Abstract

Drugs and environmental factors can induce tritan deficiencies. The Farnsworth–Munsell (FM) 100 Hue Test has become the gold standard in measuring these acquired defects. However, the test is time consuming, and color discrimination is confounded by concentration and patience. Here, we describe a test that compares six tritan plates from the HRR Pseudoisochromatic Plates 4th edition to 16 FM 100 Hue tritan caps. CIE Standard Illuminant C was reduced over five light intensities to simulate the effects of acquired losses in the S-cone pathway. Both tests showed quantitative differences in error rates with all light levels; thus they could serve equally well for assessing acquired deficiencies. However, compared to the FM 100, the HRR took subjects about 20–40 s per trial, making it more practical.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Farnsworth, “The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue and dichotomous tests for color vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 568–578 (1943).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Birch, “Use of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test in the examination of congenital color-vision defects,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 9, 156–162 (1989).
  3. M. E. Breton, D. E. Fletcher, and T. Krupin, “Influence of serial practice on Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue scores: the learning effect,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1038–1044 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Birch and C. E. Platts, “Colour vision screening in children: an evaluation of three pseudoisochromatic tests,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 13, 344–349 (1993).
  5. J. E. Bailey, M. Neitz, D. M. Tait, and J. Neitz, “Evaluation of an updated HRR color vision test,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 431–436 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. L. Cole, K. Y. Lian, and C. Lakkis, “The new Richmond HRR pseuodisochromatic test of colour vision is better than the Ishihara test,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 89, 73–80 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. G. Lawrenson, C. Kelly, A. L. Lawrenson, and J. Birch, “Acquired colour vision deficiency in patients receiving digoxin maintenance therapy,” Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 1259–1261 (2002).
  8. J. Birch, I. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marre, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinkcers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979).
  9. J. Birch, Diagnosis of Defective Colour Vision (Oxford University, 1993).
  10. G. Verriest, “Further studies on acquired deficiency of color discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 185–197 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. R. Boyce and R. H. Simons, “Hue discrimination and light sources,” Lighting Res. Technol. 9, 125–140 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. J. Bowman and B. L. Cole, “A recommendation for illumination of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Optom. Physiolog. Opt. 57, 839–843 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and A. S. Pass, “Color-axis determination on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176–182 (1985).
  14. K. Knoblauch, F. Saunders, M. Kusuda, R. Hynes, M. Podgor, K. E. Higgins, and F. M. Demonasterio, “Age and illuminance effects in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1441–1448 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and T. Yeh, “Pigment tests evaluated by a model of chromatic discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1773–1784 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

B. L. Cole, K. Y. Lian, and C. Lakkis, “The new Richmond HRR pseuodisochromatic test of colour vision is better than the Ishihara test,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 89, 73–80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. E. Bailey, M. Neitz, D. M. Tait, and J. Neitz, “Evaluation of an updated HRR color vision test,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 431–436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. G. Lawrenson, C. Kelly, A. L. Lawrenson, and J. Birch, “Acquired colour vision deficiency in patients receiving digoxin maintenance therapy,” Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 1259–1261 (2002).

1993 (2)

J. Birch and C. E. Platts, “Colour vision screening in children: an evaluation of three pseudoisochromatic tests,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 13, 344–349 (1993).

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and T. Yeh, “Pigment tests evaluated by a model of chromatic discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1773–1784 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. Birch, “Use of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test in the examination of congenital color-vision defects,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 9, 156–162 (1989).

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

1985 (1)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and A. S. Pass, “Color-axis determination on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176–182 (1985).

1980 (1)

K. J. Bowman and B. L. Cole, “A recommendation for illumination of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Optom. Physiolog. Opt. 57, 839–843 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

P. R. Boyce and R. H. Simons, “Hue discrimination and light sources,” Lighting Res. Technol. 9, 125–140 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

1943 (1)

Bailey, J. E.

J. E. Bailey, M. Neitz, D. M. Tait, and J. Neitz, “Evaluation of an updated HRR color vision test,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 431–436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Birch, J.

J. G. Lawrenson, C. Kelly, A. L. Lawrenson, and J. Birch, “Acquired colour vision deficiency in patients receiving digoxin maintenance therapy,” Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 1259–1261 (2002).

J. Birch and C. E. Platts, “Colour vision screening in children: an evaluation of three pseudoisochromatic tests,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 13, 344–349 (1993).

J. Birch, “Use of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test in the examination of congenital color-vision defects,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 9, 156–162 (1989).

J. Birch, I. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marre, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinkcers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979).

J. Birch, Diagnosis of Defective Colour Vision (Oxford University, 1993).

Bowman, K. J.

K. J. Bowman and B. L. Cole, “A recommendation for illumination of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Optom. Physiolog. Opt. 57, 839–843 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Boyce, P. R.

P. R. Boyce and R. H. Simons, “Hue discrimination and light sources,” Lighting Res. Technol. 9, 125–140 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Breton, M. E.

Chisholm, I. A.

J. Birch, I. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marre, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinkcers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979).

Cole, B. L.

B. L. Cole, K. Y. Lian, and C. Lakkis, “The new Richmond HRR pseuodisochromatic test of colour vision is better than the Ishihara test,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 89, 73–80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Bowman and B. L. Cole, “A recommendation for illumination of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Optom. Physiolog. Opt. 57, 839–843 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Demonasterio, F. M.

Farnsworth, D.

Fletcher, D. E.

Higgins, K. E.

Hynes, R.

Kelly, C.

J. G. Lawrenson, C. Kelly, A. L. Lawrenson, and J. Birch, “Acquired colour vision deficiency in patients receiving digoxin maintenance therapy,” Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 1259–1261 (2002).

Kinnear, P.

J. Birch, I. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marre, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinkcers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979).

Knoblauch, K.

Krupin, T.

Kusuda, M.

Lakkis, C.

B. L. Cole, K. Y. Lian, and C. Lakkis, “The new Richmond HRR pseuodisochromatic test of colour vision is better than the Ishihara test,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 89, 73–80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lawrenson, A. L.

J. G. Lawrenson, C. Kelly, A. L. Lawrenson, and J. Birch, “Acquired colour vision deficiency in patients receiving digoxin maintenance therapy,” Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 1259–1261 (2002).

Lawrenson, J. G.

J. G. Lawrenson, C. Kelly, A. L. Lawrenson, and J. Birch, “Acquired colour vision deficiency in patients receiving digoxin maintenance therapy,” Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 1259–1261 (2002).

Lian, K. Y.

B. L. Cole, K. Y. Lian, and C. Lakkis, “The new Richmond HRR pseuodisochromatic test of colour vision is better than the Ishihara test,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 89, 73–80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marre, M.

J. Birch, I. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marre, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinkcers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979).

Neitz, J.

J. E. Bailey, M. Neitz, D. M. Tait, and J. Neitz, “Evaluation of an updated HRR color vision test,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 431–436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neitz, M.

J. E. Bailey, M. Neitz, D. M. Tait, and J. Neitz, “Evaluation of an updated HRR color vision test,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 431–436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pass, A. S.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and A. S. Pass, “Color-axis determination on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176–182 (1985).

Pinckers, A. J. L. G.

J. Birch, I. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marre, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinkcers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979).

Platts, C. E.

J. Birch and C. E. Platts, “Colour vision screening in children: an evaluation of three pseudoisochromatic tests,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 13, 344–349 (1993).

Podgor, M.

Pokorny, J.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and T. Yeh, “Pigment tests evaluated by a model of chromatic discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1773–1784 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and A. S. Pass, “Color-axis determination on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176–182 (1985).

J. Birch, I. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marre, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinkcers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979).

Saunders, F.

Simons, R. H.

P. R. Boyce and R. H. Simons, “Hue discrimination and light sources,” Lighting Res. Technol. 9, 125–140 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Smith, V. C.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and T. Yeh, “Pigment tests evaluated by a model of chromatic discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1773–1784 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and A. S. Pass, “Color-axis determination on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176–182 (1985).

J. Birch, I. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marre, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinkcers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979).

Tait, D. M.

J. E. Bailey, M. Neitz, D. M. Tait, and J. Neitz, “Evaluation of an updated HRR color vision test,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 431–436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Verriest, G.

G. Verriest, “Further studies on acquired deficiency of color discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 185–197 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Birch, I. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marre, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinkcers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979).

Yeh, T.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and A. S. Pass, “Color-axis determination on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176–182 (1985).

Am. J. Optom. Physiolog. Opt. (1)

K. J. Bowman and B. L. Cole, “A recommendation for illumination of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test,” Am. J. Optom. Physiolog. Opt. 57, 839–843 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Brit. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. G. Lawrenson, C. Kelly, A. L. Lawrenson, and J. Birch, “Acquired colour vision deficiency in patients receiving digoxin maintenance therapy,” Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 1259–1261 (2002).

Clin. Exp. Optom. (1)

B. L. Cole, K. Y. Lian, and C. Lakkis, “The new Richmond HRR pseuodisochromatic test of colour vision is better than the Ishihara test,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 89, 73–80 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Lighting Res. Technol. (1)

P. R. Boyce and R. H. Simons, “Hue discrimination and light sources,” Lighting Res. Technol. 9, 125–140 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. (2)

J. Birch, “Use of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test in the examination of congenital color-vision defects,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 9, 156–162 (1989).

J. Birch and C. E. Platts, “Colour vision screening in children: an evaluation of three pseudoisochromatic tests,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 13, 344–349 (1993).

Vis. Neurosci. (1)

J. E. Bailey, M. Neitz, D. M. Tait, and J. Neitz, “Evaluation of an updated HRR color vision test,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 431–436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. Birch, I. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marre, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, and A. J. L. G. Pinkcers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979).

J. Birch, Diagnosis of Defective Colour Vision (Oxford University, 1993).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Two tritan confusion lines are drawn on the 1976 CIE diagram. The circles represent the 16 FM 100 caps presented to the subjects in this study measured empirically with a spectroradiometer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

18 plates selected from the HRR Psuedoisochromatic Plates 4th edition. There are six “symbol-blanks,” six tritan, and six tetartan. Tritan plates received a score of +1 or 1 points for correct or incorrect, respectively, “symbol-blank” plates received 0.25 for a false positive, and tetartan plates served as controls.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Average results of the HRR and FM 100 across 10 subjects. As light levels decrease, more errors are made. The five light levels were selected empirically based on where color normal observers made no errors, to where they made many errors.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Percent error scores for individual subjects for each of the five light levels. Top, HRR results; bottom, 100 Hue results. Observers tend to be generally similar in their ability to perform both tests. The points on the graphs are means from three sessions per observer.

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