Abstract

L- and M-cone driven on- and off- ERG responses and their interactions were examined using full field stimuli with sawtooth temporal profiles. The effects of temporal frequency and contrast were studied. ERG recordings were obtained from 21 trichromatic, 1 protanopic, and 1 deuteranopic subjects. ERGs to L-cone increments and decrements resembled those to M-cone decrements and increments, respectively (i.e., of the opposite polarity). Temporal frequency and contrast had little effect on the implicit times. All response components varied linearly with contrast. When stimulated simultaneously, the responsivities of most components were larger for counterphase than for inphase modulation. The retinal processing leading to an ERG response is reversed for L- and M-cone driven responses.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  37. J. Kremers, N. R. Parry, A. Panorgias, and I. J. Murray, “The influence of retinal illuminance on L- and M-cone driven electroretinograms,” Vis. Neurosci. 28, 129–135 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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2012 (3)

G. Pangeni, R. Lammer, R. P. Tornow, F. K. Horn, and J. Kremers, “On- and off-response ERGs elicited by sawtooth stimuli in normal subjects and glaucoma patients,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 124, 237–248 (2012).

J. Kremers and G. Pangeni, “Electroretinographic responses to photoreceptor specific sine wave modulation.,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A309–A316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Parry, I. J. Murray, A. Panorgias, D. J. McKeefry, B. B. Lee, and J. Kremers, “Simultaneous chromatic and luminance human electroretinogram responses,” J. Physiol. 590, 3141–3154 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

X. Luo and L. J. Frishman, “Retinal pathway origins of the pattern electroretinogram (PERG),” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, 8571–8584 (2011).

F. K. Horn, K. Gottschalk, C. Y. Mardin, G. Pangeni, A. G. Junemann, and J. Kremers, “On and off responses of the photopic fullfield ERG in normal subjects and glaucoma patients,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 122, 53–62 (2011).

J. Kremers, N. R. Parry, A. Panorgias, and I. J. Murray, “The influence of retinal illuminance on L- and M-cone driven electroretinograms,” Vis. Neurosci. 28, 129–135 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

A. R. Rodrigues, M. Da Silva Filho, L. C. Silveira, and J. Kremers, “Spatial distributions of on- and off-responses determined with the multifocal ERG,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 120, 145–158 (2010).

J. Kremers, A. R. Rodrigues, L. C. L. Silveira, and M. da Silva-Filho, “Flicker ERGs representing chromaticity and luminance signals,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 577–587 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Challa, D. McKeefry, N. R. A. Parry, J. Kremers, I. J. Murray, and A. Panorgias, “L- and M-cone input to 12  Hz and 30  Hz flicker ERGs across the human retina,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 30, 503–510 (2010).

2008 (2)

J. Kremers and B. Link, “Electroretinographic responses that may reflect activity of parvo- and magnocellular post-receptoral visual pathways,” J. Vis. 8(15):11, 1–14 (2008).

J. A. Kuchenbecker, M. Sahay, D. M. Tait, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Topography of the long- to middle-wavelength sensitive cone ratio in the human retina assessed with a wide-field color multifocal electroretinogram,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 301–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

N. V. Rangaswamy, S. Shirato, M. Kaneko, B. I. Digby, J. G. Robson, and L. J. Frishman, “Effects of spectral characteristics of Ganzfeld stimuli on the photopic negative response (PhNR) of the ERG,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 4818–4828 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic.,” J. Neurosci. 25, 9669–9679 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

K. R. Alexander, C. S. Barnes, and G. A. Fishman, “ON-pathway dysfunction and timing properties of the flicker ERG in carriers of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4017–4025 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, M. W. Stepien, H. P. N. Scholl, and C. A. Saito, “Cone selective adaptation influences L- and M-cone driven signals in electroretinography and psychophysics,” J. Vis. 3(2):3, 146–160 (2003).

J. Kremers, “The assessment of L- and M-cone specific electroretinographical signals in the normal and abnormal retina,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 22, 579–605 (2003).

2002 (1)

C. S. Barnes, K. R. Alexander, and G. A. Fishman, “A distinctive form of congenital stationary night blindness with cone ON-pathway dysfunction,” Ophthalmology 109, 575–583 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

T. J. Purkiss, A. Hughes, and P. J. De Marco, “Processing of scotopic increments and decrements,” Vis. Neurosci. 18, 119–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Drasdo, Y. H. Aldebasi, Z. Chiti, K. E. Mortlock, J. E. Morgan, and R. V. North, “The S-cone PhNR and pattern ERG in primary open angle glaucoma,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 1266–1272 (2001).

K. R. Alexander, G. A. Fishman, C. S. Barnes, and S. Grover, “ON-response deficit in the electroretinogram of the cone system in X-linked retinoschisis,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci, 42, 453–459 (2001).

2000 (5)

1999 (1)

J. Kremers, T. Usui, H. P. N. Scholl, and L. T. Sharpe, “Cone signal contributions to electroretinograms in dichromats and trichromats,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 920–930 (1999).

1998 (1)

T. Usui, J. Kremers, L. T. Sharpe, and E. Zrenner, “Flicker cone electroretinogram in dichromats and trichromats,” Vis. Res. 38, 3391–3396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1993 (3)

A. Stockman, D. I. A. MacLeod, and N. E. Johnson, “Spectral sensitivities of the human cones,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2491–2521 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells and human observers to compound periodic waveforms,” Vis. Res. 33, 1997–2011 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Sieving, “Photopic on- and off-pathway abnormalities in retinal dystrophies,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 91, 701–773 (1993).

1989 (1)

R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Sawtooth contrast sensitivity: decrements have the edge,” Vis. Res. 29, 1501–1509 (1989).

1987 (1)

M. Sawusch, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Clinical electroretinography for short wavelength Sssitive cones,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 966–974 (1987).

1982 (1)

O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, “The “silent substitution” method in visual research,” Vis. Res. 22, 681–691 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, “A spectral compensation method for determining the flicker characteristics of the human colour mechanisms,” Vis. Res. 14, 823–830 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

K. O. Donner and W. A. H. Rushton, “Retinal stimulation by light substitution,” J. Physiol. 149, 288–302 (1959).

Aldebasi, Y. H.

N. Drasdo, Y. H. Aldebasi, Z. Chiti, K. E. Mortlock, J. E. Morgan, and R. V. North, “The S-cone PhNR and pattern ERG in primary open angle glaucoma,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 1266–1272 (2001).

Alexander, K. R.

K. R. Alexander, C. S. Barnes, and G. A. Fishman, “ON-pathway dysfunction and timing properties of the flicker ERG in carriers of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4017–4025 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Barnes, K. R. Alexander, and G. A. Fishman, “A distinctive form of congenital stationary night blindness with cone ON-pathway dysfunction,” Ophthalmology 109, 575–583 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Alexander, G. A. Fishman, C. S. Barnes, and S. Grover, “ON-response deficit in the electroretinogram of the cone system in X-linked retinoschisis,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci, 42, 453–459 (2001).

Barnes, C. S.

K. R. Alexander, C. S. Barnes, and G. A. Fishman, “ON-pathway dysfunction and timing properties of the flicker ERG in carriers of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4017–4025 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Barnes, K. R. Alexander, and G. A. Fishman, “A distinctive form of congenital stationary night blindness with cone ON-pathway dysfunction,” Ophthalmology 109, 575–583 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Alexander, G. A. Fishman, C. S. Barnes, and S. Grover, “ON-response deficit in the electroretinogram of the cone system in X-linked retinoschisis,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci, 42, 453–459 (2001).

Berendschot, T. T. J. M.

Bowen, R. W.

R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Sawtooth contrast sensitivity: decrements have the edge,” Vis. Res. 29, 1501–1509 (1989).

Brainard, D. H.

Calderone, J. B.

Carroll, J.

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic.,” J. Neurosci. 25, 9669–9679 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Challa, N. K.

N. K. Challa, D. McKeefry, N. R. A. Parry, J. Kremers, I. J. Murray, and A. Panorgias, “L- and M-cone input to 12  Hz and 30  Hz flicker ERGs across the human retina,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 30, 503–510 (2010).

D. McKeefry, J. Kremers, D. Kommanapalli, N. K. Challa, I. J. Murray, J. McGuire, and N. R. A. Parry, “Incremental and decremental L- and M-cone driven ERG responses: I. square-wave stimulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A31, A159–A169 (2013).

Chiti, Z.

N. Drasdo, Y. H. Aldebasi, Z. Chiti, K. E. Mortlock, J. E. Morgan, and R. V. North, “The S-cone PhNR and pattern ERG in primary open angle glaucoma,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 1266–1272 (2001).

Da Silva Filho, M.

A. R. Rodrigues, M. Da Silva Filho, L. C. Silveira, and J. Kremers, “Spatial distributions of on- and off-responses determined with the multifocal ERG,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 120, 145–158 (2010).

B. D. Gomes, G. S. Souza, M. da Silva Filho, G. Pangeni, L. C. L. Silveira, and J. Kremers, “The spatial distribution of L- and M-cone driven ERGs reflecting parvo- and magnocellular activity,” in ARVO Abstracts (2013), E-abstract #6123.

da Silva-Filho, M.

J. Kremers, A. R. Rodrigues, L. C. L. Silveira, and M. da Silva-Filho, “Flicker ERGs representing chromaticity and luminance signals,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 577–587 (2010).
[CrossRef]

De Marco, P. J.

T. J. Purkiss, A. Hughes, and P. J. De Marco, “Processing of scotopic increments and decrements,” Vis. Neurosci. 18, 119–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Digby, B. I.

N. V. Rangaswamy, S. Shirato, M. Kaneko, B. I. Digby, J. G. Robson, and L. J. Frishman, “Effects of spectral characteristics of Ganzfeld stimuli on the photopic negative response (PhNR) of the ERG,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 4818–4828 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Donner, K. O.

K. O. Donner and W. A. H. Rushton, “Retinal stimulation by light substitution,” J. Physiol. 149, 288–302 (1959).

Drasdo, N.

N. Drasdo, Y. H. Aldebasi, Z. Chiti, K. E. Mortlock, J. E. Morgan, and R. V. North, “The S-cone PhNR and pattern ERG in primary open angle glaucoma,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 1266–1272 (2001).

Estévez, O.

O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, “The “silent substitution” method in visual research,” Vis. Res. 22, 681–691 (1982).
[CrossRef]

O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, “A spectral compensation method for determining the flicker characteristics of the human colour mechanisms,” Vis. Res. 14, 823–830 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Fishman, G. A.

K. R. Alexander, C. S. Barnes, and G. A. Fishman, “ON-pathway dysfunction and timing properties of the flicker ERG in carriers of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4017–4025 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Barnes, K. R. Alexander, and G. A. Fishman, “A distinctive form of congenital stationary night blindness with cone ON-pathway dysfunction,” Ophthalmology 109, 575–583 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Alexander, G. A. Fishman, C. S. Barnes, and S. Grover, “ON-response deficit in the electroretinogram of the cone system in X-linked retinoschisis,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci, 42, 453–459 (2001).

Frishman, L. J.

X. Luo and L. J. Frishman, “Retinal pathway origins of the pattern electroretinogram (PERG),” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, 8571–8584 (2011).

N. V. Rangaswamy, S. Shirato, M. Kaneko, B. I. Digby, J. G. Robson, and L. J. Frishman, “Effects of spectral characteristics of Ganzfeld stimuli on the photopic negative response (PhNR) of the ERG,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 4818–4828 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Viswanathan, L. J. Frishman, and J. G. Robson, “The uniform field and pattern ERG in macaques with experimental glaucoma:removal of spiking activity,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 2797–2810 (2000).

L. J. Frishman, “Origins of the electroretinogram,” in Principles and Practice of Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision, J. R. Heckenlively and G. B. Arden, eds. (MIT, 2006), pp. 139–183.

Gomes, B. D.

B. D. Gomes, G. S. Souza, M. da Silva Filho, G. Pangeni, L. C. L. Silveira, and J. Kremers, “The spatial distribution of L- and M-cone driven ERGs reflecting parvo- and magnocellular activity,” in ARVO Abstracts (2013), E-abstract #6123.

Gottschalk, K.

F. K. Horn, K. Gottschalk, C. Y. Mardin, G. Pangeni, A. G. Junemann, and J. Kremers, “On and off responses of the photopic fullfield ERG in normal subjects and glaucoma patients,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 122, 53–62 (2011).

Grover, S.

K. R. Alexander, G. A. Fishman, C. S. Barnes, and S. Grover, “ON-response deficit in the electroretinogram of the cone system in X-linked retinoschisis,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci, 42, 453–459 (2001).

Hagstrom, S. A.

Hofer, H.

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic.,” J. Neurosci. 25, 9669–9679 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Horn, F. K.

G. Pangeni, R. Lammer, R. P. Tornow, F. K. Horn, and J. Kremers, “On- and off-response ERGs elicited by sawtooth stimuli in normal subjects and glaucoma patients,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 124, 237–248 (2012).

F. K. Horn, K. Gottschalk, C. Y. Mardin, G. Pangeni, A. G. Junemann, and J. Kremers, “On and off responses of the photopic fullfield ERG in normal subjects and glaucoma patients,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 122, 53–62 (2011).

Hughes, A.

T. J. Purkiss, A. Hughes, and P. J. De Marco, “Processing of scotopic increments and decrements,” Vis. Neurosci. 18, 119–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, G. H.

Johnson, N. E.

Junemann, A. G.

F. K. Horn, K. Gottschalk, C. Y. Mardin, G. Pangeni, A. G. Junemann, and J. Kremers, “On and off responses of the photopic fullfield ERG in normal subjects and glaucoma patients,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 122, 53–62 (2011).

Kaneko, M.

N. V. Rangaswamy, S. Shirato, M. Kaneko, B. I. Digby, J. G. Robson, and L. J. Frishman, “Effects of spectral characteristics of Ganzfeld stimuli on the photopic negative response (PhNR) of the ERG,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 4818–4828 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Knau, H.

Kommanapalli, D.

D. McKeefry, J. Kremers, D. Kommanapalli, N. K. Challa, I. J. Murray, J. McGuire, and N. R. A. Parry, “Incremental and decremental L- and M-cone driven ERG responses: I. square-wave stimulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A31, A159–A169 (2013).

Kremers, J.

J. Kremers and G. Pangeni, “Electroretinographic responses to photoreceptor specific sine wave modulation.,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A309–A316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Parry, I. J. Murray, A. Panorgias, D. J. McKeefry, B. B. Lee, and J. Kremers, “Simultaneous chromatic and luminance human electroretinogram responses,” J. Physiol. 590, 3141–3154 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Pangeni, R. Lammer, R. P. Tornow, F. K. Horn, and J. Kremers, “On- and off-response ERGs elicited by sawtooth stimuli in normal subjects and glaucoma patients,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 124, 237–248 (2012).

F. K. Horn, K. Gottschalk, C. Y. Mardin, G. Pangeni, A. G. Junemann, and J. Kremers, “On and off responses of the photopic fullfield ERG in normal subjects and glaucoma patients,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 122, 53–62 (2011).

J. Kremers, N. R. Parry, A. Panorgias, and I. J. Murray, “The influence of retinal illuminance on L- and M-cone driven electroretinograms,” Vis. Neurosci. 28, 129–135 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Challa, D. McKeefry, N. R. A. Parry, J. Kremers, I. J. Murray, and A. Panorgias, “L- and M-cone input to 12  Hz and 30  Hz flicker ERGs across the human retina,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 30, 503–510 (2010).

J. Kremers, A. R. Rodrigues, L. C. L. Silveira, and M. da Silva-Filho, “Flicker ERGs representing chromaticity and luminance signals,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 577–587 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Rodrigues, M. Da Silva Filho, L. C. Silveira, and J. Kremers, “Spatial distributions of on- and off-responses determined with the multifocal ERG,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 120, 145–158 (2010).

J. Kremers and B. Link, “Electroretinographic responses that may reflect activity of parvo- and magnocellular post-receptoral visual pathways,” J. Vis. 8(15):11, 1–14 (2008).

J. Kremers, “The assessment of L- and M-cone specific electroretinographical signals in the normal and abnormal retina,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 22, 579–605 (2003).

J. Kremers, M. W. Stepien, H. P. N. Scholl, and C. A. Saito, “Cone selective adaptation influences L- and M-cone driven signals in electroretinography and psychophysics,” J. Vis. 3(2):3, 146–160 (2003).

J. Kremers, H. P. N. Scholl, H. Knau, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, T. Usui, and L. T. Sharpe, “L/M cone ratios in human trichromats assesed by psychophysics, electroretinograpy, and retinal densitometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 517–526 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, T. Usui, H. P. N. Scholl, and L. T. Sharpe, “Cone signal contributions to electroretinograms in dichromats and trichromats,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 920–930 (1999).

T. Usui, J. Kremers, L. T. Sharpe, and E. Zrenner, “Flicker cone electroretinogram in dichromats and trichromats,” Vis. Res. 38, 3391–3396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells and human observers to compound periodic waveforms,” Vis. Res. 33, 1997–2011 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. McKeefry, J. Kremers, D. Kommanapalli, N. K. Challa, I. J. Murray, J. McGuire, and N. R. A. Parry, “Incremental and decremental L- and M-cone driven ERG responses: I. square-wave stimulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A31, A159–A169 (2013).

B. D. Gomes, G. S. Souza, M. da Silva Filho, G. Pangeni, L. C. L. Silveira, and J. Kremers, “The spatial distribution of L- and M-cone driven ERGs reflecting parvo- and magnocellular activity,” in ARVO Abstracts (2013), E-abstract #6123.

Krogh, K.

Kuchenbecker, J. A.

J. A. Kuchenbecker, M. Sahay, D. M. Tait, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Topography of the long- to middle-wavelength sensitive cone ratio in the human retina assessed with a wide-field color multifocal electroretinogram,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 301–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lammer, R.

G. Pangeni, R. Lammer, R. P. Tornow, F. K. Horn, and J. Kremers, “On- and off-response ERGs elicited by sawtooth stimuli in normal subjects and glaucoma patients,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 124, 237–248 (2012).

Lee, B. B.

N. R. Parry, I. J. Murray, A. Panorgias, D. J. McKeefry, B. B. Lee, and J. Kremers, “Simultaneous chromatic and luminance human electroretinogram responses,” J. Physiol. 590, 3141–3154 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells and human observers to compound periodic waveforms,” Vis. Res. 33, 1997–2011 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Link, B.

J. Kremers and B. Link, “Electroretinographic responses that may reflect activity of parvo- and magnocellular post-receptoral visual pathways,” J. Vis. 8(15):11, 1–14 (2008).

Luo, X.

X. Luo and L. J. Frishman, “Retinal pathway origins of the pattern electroretinogram (PERG),” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, 8571–8584 (2011).

MacLeod, D. I. A.

Mardin, C. Y.

F. K. Horn, K. Gottschalk, C. Y. Mardin, G. Pangeni, A. G. Junemann, and J. Kremers, “On and off responses of the photopic fullfield ERG in normal subjects and glaucoma patients,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 122, 53–62 (2011).

McGuire, J.

D. McKeefry, J. Kremers, D. Kommanapalli, N. K. Challa, I. J. Murray, J. McGuire, and N. R. A. Parry, “Incremental and decremental L- and M-cone driven ERG responses: I. square-wave stimulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A31, A159–A169 (2013).

McKeefry, D.

N. K. Challa, D. McKeefry, N. R. A. Parry, J. Kremers, I. J. Murray, and A. Panorgias, “L- and M-cone input to 12  Hz and 30  Hz flicker ERGs across the human retina,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 30, 503–510 (2010).

D. McKeefry, J. Kremers, D. Kommanapalli, N. K. Challa, I. J. Murray, J. McGuire, and N. R. A. Parry, “Incremental and decremental L- and M-cone driven ERG responses: I. square-wave stimulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A31, A159–A169 (2013).

McKeefry, D. J.

N. R. Parry, I. J. Murray, A. Panorgias, D. J. McKeefry, B. B. Lee, and J. Kremers, “Simultaneous chromatic and luminance human electroretinogram responses,” J. Physiol. 590, 3141–3154 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Metha, A. B.

Morgan, J. E.

N. Drasdo, Y. H. Aldebasi, Z. Chiti, K. E. Mortlock, J. E. Morgan, and R. V. North, “The S-cone PhNR and pattern ERG in primary open angle glaucoma,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 1266–1272 (2001).

Mortlock, K. E.

N. Drasdo, Y. H. Aldebasi, Z. Chiti, K. E. Mortlock, J. E. Morgan, and R. V. North, “The S-cone PhNR and pattern ERG in primary open angle glaucoma,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 1266–1272 (2001).

Murray, I. J.

N. R. Parry, I. J. Murray, A. Panorgias, D. J. McKeefry, B. B. Lee, and J. Kremers, “Simultaneous chromatic and luminance human electroretinogram responses,” J. Physiol. 590, 3141–3154 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, N. R. Parry, A. Panorgias, and I. J. Murray, “The influence of retinal illuminance on L- and M-cone driven electroretinograms,” Vis. Neurosci. 28, 129–135 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Challa, D. McKeefry, N. R. A. Parry, J. Kremers, I. J. Murray, and A. Panorgias, “L- and M-cone input to 12  Hz and 30  Hz flicker ERGs across the human retina,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 30, 503–510 (2010).

D. McKeefry, J. Kremers, D. Kommanapalli, N. K. Challa, I. J. Murray, J. McGuire, and N. R. A. Parry, “Incremental and decremental L- and M-cone driven ERG responses: I. square-wave stimulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A31, A159–A169 (2013).

Neitz, J.

J. A. Kuchenbecker, M. Sahay, D. M. Tait, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Topography of the long- to middle-wavelength sensitive cone ratio in the human retina assessed with a wide-field color multifocal electroretinogram,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 301–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic.,” J. Neurosci. 25, 9669–9679 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Brainard, A. Roorda, Y. Yamauchi, J. B. Calderone, A. B. Metha, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, and G. H. Jacobs, “Functional consequences of the relative numbers of L and M cones,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 607–614 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Hagstrom, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Cone pigment gene expression in individual photoreceptors and the chromatic topography of the retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 527–537 (2000).

G. H. Jacobs, J. Neitz, and K. Krogh, “Electroretinogram flicker photometry and its applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 641–648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Neitz, M.

J. A. Kuchenbecker, M. Sahay, D. M. Tait, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Topography of the long- to middle-wavelength sensitive cone ratio in the human retina assessed with a wide-field color multifocal electroretinogram,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 301–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic.,” J. Neurosci. 25, 9669–9679 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Brainard, A. Roorda, Y. Yamauchi, J. B. Calderone, A. B. Metha, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, and G. H. Jacobs, “Functional consequences of the relative numbers of L and M cones,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 607–614 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Hagstrom, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Cone pigment gene expression in individual photoreceptors and the chromatic topography of the retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 527–537 (2000).

North, R. V.

N. Drasdo, Y. H. Aldebasi, Z. Chiti, K. E. Mortlock, J. E. Morgan, and R. V. North, “The S-cone PhNR and pattern ERG in primary open angle glaucoma,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 1266–1272 (2001).

Pangeni, G.

G. Pangeni, R. Lammer, R. P. Tornow, F. K. Horn, and J. Kremers, “On- and off-response ERGs elicited by sawtooth stimuli in normal subjects and glaucoma patients,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 124, 237–248 (2012).

J. Kremers and G. Pangeni, “Electroretinographic responses to photoreceptor specific sine wave modulation.,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A309–A316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. K. Horn, K. Gottschalk, C. Y. Mardin, G. Pangeni, A. G. Junemann, and J. Kremers, “On and off responses of the photopic fullfield ERG in normal subjects and glaucoma patients,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 122, 53–62 (2011).

B. D. Gomes, G. S. Souza, M. da Silva Filho, G. Pangeni, L. C. L. Silveira, and J. Kremers, “The spatial distribution of L- and M-cone driven ERGs reflecting parvo- and magnocellular activity,” in ARVO Abstracts (2013), E-abstract #6123.

Panorgias, A.

N. R. Parry, I. J. Murray, A. Panorgias, D. J. McKeefry, B. B. Lee, and J. Kremers, “Simultaneous chromatic and luminance human electroretinogram responses,” J. Physiol. 590, 3141–3154 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, N. R. Parry, A. Panorgias, and I. J. Murray, “The influence of retinal illuminance on L- and M-cone driven electroretinograms,” Vis. Neurosci. 28, 129–135 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Challa, D. McKeefry, N. R. A. Parry, J. Kremers, I. J. Murray, and A. Panorgias, “L- and M-cone input to 12  Hz and 30  Hz flicker ERGs across the human retina,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 30, 503–510 (2010).

Parry, N. R.

N. R. Parry, I. J. Murray, A. Panorgias, D. J. McKeefry, B. B. Lee, and J. Kremers, “Simultaneous chromatic and luminance human electroretinogram responses,” J. Physiol. 590, 3141–3154 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, N. R. Parry, A. Panorgias, and I. J. Murray, “The influence of retinal illuminance on L- and M-cone driven electroretinograms,” Vis. Neurosci. 28, 129–135 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Parry, N. R. A.

N. K. Challa, D. McKeefry, N. R. A. Parry, J. Kremers, I. J. Murray, and A. Panorgias, “L- and M-cone input to 12  Hz and 30  Hz flicker ERGs across the human retina,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 30, 503–510 (2010).

D. McKeefry, J. Kremers, D. Kommanapalli, N. K. Challa, I. J. Murray, J. McGuire, and N. R. A. Parry, “Incremental and decremental L- and M-cone driven ERG responses: I. square-wave stimulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A31, A159–A169 (2013).

Pokorny, J.

A. G. Shapiro, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Cone-rod receptor spaces with illustrations that use the CRT phosphor and light-emitting-diode spectra,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2319–2328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells and human observers to compound periodic waveforms,” Vis. Res. 33, 1997–2011 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Sawtooth contrast sensitivity: decrements have the edge,” Vis. Res. 29, 1501–1509 (1989).

M. Sawusch, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Clinical electroretinography for short wavelength Sssitive cones,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 966–974 (1987).

Purkiss, T. J.

T. J. Purkiss, A. Hughes, and P. J. De Marco, “Processing of scotopic increments and decrements,” Vis. Neurosci. 18, 119–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rangaswamy, N. V.

N. V. Rangaswamy, S. Shirato, M. Kaneko, B. I. Digby, J. G. Robson, and L. J. Frishman, “Effects of spectral characteristics of Ganzfeld stimuli on the photopic negative response (PhNR) of the ERG,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 4818–4828 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Robson, J. G.

N. V. Rangaswamy, S. Shirato, M. Kaneko, B. I. Digby, J. G. Robson, and L. J. Frishman, “Effects of spectral characteristics of Ganzfeld stimuli on the photopic negative response (PhNR) of the ERG,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 4818–4828 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Viswanathan, L. J. Frishman, and J. G. Robson, “The uniform field and pattern ERG in macaques with experimental glaucoma:removal of spiking activity,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 2797–2810 (2000).

Rodrigues, A. R.

A. R. Rodrigues, M. Da Silva Filho, L. C. Silveira, and J. Kremers, “Spatial distributions of on- and off-responses determined with the multifocal ERG,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 120, 145–158 (2010).

J. Kremers, A. R. Rodrigues, L. C. L. Silveira, and M. da Silva-Filho, “Flicker ERGs representing chromaticity and luminance signals,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 577–587 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roorda, A.

Rushton, W. A. H.

K. O. Donner and W. A. H. Rushton, “Retinal stimulation by light substitution,” J. Physiol. 149, 288–302 (1959).

Sahay, M.

J. A. Kuchenbecker, M. Sahay, D. M. Tait, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Topography of the long- to middle-wavelength sensitive cone ratio in the human retina assessed with a wide-field color multifocal electroretinogram,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 301–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saito, C. A.

J. Kremers, M. W. Stepien, H. P. N. Scholl, and C. A. Saito, “Cone selective adaptation influences L- and M-cone driven signals in electroretinography and psychophysics,” J. Vis. 3(2):3, 146–160 (2003).

Sawusch, M.

M. Sawusch, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Clinical electroretinography for short wavelength Sssitive cones,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 966–974 (1987).

Scholl, H. P. N.

J. Kremers, M. W. Stepien, H. P. N. Scholl, and C. A. Saito, “Cone selective adaptation influences L- and M-cone driven signals in electroretinography and psychophysics,” J. Vis. 3(2):3, 146–160 (2003).

J. Kremers, H. P. N. Scholl, H. Knau, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, T. Usui, and L. T. Sharpe, “L/M cone ratios in human trichromats assesed by psychophysics, electroretinograpy, and retinal densitometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 517–526 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, T. Usui, H. P. N. Scholl, and L. T. Sharpe, “Cone signal contributions to electroretinograms in dichromats and trichromats,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 920–930 (1999).

Shapiro, A. G.

Sharpe, L. T.

A. Stockman and L. T. Sharpe, “The spectral sensitivities of the middle- and long-wavelength-sensitive cones derived from measurements in observers of known genotype,” Vis. Res. 40, 1711–1737 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, H. P. N. Scholl, H. Knau, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, T. Usui, and L. T. Sharpe, “L/M cone ratios in human trichromats assesed by psychophysics, electroretinograpy, and retinal densitometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 517–526 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, T. Usui, H. P. N. Scholl, and L. T. Sharpe, “Cone signal contributions to electroretinograms in dichromats and trichromats,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 920–930 (1999).

T. Usui, J. Kremers, L. T. Sharpe, and E. Zrenner, “Flicker cone electroretinogram in dichromats and trichromats,” Vis. Res. 38, 3391–3396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shirato, S.

N. V. Rangaswamy, S. Shirato, M. Kaneko, B. I. Digby, J. G. Robson, and L. J. Frishman, “Effects of spectral characteristics of Ganzfeld stimuli on the photopic negative response (PhNR) of the ERG,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 4818–4828 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sieving, P. A.

P. A. Sieving, “Photopic on- and off-pathway abnormalities in retinal dystrophies,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 91, 701–773 (1993).

Silveira, L. C.

A. R. Rodrigues, M. Da Silva Filho, L. C. Silveira, and J. Kremers, “Spatial distributions of on- and off-responses determined with the multifocal ERG,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 120, 145–158 (2010).

Silveira, L. C. L.

J. Kremers, A. R. Rodrigues, L. C. L. Silveira, and M. da Silva-Filho, “Flicker ERGs representing chromaticity and luminance signals,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 577–587 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Gomes, G. S. Souza, M. da Silva Filho, G. Pangeni, L. C. L. Silveira, and J. Kremers, “The spatial distribution of L- and M-cone driven ERGs reflecting parvo- and magnocellular activity,” in ARVO Abstracts (2013), E-abstract #6123.

Smith, V. C.

A. G. Shapiro, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Cone-rod receptor spaces with illustrations that use the CRT phosphor and light-emitting-diode spectra,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2319–2328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells and human observers to compound periodic waveforms,” Vis. Res. 33, 1997–2011 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Bowen, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Sawtooth contrast sensitivity: decrements have the edge,” Vis. Res. 29, 1501–1509 (1989).

M. Sawusch, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Clinical electroretinography for short wavelength Sssitive cones,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 966–974 (1987).

Souza, G. S.

B. D. Gomes, G. S. Souza, M. da Silva Filho, G. Pangeni, L. C. L. Silveira, and J. Kremers, “The spatial distribution of L- and M-cone driven ERGs reflecting parvo- and magnocellular activity,” in ARVO Abstracts (2013), E-abstract #6123.

Spekreijse, H.

O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, “The “silent substitution” method in visual research,” Vis. Res. 22, 681–691 (1982).
[CrossRef]

O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, “A spectral compensation method for determining the flicker characteristics of the human colour mechanisms,” Vis. Res. 14, 823–830 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Stepien, M. W.

J. Kremers, M. W. Stepien, H. P. N. Scholl, and C. A. Saito, “Cone selective adaptation influences L- and M-cone driven signals in electroretinography and psychophysics,” J. Vis. 3(2):3, 146–160 (2003).

Stockman, A.

A. Stockman and L. T. Sharpe, “The spectral sensitivities of the middle- and long-wavelength-sensitive cones derived from measurements in observers of known genotype,” Vis. Res. 40, 1711–1737 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Stockman, D. I. A. MacLeod, and N. E. Johnson, “Spectral sensitivities of the human cones,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2491–2521 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tait, D. M.

J. A. Kuchenbecker, M. Sahay, D. M. Tait, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Topography of the long- to middle-wavelength sensitive cone ratio in the human retina assessed with a wide-field color multifocal electroretinogram,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 301–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tornow, R. P.

G. Pangeni, R. Lammer, R. P. Tornow, F. K. Horn, and J. Kremers, “On- and off-response ERGs elicited by sawtooth stimuli in normal subjects and glaucoma patients,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 124, 237–248 (2012).

Usui, T.

J. Kremers, H. P. N. Scholl, H. Knau, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, T. Usui, and L. T. Sharpe, “L/M cone ratios in human trichromats assesed by psychophysics, electroretinograpy, and retinal densitometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 517–526 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, T. Usui, H. P. N. Scholl, and L. T. Sharpe, “Cone signal contributions to electroretinograms in dichromats and trichromats,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 920–930 (1999).

T. Usui, J. Kremers, L. T. Sharpe, and E. Zrenner, “Flicker cone electroretinogram in dichromats and trichromats,” Vis. Res. 38, 3391–3396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Viswanathan, S.

S. Viswanathan, L. J. Frishman, and J. G. Robson, “The uniform field and pattern ERG in macaques with experimental glaucoma:removal of spiking activity,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 2797–2810 (2000).

Williams, D. R.

Yamauchi, Y.

Zrenner, E.

T. Usui, J. Kremers, L. T. Sharpe, and E. Zrenner, “Flicker cone electroretinogram in dichromats and trichromats,” Vis. Res. 38, 3391–3396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Doc. Ophthalmol. (3)

F. K. Horn, K. Gottschalk, C. Y. Mardin, G. Pangeni, A. G. Junemann, and J. Kremers, “On and off responses of the photopic fullfield ERG in normal subjects and glaucoma patients,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 122, 53–62 (2011).

G. Pangeni, R. Lammer, R. P. Tornow, F. K. Horn, and J. Kremers, “On- and off-response ERGs elicited by sawtooth stimuli in normal subjects and glaucoma patients,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 124, 237–248 (2012).

A. R. Rodrigues, M. Da Silva Filho, L. C. Silveira, and J. Kremers, “Spatial distributions of on- and off-responses determined with the multifocal ERG,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 120, 145–158 (2010).

Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci (1)

K. R. Alexander, G. A. Fishman, C. S. Barnes, and S. Grover, “ON-response deficit in the electroretinogram of the cone system in X-linked retinoschisis,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci, 42, 453–459 (2001).

Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (8)

S. Viswanathan, L. J. Frishman, and J. G. Robson, “The uniform field and pattern ERG in macaques with experimental glaucoma:removal of spiking activity,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, 2797–2810 (2000).

X. Luo and L. J. Frishman, “Retinal pathway origins of the pattern electroretinogram (PERG),” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, 8571–8584 (2011).

N. V. Rangaswamy, S. Shirato, M. Kaneko, B. I. Digby, J. G. Robson, and L. J. Frishman, “Effects of spectral characteristics of Ganzfeld stimuli on the photopic negative response (PhNR) of the ERG,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 4818–4828 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Alexander, C. S. Barnes, and G. A. Fishman, “ON-pathway dysfunction and timing properties of the flicker ERG in carriers of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4017–4025 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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N. Drasdo, Y. H. Aldebasi, Z. Chiti, K. E. Mortlock, J. E. Morgan, and R. V. North, “The S-cone PhNR and pattern ERG in primary open angle glaucoma,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 1266–1272 (2001).

J. Kremers, T. Usui, H. P. N. Scholl, and L. T. Sharpe, “Cone signal contributions to electroretinograms in dichromats and trichromats,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 920–930 (1999).

J. Kremers, A. R. Rodrigues, L. C. L. Silveira, and M. da Silva-Filho, “Flicker ERGs representing chromaticity and luminance signals,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 577–587 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosci. (1)

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic.,” J. Neurosci. 25, 9669–9679 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (7)

J. Physiol. (2)

N. R. Parry, I. J. Murray, A. Panorgias, D. J. McKeefry, B. B. Lee, and J. Kremers, “Simultaneous chromatic and luminance human electroretinogram responses,” J. Physiol. 590, 3141–3154 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Donner and W. A. H. Rushton, “Retinal stimulation by light substitution,” J. Physiol. 149, 288–302 (1959).

J. Vis. (2)

J. Kremers, M. W. Stepien, H. P. N. Scholl, and C. A. Saito, “Cone selective adaptation influences L- and M-cone driven signals in electroretinography and psychophysics,” J. Vis. 3(2):3, 146–160 (2003).

J. Kremers and B. Link, “Electroretinographic responses that may reflect activity of parvo- and magnocellular post-receptoral visual pathways,” J. Vis. 8(15):11, 1–14 (2008).

Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. (1)

N. K. Challa, D. McKeefry, N. R. A. Parry, J. Kremers, I. J. Murray, and A. Panorgias, “L- and M-cone input to 12  Hz and 30  Hz flicker ERGs across the human retina,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 30, 503–510 (2010).

Ophthalmology (1)

C. S. Barnes, K. R. Alexander, and G. A. Fishman, “A distinctive form of congenital stationary night blindness with cone ON-pathway dysfunction,” Ophthalmology 109, 575–583 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Retinal Eye Res. (1)

J. Kremers, “The assessment of L- and M-cone specific electroretinographical signals in the normal and abnormal retina,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 22, 579–605 (2003).

Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. (1)

P. A. Sieving, “Photopic on- and off-pathway abnormalities in retinal dystrophies,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 91, 701–773 (1993).

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T. J. Purkiss, A. Hughes, and P. J. De Marco, “Processing of scotopic increments and decrements,” Vis. Neurosci. 18, 119–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, N. R. Parry, A. Panorgias, and I. J. Murray, “The influence of retinal illuminance on L- and M-cone driven electroretinograms,” Vis. Neurosci. 28, 129–135 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Kuchenbecker, M. Sahay, D. M. Tait, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, “Topography of the long- to middle-wavelength sensitive cone ratio in the human retina assessed with a wide-field color multifocal electroretinogram,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 301–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Res. (6)

A. Stockman and L. T. Sharpe, “The spectral sensitivities of the middle- and long-wavelength-sensitive cones derived from measurements in observers of known genotype,” Vis. Res. 40, 1711–1737 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Usui, J. Kremers, L. T. Sharpe, and E. Zrenner, “Flicker cone electroretinogram in dichromats and trichromats,” Vis. Res. 38, 3391–3396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells and human observers to compound periodic waveforms,” Vis. Res. 33, 1997–2011 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Other (3)

D. McKeefry, J. Kremers, D. Kommanapalli, N. K. Challa, I. J. Murray, J. McGuire, and N. R. A. Parry, “Incremental and decremental L- and M-cone driven ERG responses: I. square-wave stimulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A31, A159–A169 (2013).

L. J. Frishman, “Origins of the electroretinogram,” in Principles and Practice of Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision, J. R. Heckenlively and G. B. Arden, eds. (MIT, 2006), pp. 139–183.

B. D. Gomes, G. S. Souza, M. da Silva Filho, G. Pangeni, L. C. L. Silveira, and J. Kremers, “The spatial distribution of L- and M-cone driven ERGs reflecting parvo- and magnocellular activity,” in ARVO Abstracts (2013), E-abstract #6123.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

ERG responses measured in three normal trichomats to 4 Hz L- and M-cone isolating stimuli (see sketch of the stimuli below the responses). The fourth row displays the mean response over all 18 subjects. In the left column the response to rapid-on L-cone isolating and to rapid-off M-cone isolating stimuli are shown. In the right column the response to rapid-off L-cone isolating and to rapid-on M-cone isolating stimuli are displayed.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Implicit time of ERG components using M-cone isolating stimuli plotted as a function of those measured in L-cone isolating stimuli. A, the implicit time of response components to opposite stimulus polarities (MD versus LI and MI versus LD) are plotted against each other. B, the implicit time using stimuli with the same polarity are plotted against each other.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Amplitude of the (A) early and (B) late response components using M-cone isolating stimuli plotted as a function of the amplitude of the equivalent components obtained with L-cone isolating stimuli.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Averaged ( ± SD ) amplitude (left column) and implicit time (right column) of the LN response components of the trichromats elicited by L-cone and M-cone isolating sawtooth stimuli plotted as a function of temporal frequency. The results for different stimulus cone contrasts are shown.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Response component amplitude measured in a normal trichromat (GP) given as function of stimulus cone contrast. The dash-dotted straight lines are the regression lines.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Full field ERG responses to L- and M-cone isolating sawtooth (rapid-on and rapid-off; 2, 4 and 8 Hz) stimuli in a protanopic (A) and a deuteranopic (B) observer.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Examples of full field ERGs recorded from two trichromatic observers with simultaneous modulation of the L- and M-cones either inphase (upper two rows; 2, 4 and 8 Hz, 21% cone contrast stimuli) or in counterphase (lower two rows; 2, 4 and 8 Hz, 9% cone contrast stimuli).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

ERG responses to L- and M-cone isolating sawtooth stimuli measured in a normal trichromat. The upper plot of each pair displays the responses to full field stimuli. The lower plots display the responses to stimuli of 70° diameter.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of Photoreceptor Contrasts in the Different Stimulus Conditions

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