).

Frishman, L. J.

R. Herrmann, S. J. Heflin, T. Hammond, B. Lee, J. Wang, R. R. Gainetdinov, M. G. Caron, E. D. Eggers, L. J. Frishman, M. A. McCall, and V. Y. Arshavsky, “Rod vision is controlled by dopamine-dependent sensitization of rod bipolar cells by GABA,” Neuron 72, 101–110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gainetdinov, R. R.

R. Herrmann, S. J. Heflin, T. Hammond, B. Lee, J. Wang, R. R. Gainetdinov, M. G. Caron, E. D. Eggers, L. J. Frishman, M. A. McCall, and V. Y. Arshavsky, “Rod vision is controlled by dopamine-dependent sensitization of rod bipolar cells by GABA,” Neuron 72, 101–110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gallego, A.

H. Kolb, A. Mariani, and A. Gallego, “A second type of horizontal cell in the monkey retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 189, 31–44 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Gasnier, B.

A. Jellali, C. Stussi-Garaud, B. Gasnier, A. Rendon, J. A. Sahel, H. Dreyfus, and S. Picaud, “Cellular localization of the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter in the mouse and human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 449, 76–87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, K. K.

K. K. Ghosh and U. Grünert, “Synaptic input to small bistratified (blue-ON) ganglion cells in the retina of a new world monkey, the marmoset Callithrix jacchus,” J. Comp. Neurol. 413, 417–428 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goodchild, A. K.

A. K. Goodchild, T. L. Chan, and U. Grünert, “Horizontal cell connections with short-wavelength-sensitive cones in macaque monkey retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 13, 833–845 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gouras, P.

B. Ekesten and P. Gouras, “Cone inputs to murine striate cortex,” BMC Neurosci. 9, 113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Ekesten and P. Gouras, “Cone and rod inputs to murine retinal ganglion cells: evidence of cone opsin specific channels,” Vis. Neurosci. 22, 893–903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grünert, U.

K. A. Percival, P. R. Jusuf, P. R. Martin, and U. Grünert, “Synaptic inputs onto small bistratified (blue-ON/yellow-OFF) ganglion cells in marmoset retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 517, 655–669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Wässle, D. M. Dacey, T. Haun, S. Haverkamp, U. Grünert, and B. B. Boycott, “The mosaic of horizontal cells in the macaque monkey retina: with a comment on biplexiform ganglion cells,” Vis. Neurosci. 17, 591–608 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Haverkamp, U. Grünert, and H. Wässle, “The cone pedicle, a complex synapse in the retina,” Neuron 27, 85–95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Ghosh and U. Grünert, “Synaptic input to small bistratified (blue-ON) ganglion cells in the retina of a new world monkey, the marmoset Callithrix jacchus,” J. Comp. Neurol. 413, 417–428 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Chan and U. Grünert, “Horizontal cell connections with short wavelength-sensitive cones in the retina: a comparison between New World and Old World primates,” J. Comp. Neurol. 393, 196–209 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Goodchild, T. L. Chan, and U. Grünert, “Horizontal cell connections with short-wavelength-sensitive cones in macaque monkey retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 13, 833–845 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Grünert and H. Wässle, “GABA-like immunoreactivity in the macaque monkey retina: a light and electron microscopic study,” J. Comp. Neurol. 297, 509–524 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Guo, C.

C. Guo, A. A. Hirano, S. L. Stella, M. Bitzer, and N. C. Brecha, “Guinea pig horizontal cells express GABA, the GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD 65, and the GABA vesicular transporter,” J. Comp. Neurol. 518, 1647–1669 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hammond, T.

R. Herrmann, S. J. Heflin, T. Hammond, B. Lee, J. Wang, R. R. Gainetdinov, M. G. Caron, E. D. Eggers, L. J. Frishman, M. A. McCall, and V. Y. Arshavsky, “Rod vision is controlled by dopamine-dependent sensitization of rod bipolar cells by GABA,” Neuron 72, 101–110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Haun, T.

H. Wässle, D. M. Dacey, T. Haun, S. Haverkamp, U. Grünert, and B. B. Boycott, “The mosaic of horizontal cells in the macaque monkey retina: with a comment on biplexiform ganglion cells,” Vis. Neurosci. 17, 591–608 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haverkamp, S.

C. Puller and S. Haverkamp, “Cell-type-specific localization of protocadherin beta16 at AMPA and AMPA/Kainate receptor-containing synapses in the primate retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 519, 467–479 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Puller, K. Ondreka, and S. Haverkamp, “Bipolar cells of the ground squirrel retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 519, 759–774 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Puller, L. P. de Sevilla Müller, U. Janssen-Bienhold, and S. Haverkamp, “ZO-1 and the spatial organization of gap junctions and glutamate receptors in the outer plexiform layer of the mammalian retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 6266–6275 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Duebel, S. Haverkamp, W. Schleich, G. Feng, G. J. Augustine, T. Kuner, and T. Euler, “Two-photon imaging reveals somatodendritic chloride gradient in retinal ON-type bipolar cells expressing the biosensor clomeleon,” Neuron 49, 81–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Cueva, S. Haverkamp, R. J. Reimer, R. Edwards, H. Wässle, and N. C. Brecha, “Vesicular gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter expression in amacrine and horizontal cells,” J. Comp. Neurol. 445, 227–237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Haverkamp, U. Grünert, and H. Wässle, “The cone pedicle, a complex synapse in the retina,” Neuron 27, 85–95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Wässle, D. M. Dacey, T. Haun, S. Haverkamp, U. Grünert, and B. B. Boycott, “The mosaic of horizontal cells in the macaque monkey retina: with a comment on biplexiform ganglion cells,” Vis. Neurosci. 17, 591–608 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Puller, S. Haverkamp, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Synaptic elements for GABAergic feed-forward signaling between HII horizontal cells and blue cone bipolar cells are enriched beneath primate S-cones,” PloS 1 (to be published).

Heflin, S. J.

R. Herrmann, S. J. Heflin, T. Hammond, B. Lee, J. Wang, R. R. Gainetdinov, M. G. Caron, E. D. Eggers, L. J. Frishman, M. A. McCall, and V. Y. Arshavsky, “Rod vision is controlled by dopamine-dependent sensitization of rod bipolar cells by GABA,” Neuron 72, 101–110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, R.

R. Herrmann, S. J. Heflin, T. Hammond, B. Lee, J. Wang, R. R. Gainetdinov, M. G. Caron, E. D. Eggers, L. J. Frishman, M. A. McCall, and V. Y. Arshavsky, “Rod vision is controlled by dopamine-dependent sensitization of rod bipolar cells by GABA,” Neuron 72, 101–110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, A. A.

A. A. Hirano, J. H. Brandstatter, C. W. Morgans, and N. C. Brecha, “SNAP25 expression in mammalian retinal horizontal cells,” J. Comp. Neurol. 519, 972–988 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Guo, A. A. Hirano, S. L. Stella, M. Bitzer, and N. C. Brecha, “Guinea pig horizontal cells express GABA, the GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD 65, and the GABA vesicular transporter,” J. Comp. Neurol. 518, 1647–1669 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Hirano, J. H. Brandstatter, A. Vila, and N. C. Brecha, “Robust syntaxin-4 immunoreactivity in mammalian horizontal cell processes,” Vis. Neurosci. 24, 489–502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hirasawa, H.

H. Hirasawa, M. Yamada, and A. Kaneko, “Acidification of the synaptic cleft of cone photoreceptor terminal controls the amount of transmitter release, thereby forming the receptive field surround in the vertebrate retina,” J. Phys. Sci. 62, 359–375 (2012).

Ishii, M.

A. J. Chaffiol, Y. Cao, M. Ishii, C. Ribelayga, and S. C. Mangel, “Light/dark adaptive regulation of GABAA receptor and NKCC expression and activity modulates direct, GABA-mediated horizontal cell signaling to ON-cone bipolar cells,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 4306 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, G. H.

M. A. Raven, N. C. Orton, H. Nassar, G. A. Williams, W. K. Stell, G. H. Jacobs, N. T. Bech-Hansen, and B. E. Reese, “Early afferent signaling in the outer plexiform layer regulates development of horizontal cell morphology,” J. Comp. Neurol. 506, 745–758 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Janssen-Bienhold, U.

C. Puller, L. P. de Sevilla Müller, U. Janssen-Bienhold, and S. Haverkamp, “ZO-1 and the spatial organization of gap junctions and glutamate receptors in the outer plexiform layer of the mammalian retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 6266–6275 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jellali, A.

A. Jellali, C. Stussi-Garaud, B. Gasnier, A. Rendon, J. A. Sahel, H. Dreyfus, and S. Picaud, “Cellular localization of the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter in the mouse and human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 449, 76–87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jusuf, P. R.

K. A. Percival, P. R. Jusuf, P. R. Martin, and U. Grünert, “Synaptic inputs onto small bistratified (blue-ON/yellow-OFF) ganglion cells in marmoset retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 517, 655–669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kalloniatis, M.

M. Kalloniatis, R. E. Marc, and R. F. Murry, “Amino acid signatures in the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 16, 6807–6829 (1996).

Kamermans, M.

L. J. Klaassen, I. Fahrenfort, and M. Kamermans, “Connexin hemichannel mediated ephaptic inhibition in the retina,” Brain Res. 1487, 25–38 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, A.

H. Hirasawa, M. Yamada, and A. Kaneko, “Acidification of the synaptic cleft of cone photoreceptor terminal controls the amount of transmitter release, thereby forming the receptive field surround in the vertebrate retina,” J. Phys. Sci. 62, 359–375 (2012).

Kao, Y.

Y. Kao, L. Lassova, T. Bar-Yehuda, R. Edwards, P. Sterling, and N. Vardi, “Evidence that certain retinal bipolar cells use both glutamate and GABA,” J. Comp. Neurol. 478, 207–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Klaassen, L. J.

L. J. Klaassen, I. Fahrenfort, and M. Kamermans, “Connexin hemichannel mediated ephaptic inhibition in the retina,” Brain Res. 1487, 25–38 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kolb, H.

P. Ahnelt and H. Kolb, “Horizontal cells and cone photoreceptors in human retina: a golgi-electron microscopic study of spectral connectivity,” J. Comp. Neurol. 343, 406–427 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Ahnelt and H. Kolb, “Horizontal cells and cone photoreceptors in primate retina: a golgi-light microscopic study of spectral connectivity,” J. Comp. Neurol. 343, 387–405 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Kolb, A. Mariani, and A. Gallego, “A second type of horizontal cell in the monkey retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 189, 31–44 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. Kolb, “The organization of the outer plexiform layer in the retina of the cat: electron microscopic observations,” J. Neurocytol. 6, 131–153 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kuner, T.

J. Duebel, S. Haverkamp, W. Schleich, G. Feng, G. J. Augustine, T. Kuner, and T. Euler, “Two-photon imaging reveals somatodendritic chloride gradient in retinal ON-type bipolar cells expressing the biosensor clomeleon,” Neuron 49, 81–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lassova, L.

Y. Kao, L. Lassova, T. Bar-Yehuda, R. Edwards, P. Sterling, and N. Vardi, “Evidence that certain retinal bipolar cells use both glutamate and GABA,” J. Comp. Neurol. 478, 207–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

R. Herrmann, S. J. Heflin, T. Hammond, B. Lee, J. Wang, R. R. Gainetdinov, M. G. Caron, E. D. Eggers, L. J. Frishman, M. A. McCall, and V. Y. Arshavsky, “Rod vision is controlled by dopamine-dependent sensitization of rod bipolar cells by GABA,” Neuron 72, 101–110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. B.

D. M. Dacey, B. B. Lee, D. K. Stafford, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Horizontal cells of the primate retina: cone specificity without spectral opponency,” Science 271, 656–659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Dacey and B. B. Lee, “The “blue-on” opponent pathway in primate retina originates from a distinct bistratified ganglion cell type,” Nature 367, 731–735 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

H. Lee and N. C. Brecha, “Immunocytochemical evidence for SNARE protein-dependent transmitter release from guinea pig horizontal cells,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 31, 1388–1401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

B. Li, K. McKernan, and W. Shen, “Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of Na-K-2Cl cotransporter in adult and developing mouse retinas,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 109–123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, P. H.

O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, P. H. Li, J. L. Schnapf, and D. M. Dacey, “Blue-yellow opponency in primate S cone photoreceptors,” J. Neurosci. 30, 568–572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

S. Chen and W. Li, “A color-coding amacrine cell may provide a blue-OFF signal in a mammalian retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 15, 954–956 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lytle, C.

C. Lytle, J. C. Xu, D. Biemesderfer, and B. Forbush, “Distribution and diversity of Na-K-Cl cotransport proteins: a study with monoclonal antibodies,” Am. J. Physiol. 269, C1496–C1505 (1995).

Major, D.

J. E. Dowling, J. E. Brown, and D. Major, “Synapses of horizontal cells in rabbit and cat retinas,” Science 153, 1639–1641 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Mangel, S. C.

A. J. Chaffiol, Y. Cao, M. Ishii, C. Ribelayga, and S. C. Mangel, “Light/dark adaptive regulation of GABAA receptor and NKCC expression and activity modulates direct, GABA-mediated horizontal cell signaling to ON-cone bipolar cells,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 4306 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Thoreson and S. C. Mangel, “Lateral interactions in the outer retina,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 31, 407–441 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Manookin, M. B.

C. Puller, M. B. Manookin, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Syntaxin-4 is highly enriched beneath S-cone pedicles in the primate retina,” ARVO Meeting Abstracts 53, 6323 (2012).

J. D. Crook, M. B. Manookin, O. S. Packer, and D. M. Dacey, “Horizontal cell feedback without cone type-selective inhibition mediates “red-green” color opponency in midget ganglion cells of the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 31, 1762–1772 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marc, R. E.

M. Kalloniatis, R. E. Marc, and R. F. Murry, “Amino acid signatures in the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 16, 6807–6829 (1996).

Mariani, A.

H. Kolb, A. Mariani, and A. Gallego, “A second type of horizontal cell in the monkey retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 189, 31–44 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. R.

K. A. Percival, P. R. Jusuf, P. R. Martin, and U. Grünert, “Synaptic inputs onto small bistratified (blue-ON/yellow-OFF) ganglion cells in marmoset retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 517, 655–669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McCall, M. A.

R. Herrmann, S. J. Heflin, T. Hammond, B. Lee, J. Wang, R. R. Gainetdinov, M. G. Caron, E. D. Eggers, L. J. Frishman, M. A. McCall, and V. Y. Arshavsky, “Rod vision is controlled by dopamine-dependent sensitization of rod bipolar cells by GABA,” Neuron 72, 101–110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

McKernan, K.

B. Li, K. McKernan, and W. Shen, “Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of Na-K-2Cl cotransporter in adult and developing mouse retinas,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 109–123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Missotten, L.

L. Missotten, The Ultrastructure of the Human Retina (Editions Arscia, 1965).

Mitchell, R.

D. M. Sherry, R. Mitchell, K. M. Standifer, and B. du Plessis, “Distribution of plasma membrane-associated syntaxins 1 through 4 indicates distinct trafficking functions in the synaptic layers of the mouse retina,” BMC Neurosci. 7, 54 (2006).

Morgans, C. W.

A. A. Hirano, J. H. Brandstatter, C. W. Morgans, and N. C. Brecha, “SNAP25 expression in mammalian retinal horizontal cells,” J. Comp. Neurol. 519, 972–988 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mura, C.

S. Deniz, E. Wersinger, Y. Schwab, C. Mura, F. Erdelyi, G. Szabo, A. Rendon, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and M. J. Roux, “Mammalian retinal horizontal cells are unconventional GABAergic neurons,” J. Neurochem. 116, 350–362 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Murry, R. F.

M. Kalloniatis, R. E. Marc, and R. F. Murry, “Amino acid signatures in the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 16, 6807–6829 (1996).

Nassar, H.

M. A. Raven, N. C. Orton, H. Nassar, G. A. Williams, W. K. Stell, G. H. Jacobs, N. T. Bech-Hansen, and B. E. Reese, “Early afferent signaling in the outer plexiform layer regulates development of horizontal cell morphology,” J. Comp. Neurol. 506, 745–758 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Neitz, J.

B. P. Schmidt, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Neurobiological hypothesis of color appearance and hue perception,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, A195–A207 (2014).

C. Puller, M. B. Manookin, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Syntaxin-4 is highly enriched beneath S-cone pedicles in the primate retina,” ARVO Meeting Abstracts 53, 6323 (2012).

C. Puller, S. Haverkamp, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Synaptic elements for GABAergic feed-forward signaling between HII horizontal cells and blue cone bipolar cells are enriched beneath primate S-cones,” PloS 1 (to be published).

Neitz, M.

B. P. Schmidt, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Neurobiological hypothesis of color appearance and hue perception,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, A195–A207 (2014).

C. Puller, M. B. Manookin, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Syntaxin-4 is highly enriched beneath S-cone pedicles in the primate retina,” ARVO Meeting Abstracts 53, 6323 (2012).

C. Puller, S. Haverkamp, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Synaptic elements for GABAergic feed-forward signaling between HII horizontal cells and blue cone bipolar cells are enriched beneath primate S-cones,” PloS 1 (to be published).

Ondreka, K.

C. Puller, K. Ondreka, and S. Haverkamp, “Bipolar cells of the ground squirrel retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 519, 759–774 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Orton, N. C.

M. A. Raven, N. C. Orton, H. Nassar, G. A. Williams, W. K. Stell, G. H. Jacobs, N. T. Bech-Hansen, and B. E. Reese, “Early afferent signaling in the outer plexiform layer regulates development of horizontal cell morphology,” J. Comp. Neurol. 506, 745–758 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Packer, O. S.

J. D. Crook, M. B. Manookin, O. S. Packer, and D. M. Dacey, “Horizontal cell feedback without cone type-selective inhibition mediates “red-green” color opponency in midget ganglion cells of the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 31, 1762–1772 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, P. H. Li, J. L. Schnapf, and D. M. Dacey, “Blue-yellow opponency in primate S cone photoreceptors,” J. Neurosci. 30, 568–572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Payne, J. A.

N. Vardi, L. L. Zhang, J. A. Payne, and P. Sterling, “Evidence that different cation chloride cotransporters in retinal neurons allow opposite responses to GABA,” J. Neurosci. 20, 7657–7663 (2000).

Peichl, L.

L. Peichl, “Morphology of interneurons: horizontal cells,” in Encyclopedia of the Eye, D. A. Dart, ed. (Academic, 2010), Vol. 3.

Percival, K. A.

K. A. Percival, P. R. Jusuf, P. R. Martin, and U. Grünert, “Synaptic inputs onto small bistratified (blue-ON/yellow-OFF) ganglion cells in marmoset retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 517, 655–669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, B. B.

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Picaud, S.

S. Deniz, E. Wersinger, Y. Schwab, C. Mura, F. Erdelyi, G. Szabo, A. Rendon, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and M. J. Roux, “Mammalian retinal horizontal cells are unconventional GABAergic neurons,” J. Neurochem. 116, 350–362 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Jellali, C. Stussi-Garaud, B. Gasnier, A. Rendon, J. A. Sahel, H. Dreyfus, and S. Picaud, “Cellular localization of the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter in the mouse and human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 449, 76–87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pokorny, J.

D. M. Dacey, B. B. Lee, D. K. Stafford, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Horizontal cells of the primate retina: cone specificity without spectral opponency,” Science 271, 656–659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Puller, C.

C. Puller, M. B. Manookin, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Syntaxin-4 is highly enriched beneath S-cone pedicles in the primate retina,” ARVO Meeting Abstracts 53, 6323 (2012).

C. Puller and S. Haverkamp, “Cell-type-specific localization of protocadherin beta16 at AMPA and AMPA/Kainate receptor-containing synapses in the primate retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 519, 467–479 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Puller, K. Ondreka, and S. Haverkamp, “Bipolar cells of the ground squirrel retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 519, 759–774 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Puller, L. P. de Sevilla Müller, U. Janssen-Bienhold, and S. Haverkamp, “ZO-1 and the spatial organization of gap junctions and glutamate receptors in the outer plexiform layer of the mammalian retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 6266–6275 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Puller, S. Haverkamp, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Synaptic elements for GABAergic feed-forward signaling between HII horizontal cells and blue cone bipolar cells are enriched beneath primate S-cones,” PloS 1 (to be published).

Raven, M. A.

M. A. Raven, N. C. Orton, H. Nassar, G. A. Williams, W. K. Stell, G. H. Jacobs, N. T. Bech-Hansen, and B. E. Reese, “Early afferent signaling in the outer plexiform layer regulates development of horizontal cell morphology,” J. Comp. Neurol. 506, 745–758 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reese, B. E.

M. A. Raven, N. C. Orton, H. Nassar, G. A. Williams, W. K. Stell, G. H. Jacobs, N. T. Bech-Hansen, and B. E. Reese, “Early afferent signaling in the outer plexiform layer regulates development of horizontal cell morphology,” J. Comp. Neurol. 506, 745–758 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reimer, R. J.

J. G. Cueva, S. Haverkamp, R. J. Reimer, R. Edwards, H. Wässle, and N. C. Brecha, “Vesicular gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter expression in amacrine and horizontal cells,” J. Comp. Neurol. 445, 227–237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rendon, A.

S. Deniz, E. Wersinger, Y. Schwab, C. Mura, F. Erdelyi, G. Szabo, A. Rendon, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and M. J. Roux, “Mammalian retinal horizontal cells are unconventional GABAergic neurons,” J. Neurochem. 116, 350–362 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Jellali, C. Stussi-Garaud, B. Gasnier, A. Rendon, J. A. Sahel, H. Dreyfus, and S. Picaud, “Cellular localization of the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter in the mouse and human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 449, 76–87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ribelayga, C.

A. J. Chaffiol, Y. Cao, M. Ishii, C. Ribelayga, and S. C. Mangel, “Light/dark adaptive regulation of GABAA receptor and NKCC expression and activity modulates direct, GABA-mediated horizontal cell signaling to ON-cone bipolar cells,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 4306 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Röhrenbeck, J.

J. Röhrenbeck, H. Wässle, and B. B. Boycott, “Horizontal cells in the monkey retina: immunocytochemical staining with antibodies against calcium binding proteins,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 1, 407–420 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Wässle, B. B. Boycott, and J. Röhrenbeck, “Horizontal cells in the monkey retina: cone connections and dendritic network,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 1, 421–435 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Roux, M. J.

S. Deniz, E. Wersinger, Y. Schwab, C. Mura, F. Erdelyi, G. Szabo, A. Rendon, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and M. J. Roux, “Mammalian retinal horizontal cells are unconventional GABAergic neurons,” J. Neurochem. 116, 350–362 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sahel, J. A.

S. Deniz, E. Wersinger, Y. Schwab, C. Mura, F. Erdelyi, G. Szabo, A. Rendon, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and M. J. Roux, “Mammalian retinal horizontal cells are unconventional GABAergic neurons,” J. Neurochem. 116, 350–362 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Jellali, C. Stussi-Garaud, B. Gasnier, A. Rendon, J. A. Sahel, H. Dreyfus, and S. Picaud, “Cellular localization of the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter in the mouse and human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 449, 76–87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schleich, W.

J. Duebel, S. Haverkamp, W. Schleich, G. Feng, G. J. Augustine, T. Kuner, and T. Euler, “Two-photon imaging reveals somatodendritic chloride gradient in retinal ON-type bipolar cells expressing the biosensor clomeleon,” Neuron 49, 81–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B. P.

Schnapf, J. L.

O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, P. H. Li, J. L. Schnapf, and D. M. Dacey, “Blue-yellow opponency in primate S cone photoreceptors,” J. Neurosci. 30, 568–572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schwab, Y.

S. Deniz, E. Wersinger, Y. Schwab, C. Mura, F. Erdelyi, G. Szabo, A. Rendon, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and M. J. Roux, “Mammalian retinal horizontal cells are unconventional GABAergic neurons,” J. Neurochem. 116, 350–362 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shen, W.

B. Li, K. McKernan, and W. Shen, “Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of Na-K-2Cl cotransporter in adult and developing mouse retinas,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 109–123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sher, A.

A. Sher and S. H. DeVries, “A non-canonical pathway for mammalian blue-green color vision,” Nat. Neurosci. 15, 952–953 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sherry, D. M.

D. M. Sherry, R. Mitchell, K. M. Standifer, and B. du Plessis, “Distribution of plasma membrane-associated syntaxins 1 through 4 indicates distinct trafficking functions in the synaptic layers of the mouse retina,” BMC Neurosci. 7, 54 (2006).

Smith, V. C.

D. M. Dacey, B. B. Lee, D. K. Stafford, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Horizontal cells of the primate retina: cone specificity without spectral opponency,” Science 271, 656–659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stafford, D. K.

D. M. Dacey, B. B. Lee, D. K. Stafford, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Horizontal cells of the primate retina: cone specificity without spectral opponency,” Science 271, 656–659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Standifer, K. M.

D. M. Sherry, R. Mitchell, K. M. Standifer, and B. du Plessis, “Distribution of plasma membrane-associated syntaxins 1 through 4 indicates distinct trafficking functions in the synaptic layers of the mouse retina,” BMC Neurosci. 7, 54 (2006).

Stell, W. K.

M. A. Raven, N. C. Orton, H. Nassar, G. A. Williams, W. K. Stell, G. H. Jacobs, N. T. Bech-Hansen, and B. E. Reese, “Early afferent signaling in the outer plexiform layer regulates development of horizontal cell morphology,” J. Comp. Neurol. 506, 745–758 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stella, S. L.

C. Guo, A. A. Hirano, S. L. Stella, M. Bitzer, and N. C. Brecha, “Guinea pig horizontal cells express GABA, the GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD 65, and the GABA vesicular transporter,” J. Comp. Neurol. 518, 1647–1669 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sterling, P.

Y. Kao, L. Lassova, T. Bar-Yehuda, R. Edwards, P. Sterling, and N. Vardi, “Evidence that certain retinal bipolar cells use both glutamate and GABA,” J. Comp. Neurol. 478, 207–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Vardi, L. L. Zhang, J. A. Payne, and P. Sterling, “Evidence that different cation chloride cotransporters in retinal neurons allow opposite responses to GABA,” J. Neurosci. 20, 7657–7663 (2000).

D. J. Calkins, Y. Tsukamoto, and P. Sterling, “Microcircuitry and mosaic of a blue-yellow ganglion cell in the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 18, 3373–3385 (1998).

N. Vardi and P. Sterling, “Subcellular localization of GABAA receptor on bipolar cells in macaque and human retina,” Vision Res 34, 1235–1246 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stussi-Garaud, C.

A. Jellali, C. Stussi-Garaud, B. Gasnier, A. Rendon, J. A. Sahel, H. Dreyfus, and S. Picaud, “Cellular localization of the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter in the mouse and human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 449, 76–87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Szabo, G.

S. Deniz, E. Wersinger, Y. Schwab, C. Mura, F. Erdelyi, G. Szabo, A. Rendon, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and M. J. Roux, “Mammalian retinal horizontal cells are unconventional GABAergic neurons,” J. Neurochem. 116, 350–362 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thoreson, W. B.

W. B. Thoreson and S. C. Mangel, “Lateral interactions in the outer retina,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 31, 407–441 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tsukamoto, Y.

D. J. Calkins, Y. Tsukamoto, and P. Sterling, “Microcircuitry and mosaic of a blue-yellow ganglion cell in the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 18, 3373–3385 (1998).

Vardi, N.

L. L. Zhang, E. Delpire, and N. Vardi, “NKCC1 does not accumulate chloride in developing retinal neurons,” J. Neurophysiol. 98, 266–277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Zhang, M. E. Fina, and N. Vardi, “Regulation of KCC2 and NKCC during development: membrane insertion and differences between cell types,” J. Comp. Neurol. 499, 132–143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kao, L. Lassova, T. Bar-Yehuda, R. Edwards, P. Sterling, and N. Vardi, “Evidence that certain retinal bipolar cells use both glutamate and GABA,” J. Comp. Neurol. 478, 207–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Vardi, L. L. Zhang, J. A. Payne, and P. Sterling, “Evidence that different cation chloride cotransporters in retinal neurons allow opposite responses to GABA,” J. Neurosci. 20, 7657–7663 (2000).

N. Vardi and P. Sterling, “Subcellular localization of GABAA receptor on bipolar cells in macaque and human retina,” Vision Res 34, 1235–1246 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Varela, C.

C. Varela, R. Blanco, and P. De la Villa, “Depolarizing effect of GABA in rod bipolar cells of the mouse retina,” Vis. Res. 45, 2659–2667 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Verweij, J.

O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, P. H. Li, J. L. Schnapf, and D. M. Dacey, “Blue-yellow opponency in primate S cone photoreceptors,” J. Neurosci. 30, 568–572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vila, A.

A. A. Hirano, J. H. Brandstatter, A. Vila, and N. C. Brecha, “Robust syntaxin-4 immunoreactivity in mammalian horizontal cell processes,” Vis. Neurosci. 24, 489–502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

R. Herrmann, S. J. Heflin, T. Hammond, B. Lee, J. Wang, R. R. Gainetdinov, M. G. Caron, E. D. Eggers, L. J. Frishman, M. A. McCall, and V. Y. Arshavsky, “Rod vision is controlled by dopamine-dependent sensitization of rod bipolar cells by GABA,” Neuron 72, 101–110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wässle, H.

J. G. Cueva, S. Haverkamp, R. J. Reimer, R. Edwards, H. Wässle, and N. C. Brecha, “Vesicular gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter expression in amacrine and horizontal cells,” J. Comp. Neurol. 445, 227–237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Haverkamp, U. Grünert, and H. Wässle, “The cone pedicle, a complex synapse in the retina,” Neuron 27, 85–95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Wässle, D. M. Dacey, T. Haun, S. Haverkamp, U. Grünert, and B. B. Boycott, “The mosaic of horizontal cells in the macaque monkey retina: with a comment on biplexiform ganglion cells,” Vis. Neurosci. 17, 591–608 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Grünert and H. Wässle, “GABA-like immunoreactivity in the macaque monkey retina: a light and electron microscopic study,” J. Comp. Neurol. 297, 509–524 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Wässle and M. H. Chun, “GABA-like immunoreactivity in the cat retina: light microscopy,” J. Comp. Neurol. 279, 43–54 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Wässle, B. B. Boycott, and J. Röhrenbeck, “Horizontal cells in the monkey retina: cone connections and dendritic network,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 1, 421–435 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Röhrenbeck, H. Wässle, and B. B. Boycott, “Horizontal cells in the monkey retina: immunocytochemical staining with antibodies against calcium binding proteins,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 1, 407–420 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wersinger, E.

S. Deniz, E. Wersinger, Y. Schwab, C. Mura, F. Erdelyi, G. Szabo, A. Rendon, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and M. J. Roux, “Mammalian retinal horizontal cells are unconventional GABAergic neurons,” J. Neurochem. 116, 350–362 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. A.

M. A. Raven, N. C. Orton, H. Nassar, G. A. Williams, W. K. Stell, G. H. Jacobs, N. T. Bech-Hansen, and B. E. Reese, “Early afferent signaling in the outer plexiform layer regulates development of horizontal cell morphology,” J. Comp. Neurol. 506, 745–758 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.-Y.

E. Agardh, B. Ehinger, and J.-Y. Wu, “GABA and GAD-like immunoreactivity in the primate retina,” Histochemistry 86, 485–490 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. C.

C. Lytle, J. C. Xu, D. Biemesderfer, and B. Forbush, “Distribution and diversity of Na-K-Cl cotransport proteins: a study with monoclonal antibodies,” Am. J. Physiol. 269, C1496–C1505 (1995).

Yamada, M.

H. Hirasawa, M. Yamada, and A. Kaneko, “Acidification of the synaptic cleft of cone photoreceptor terminal controls the amount of transmitter release, thereby forming the receptive field surround in the vertebrate retina,” J. Phys. Sci. 62, 359–375 (2012).

Zhang, L. L.

L. L. Zhang, E. Delpire, and N. Vardi, “NKCC1 does not accumulate chloride in developing retinal neurons,” J. Neurophysiol. 98, 266–277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Zhang, M. E. Fina, and N. Vardi, “Regulation of KCC2 and NKCC during development: membrane insertion and differences between cell types,” J. Comp. Neurol. 499, 132–143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Vardi, L. L. Zhang, J. A. Payne, and P. Sterling, “Evidence that different cation chloride cotransporters in retinal neurons allow opposite responses to GABA,” J. Neurosci. 20, 7657–7663 (2000).

Am. J. Physiol.

C. Lytle, J. C. Xu, D. Biemesderfer, and B. Forbush, “Distribution and diversity of Na-K-Cl cotransport proteins: a study with monoclonal antibodies,” Am. J. Physiol. 269, C1496–C1505 (1995).

ARVO Meeting Abstracts

C. Puller, M. B. Manookin, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Syntaxin-4 is highly enriched beneath S-cone pedicles in the primate retina,” ARVO Meeting Abstracts 53, 6323 (2012).

BMC Neurosci.

D. M. Sherry, R. Mitchell, K. M. Standifer, and B. du Plessis, “Distribution of plasma membrane-associated syntaxins 1 through 4 indicates distinct trafficking functions in the synaptic layers of the mouse retina,” BMC Neurosci. 7, 54 (2006).

B. Ekesten and P. Gouras, “Cone inputs to murine striate cortex,” BMC Neurosci. 9, 113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brain Res.

L. J. Klaassen, I. Fahrenfort, and M. Kamermans, “Connexin hemichannel mediated ephaptic inhibition in the retina,” Brain Res. 1487, 25–38 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brain Res. Bull.

C. Chiquet, O. Dkhissi-Benyahya, and H. Cooper, “Calcium-binding protein distribution in the retina of strepsirhine and haplorhine primates,” Brain Res. Bull. 68, 185–194 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Neurosci.

J. Röhrenbeck, H. Wässle, and B. B. Boycott, “Horizontal cells in the monkey retina: immunocytochemical staining with antibodies against calcium binding proteins,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 1, 407–420 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee and N. C. Brecha, “Immunocytochemical evidence for SNARE protein-dependent transmitter release from guinea pig horizontal cells,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 31, 1388–1401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Wässle, B. B. Boycott, and J. Röhrenbeck, “Horizontal cells in the monkey retina: cone connections and dendritic network,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 1, 421–435 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Histochemistry

E. Agardh, B. Ehinger, and J.-Y. Wu, “GABA and GAD-like immunoreactivity in the primate retina,” Histochemistry 86, 485–490 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

A. J. Chaffiol, Y. Cao, M. Ishii, C. Ribelayga, and S. C. Mangel, “Light/dark adaptive regulation of GABAA receptor and NKCC expression and activity modulates direct, GABA-mediated horizontal cell signaling to ON-cone bipolar cells,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 4306 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Comp. Neurol.

H. Wässle and M. H. Chun, “GABA-like immunoreactivity in the cat retina: light microscopy,” J. Comp. Neurol. 279, 43–54 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Puller and S. Haverkamp, “Cell-type-specific localization of protocadherin beta16 at AMPA and AMPA/Kainate receptor-containing synapses in the primate retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 519, 467–479 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Puller, K. Ondreka, and S. Haverkamp, “Bipolar cells of the ground squirrel retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 519, 759–774 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Raven, N. C. Orton, H. Nassar, G. A. Williams, W. K. Stell, G. H. Jacobs, N. T. Bech-Hansen, and B. E. Reese, “Early afferent signaling in the outer plexiform layer regulates development of horizontal cell morphology,” J. Comp. Neurol. 506, 745–758 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Ghosh and U. Grünert, “Synaptic input to small bistratified (blue-ON) ganglion cells in the retina of a new world monkey, the marmoset Callithrix jacchus,” J. Comp. Neurol. 413, 417–428 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Percival, P. R. Jusuf, P. R. Martin, and U. Grünert, “Synaptic inputs onto small bistratified (blue-ON/yellow-OFF) ganglion cells in marmoset retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 517, 655–669 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Grünert and H. Wässle, “GABA-like immunoreactivity in the macaque monkey retina: a light and electron microscopic study,” J. Comp. Neurol. 297, 509–524 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Zhang, M. E. Fina, and N. Vardi, “Regulation of KCC2 and NKCC during development: membrane insertion and differences between cell types,” J. Comp. Neurol. 499, 132–143 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Guo, A. A. Hirano, S. L. Stella, M. Bitzer, and N. C. Brecha, “Guinea pig horizontal cells express GABA, the GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD 65, and the GABA vesicular transporter,” J. Comp. Neurol. 518, 1647–1669 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Jellali, C. Stussi-Garaud, B. Gasnier, A. Rendon, J. A. Sahel, H. Dreyfus, and S. Picaud, “Cellular localization of the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter in the mouse and human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 449, 76–87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kao, L. Lassova, T. Bar-Yehuda, R. Edwards, P. Sterling, and N. Vardi, “Evidence that certain retinal bipolar cells use both glutamate and GABA,” J. Comp. Neurol. 478, 207–218 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Cueva, S. Haverkamp, R. J. Reimer, R. Edwards, H. Wässle, and N. C. Brecha, “Vesicular gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter expression in amacrine and horizontal cells,” J. Comp. Neurol. 445, 227–237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Hirano, J. H. Brandstatter, C. W. Morgans, and N. C. Brecha, “SNAP25 expression in mammalian retinal horizontal cells,” J. Comp. Neurol. 519, 972–988 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Ahnelt and H. Kolb, “Horizontal cells and cone photoreceptors in primate retina: a golgi-light microscopic study of spectral connectivity,” J. Comp. Neurol. 343, 387–405 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Ahnelt and H. Kolb, “Horizontal cells and cone photoreceptors in human retina: a golgi-electron microscopic study of spectral connectivity,” J. Comp. Neurol. 343, 406–427 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Chan and U. Grünert, “Horizontal cell connections with short wavelength-sensitive cones in the retina: a comparison between New World and Old World primates,” J. Comp. Neurol. 393, 196–209 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Kolb, A. Mariani, and A. Gallego, “A second type of horizontal cell in the monkey retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 189, 31–44 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurochem.

S. Deniz, E. Wersinger, Y. Schwab, C. Mura, F. Erdelyi, G. Szabo, A. Rendon, J. A. Sahel, S. Picaud, and M. J. Roux, “Mammalian retinal horizontal cells are unconventional GABAergic neurons,” J. Neurochem. 116, 350–362 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurocytol.

H. Kolb, “The organization of the outer plexiform layer in the retina of the cat: electron microscopic observations,” J. Neurocytol. 6, 131–153 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurophysiol.

L. L. Zhang, E. Delpire, and N. Vardi, “NKCC1 does not accumulate chloride in developing retinal neurons,” J. Neurophysiol. 98, 266–277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosci.

M. Kalloniatis, R. E. Marc, and R. F. Murry, “Amino acid signatures in the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 16, 6807–6829 (1996).

J. D. Crook, M. B. Manookin, O. S. Packer, and D. M. Dacey, “Horizontal cell feedback without cone type-selective inhibition mediates “red-green” color opponency in midget ganglion cells of the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 31, 1762–1772 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, P. H. Li, J. L. Schnapf, and D. M. Dacey, “Blue-yellow opponency in primate S cone photoreceptors,” J. Neurosci. 30, 568–572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Vardi, L. L. Zhang, J. A. Payne, and P. Sterling, “Evidence that different cation chloride cotransporters in retinal neurons allow opposite responses to GABA,” J. Neurosci. 20, 7657–7663 (2000).

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Puller, L. P. de Sevilla Müller, U. Janssen-Bienhold, and S. Haverkamp, “ZO-1 and the spatial organization of gap junctions and glutamate receptors in the outer plexiform layer of the mammalian retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 6266–6275 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Calkins, Y. Tsukamoto, and P. Sterling, “Microcircuitry and mosaic of a blue-yellow ganglion cell in the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 18, 3373–3385 (1998).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Phys. Sci.

H. Hirasawa, M. Yamada, and A. Kaneko, “Acidification of the synaptic cleft of cone photoreceptor terminal controls the amount of transmitter release, thereby forming the receptive field surround in the vertebrate retina,” J. Phys. Sci. 62, 359–375 (2012).

Nat. Neurosci.

A. Sher and S. H. DeVries, “A non-canonical pathway for mammalian blue-green color vision,” Nat. Neurosci. 15, 952–953 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen and W. Li, “A color-coding amacrine cell may provide a blue-OFF signal in a mammalian retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 15, 954–956 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nature

D. M. Dacey and B. B. Lee, “The “blue-on” opponent pathway in primate retina originates from a distinct bistratified ganglion cell type,” Nature 367, 731–735 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Neuron

L. Chang, T. Breuninger, and T. Euler, “Chromatic coding from cone-type unselective circuits in the mouse retina,” Neuron 77, 559–571 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Duebel, S. Haverkamp, W. Schleich, G. Feng, G. J. Augustine, T. Kuner, and T. Euler, “Two-photon imaging reveals somatodendritic chloride gradient in retinal ON-type bipolar cells expressing the biosensor clomeleon,” Neuron 49, 81–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Haverkamp, U. Grünert, and H. Wässle, “The cone pedicle, a complex synapse in the retina,” Neuron 27, 85–95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Herrmann, S. J. Heflin, T. Hammond, B. Lee, J. Wang, R. R. Gainetdinov, M. G. Caron, E. D. Eggers, L. J. Frishman, M. A. McCall, and V. Y. Arshavsky, “Rod vision is controlled by dopamine-dependent sensitization of rod bipolar cells by GABA,” Neuron 72, 101–110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci.

S. K. Fisher and B. B. Boycott, “Synaptic connections made by horizontal cells within the outer plexiform layer of the retina of the cat and the rabbit,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 186, 317–331 (1974).

Prog. Retinal Eye Res.

W. B. Thoreson and S. C. Mangel, “Lateral interactions in the outer retina,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 31, 407–441 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Science

J. E. Dowling, J. E. Brown, and D. Major, “Synapses of horizontal cells in rabbit and cat retinas,” Science 153, 1639–1641 (1966).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Dacey, B. B. Lee, D. K. Stafford, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Horizontal cells of the primate retina: cone specificity without spectral opponency,” Science 271, 656–659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Neurosci.

A. K. Goodchild, T. L. Chan, and U. Grünert, “Horizontal cell connections with short-wavelength-sensitive cones in macaque monkey retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 13, 833–845 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Hirano, J. H. Brandstatter, A. Vila, and N. C. Brecha, “Robust syntaxin-4 immunoreactivity in mammalian horizontal cell processes,” Vis. Neurosci. 24, 489–502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Wässle, D. M. Dacey, T. Haun, S. Haverkamp, U. Grünert, and B. B. Boycott, “The mosaic of horizontal cells in the macaque monkey retina: with a comment on biplexiform ganglion cells,” Vis. Neurosci. 17, 591–608 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Li, K. McKernan, and W. Shen, “Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of Na-K-2Cl cotransporter in adult and developing mouse retinas,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 109–123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Dacey, “Morphology of a small-field bistratified ganglion cell type in the macaque and human retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 10, 1081–1098 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Ekesten and P. Gouras, “Cone and rod inputs to murine retinal ganglion cells: evidence of cone opsin specific channels,” Vis. Neurosci. 22, 893–903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Res.

C. Varela, R. Blanco, and P. De la Villa, “Depolarizing effect of GABA in rod bipolar cells of the mouse retina,” Vis. Res. 45, 2659–2667 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res

N. Vardi and P. Sterling, “Subcellular localization of GABAA receptor on bipolar cells in macaque and human retina,” Vision Res 34, 1235–1246 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. Puller, S. Haverkamp, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Synaptic elements for GABAergic feed-forward signaling between HII horizontal cells and blue cone bipolar cells are enriched beneath primate S-cones,” PloS 1 (to be published).

L. Peichl, “Morphology of interneurons: horizontal cells,” in Encyclopedia of the Eye, D. A. Dart, ed. (Academic, 2010), Vol. 3.

L. Missotten, The Ultrastructure of the Human Retina (Editions Arscia, 1965).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Syntaxin-4 in human retina. (a)–(c) Maximum intensity projection of an image stack from vertical cryostat sections of the OPL of human retina, double labeled against syntaxin-4 (red) and parvalbumin (green), a marker for HI and HII horizontal cells. (d), (e) Magnification of a single optical slice from the boxed region in (c). Two putative cone pedicles (arrowheads) can be identified by clusters of syntaxin-4 staining. Syntaxin-4 is colocalized with dendrites and axon terminals of horizontal cells. (g)–(i) Double labeling of syntaxin-4 (red) and S-opsin (green). A projection of an image stack is shown which covers the full depth in the z direction (10μm) of all four cone pedicles in the image [three putative L/M-cones indicated by arrowheads in (g), one S-cone pedicle indicated by S-opsin labeling in (h) and (i)]. Syntaxin-4 immunoreactive puncta appear brighter and denser at S-cones than at the remaining L/M-cones. (j)–(l) Single optical slice of a triple labeling of syntaxin-4 (red), CaBP (a marker for HII horizontal cells, green), and S-opsin (cyan). Syntaxin-4 is colocalized with CaBP at S-cones. For image acquisition and in subsequent image processing, the brightness of the red channel was adjusted to optimally depict the syntaxin-4 fluorescence at putative L/M-cone and rod terminals for panels (a)–(f). In (g)–(l), however, the brighter fluorescence at S-cones was used for adjustment, so that the syntaxin-4 staining at L/M-cones appears dimmer than in the preceding panels. Scale bars: 10 μm in (c) and (i); 5 μm in (l).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

NKCC in human retina. Single optical slice of a triple labeling of NKCC (red), S-opsin (green), and M/L-opsin (cyan). Labeling of syntaxin-4 at an S-cone surrounded by three M/L-cones is shown. Bright, punctate staining can be observed at the S-cone pedicle (and at putative rod spherules in the distal OPL) while staining at M/L-cones appears weaker and more diffuse. Scale bar: 5 μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Syntaxin-4 in Old and New World monkeys. Maximum intensity projections of image stacks from vertical cryostat sections of the OPL of baboon (a), (b) and marmoset (c), (d) retinas are shown. Sections were double labeled against syntaxin-4 (red) and S-opsin (green). In both species syntaxin-4 immunoreactivity is enriched at S-cones. Scale bars: 5 μm.

Metrics