Abstract

Foveal and peripheral hue-scaling data were obtained for a 1° foveal stimulus and a 3° stimulus presented at 10° retinal eccentricity under both bleach (reducing rod input) and no-bleach (permitting rod input) conditions. Uniform appearance diagrams (UADs) were generated from the data. Peripheral stimuli appeared more saturated than foveal stimuli (i.e., supersaturated), especially in the green–yellow region of the UADs. This effect was particularly pronounced for the peripheral bleach condition. The range of wavelengths perceived as green–yellow in the peripheral retina was expanded as compared to the fovea, while the range of wavelengths experienced as blue–green was compressed. This indicates that there are shifts in the unique hue loci with retinal location. While several factors can be ruled out as potential causes for these perceptual differences, the underlying mechanism of this supersaturation effect in the peripheral retina is unknown.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

2009 (2)

V. J. Volbrecht, C. L. Clark, J. L. Nerger, and C. E. Randell, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes measured at 10° eccentricity along the horizontal and vertical meridians,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1167–1177 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance: properties of the uniform appearance diagram derived from hue and saturation scaling,” Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 71, 632–643 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

A. B. Renner, H. Knau, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, and J. S. Werner, “Photopigment optical density of the human foveola and a paradoxical senescent increase outside the fovea,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 827–834 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Knight and S. L. Buck, “Time-dependent changes of rod influence on hue perception,” Vis. Res. 42, 1651–1662 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. L. Buck, R. F. Knight, and J. Bechtold, “Opponent-color models and the influence of rod signals on the loci of unique hues,” Vis. Res. 40, 3333–3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 37, 2813–2828 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision: effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vis. Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, and H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (3)

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Fuld, “The contribution of chromatic and achromatic valence to spectral saturation,” Vis. Res. 31, 237–246 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Curcio and K. A. Allen, “Topography of ganglion cells in human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 300, 5–25 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

V. Virsu, B. B. Lee, and O. D. Creutzfeldt, “Mesopic spectral responses and the Purkinje shift of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus cells,” Vis. Res. 27, 191–200 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

V. Virsu and B. B. Lee, “Light adaptation in cells of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus and its relation to human light adaptation,” J. Neurophysiol. 50, 864–878 (1983).

1977 (1)

1976 (3)

P. K. Kaiser, J. P. Comerford, and D. M. Bodinger, “Saturation of spectral lights,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 818–826 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Trezona, “Aspects of peripheral colour vision,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 52–70 (1976).

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to peripheral colour vision,” Vis. Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

B. A. Ambler, “Hue discrimination in peripheral vision under conditions of dark and light adaptation,” Percept. Psychophys. 15, 586–590 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

W. A. H. Rushton and D. S. Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vis. Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

M. Alpern, “Effect of a bright light flash on dark adaptation of human rods,” Nature 230, 394–396 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, “Fixation-light bias: an unwanted by-product of fixation control,” Vis. Res. 7, 805–809 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (2)

G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vis. Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
[CrossRef]

P. Gouras and K. Link, “Rod and cone interaction in dark-adapted monkey ganglion cells,” J. Physiol. 184, 499–510 (1966).

1964 (1)

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. E. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relation measured by color-naming method for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

J. M. Enoch and W. S. Stiles, “The colour change of monochromatic light with retinal angle of incidence,” Optom. Wkly. 8, 329–358 (1961).

1960 (1)

1959 (1)

J. D. Moreland and A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, “An opponent-process theory of color vision,” Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

1953 (1)

G. S. Brindley, “The effects on colour vision of adaptation to very bright lights,” J. Physiol. 122, 332–350 (1953).

1938 (1)

1937 (2)

W. S. Stiles, “The luminous efficiency of monochromatic rays entering the eye pupil at different points and a new colour effect,” Proc. R. Soc. B 123, 90–118 (1937).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, “The saturation discrimination of two trichromats,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 49, 329–331 (1937).
[CrossRef]

1935 (1)

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, “The colour-vision characteristics of two trichromats,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 47, 205–217 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Abramov, I.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance: properties of the uniform appearance diagram derived from hue and saturation scaling,” Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 71, 632–643 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov and J. Gordon, “Seeing unique hues,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2143–2153 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, and H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance across the retina: effects of a white surround,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 195–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Gordon and I. Abramov, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. II. Hue and saturation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 202–207 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Gordon and I. Abramov, “Color vision,” in Blackwell Handbook of Sensation and Perception, B. E. Goldstein, ed. (Blackwell, 2001), pp. 92–127.

Allen, K. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Curcio and K. A. Allen, “Topography of ganglion cells in human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 300, 5–25 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern, “Effect of a bright light flash on dark adaptation of human rods,” Nature 230, 394–396 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ambler, B. A.

B. A. Ambler, “Hue discrimination in peripheral vision under conditions of dark and light adaptation,” Percept. Psychophys. 15, 586–590 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ayde, C. J.

Bechtold, J.

S. L. Buck, R. F. Knight, and J. Bechtold, “Opponent-color models and the influence of rod signals on the loci of unique hues,” Vis. Res. 40, 3333–3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bodinger, D. M.

Bouman, M. A.

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. E. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relation measured by color-naming method for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Brickwedde, F. G.

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, “The effects on colour vision of adaptation to very bright lights,” J. Physiol. 122, 332–350 (1953).

Buck, S. L.

R. Knight and S. L. Buck, “Time-dependent changes of rod influence on hue perception,” Vis. Res. 42, 1651–1662 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, R. F. Knight, and J. Bechtold, “Opponent-color models and the influence of rod signals on the loci of unique hues,” Vis. Res. 40, 3333–3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burns, S. A.

Chan, H.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance: properties of the uniform appearance diagram derived from hue and saturation scaling,” Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 71, 632–643 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, and H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance across the retina: effects of a white surround,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 195–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Clark, C. L.

Comerford, J. P.

Creutzfeldt, O. D.

V. Virsu, B. B. Lee, and O. D. Creutzfeldt, “Mesopic spectral responses and the Purkinje shift of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus cells,” Vis. Res. 27, 191–200 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, A.

J. D. Moreland and A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Curcio and K. A. Allen, “Topography of ganglion cells in human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 300, 5–25 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Drum, B.

Elsner, A. E.

Enoch, J. M.

J. M. Enoch and W. S. Stiles, “The colour change of monochromatic light with retinal angle of incidence,” Optom. Wkly. 8, 329–358 (1961).

Fuld, K.

K. Fuld, “The contribution of chromatic and achromatic valence to spectral saturation,” Vis. Res. 31, 237–246 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance: properties of the uniform appearance diagram derived from hue and saturation scaling,” Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 71, 632–643 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov and J. Gordon, “Seeing unique hues,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2143–2153 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, and H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance across the retina: effects of a white surround,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 195–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Gordon and I. Abramov, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. II. Hue and saturation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 202–207 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Gordon and I. Abramov, “Color vision,” in Blackwell Handbook of Sensation and Perception, B. E. Goldstein, ed. (Blackwell, 2001), pp. 92–127.

Gouras, P.

P. Gouras and K. Link, “Rod and cone interaction in dark-adapted monkey ganglion cells,” J. Physiol. 184, 499–510 (1966).

P. Gouras, “Precortical physiology of colour vision,” in The Perception of Colour, P. Gouras, ed. (CRC Press, 1991), pp. 163–178.

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hurley, J. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hurvich, L. M.

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, “Fixation-light bias: an unwanted by-product of fixation control,” Vis. Res. 7, 805–809 (1967).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, “An opponent-process theory of color vision,” Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957).
[CrossRef]

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, “Some quantitative aspects of an opponent-colors theory. I. Chromatic responses and spectral saturation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 546–552 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Jameson, D.

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, “Fixation-light bias: an unwanted by-product of fixation control,” Vis. Res. 7, 805–809 (1967).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, “An opponent-process theory of color vision,” Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957).
[CrossRef]

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, “Some quantitative aspects of an opponent-colors theory. I. Chromatic responses and spectral saturation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 546–552 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, P. K.

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Klock, I. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Knau, H.

A. B. Renner, H. Knau, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, and J. S. Werner, “Photopigment optical density of the human foveola and a paradoxical senescent increase outside the fovea,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 827–834 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knight, R.

R. Knight and S. L. Buck, “Time-dependent changes of rod influence on hue perception,” Vis. Res. 42, 1651–1662 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Knight, R. F.

S. L. Buck, R. F. Knight, and J. Bechtold, “Opponent-color models and the influence of rod signals on the loci of unique hues,” Vis. Res. 40, 3333–3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kremers, J.

B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 37, 2813–2828 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. B.

B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 37, 2813–2828 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Virsu, B. B. Lee, and O. D. Creutzfeldt, “Mesopic spectral responses and the Purkinje shift of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus cells,” Vis. Res. 27, 191–200 (1987).
[CrossRef]

V. Virsu and B. B. Lee, “Light adaptation in cells of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus and its relation to human light adaptation,” J. Neurophysiol. 50, 864–878 (1983).

Lerea, C. L.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Link, K.

P. Gouras and K. Link, “Rod and cone interaction in dark-adapted monkey ganglion cells,” J. Physiol. 184, 499–510 (1966).

Martin, L. C.

L. C. Martin, F. L. Warburton, and W. J. Morgan, “Determination of the sensitiveness of the eye to differences in the saturation of colours,” Report No.  (His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1933).

McKeefry, D. J.

Milam, A. H.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Moreland, J. D.

J. D. Moreland and A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, W. J.

L. C. Martin, F. L. Warburton, and W. J. Morgan, “Determination of the sensitiveness of the eye to differences in the saturation of colours,” Report No.  (His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1933).

Murray, I. J.

Neitz, J.

A. B. Renner, H. Knau, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, and J. S. Werner, “Photopigment optical density of the human foveola and a paradoxical senescent increase outside the fovea,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 827–834 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neitz, M.

A. B. Renner, H. Knau, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, and J. S. Werner, “Photopigment optical density of the human foveola and a paradoxical senescent increase outside the fovea,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 827–834 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nerger, J. L.

Neun, M. E.

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. E. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relation measured by color-naming method for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Parry, N. R. A.

Pitt, F. H. G.

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, “The saturation discrimination of two trichromats,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 49, 329–331 (1937).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, “The colour-vision characteristics of two trichromats,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 47, 205–217 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Pitts, M. A.

Pokorny, J.

B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 37, 2813–2828 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Powell, D. S.

W. A. H. Rushton and D. S. Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vis. Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Priest, I. G.

Randell, C. E.

Renner, A. B.

A. B. Renner, H. Knau, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, and J. S. Werner, “Photopigment optical density of the human foveola and a paradoxical senescent increase outside the fovea,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 827–834 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rushton, W. A. H.

W. A. H. Rushton and D. S. Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vis. Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, W.

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. E. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relation measured by color-naming method for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Schnapf, J. L.

D. M. Schneeweis and J. L. Schnapf, “Photovoltage of rods and cones in the macaque retina,” Science 268, 1053–1056 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schneeweis, D. M.

D. M. Schneeweis and J. L. Schnapf, “Photovoltage of rods and cones in the macaque retina,” Science 268, 1053–1056 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Smith, V. C.

B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 37, 2813–2828 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stabell, B.

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Rod-cone color mixture: effect of size and exposure time,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2638–2642 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision: effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vis. Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to peripheral colour vision,” Vis. Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Stabell, U.

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Rod-cone color mixture: effect of size and exposure time,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2638–2642 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision: effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vis. Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to peripheral colour vision,” Vis. Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Stiles, W. S.

J. M. Enoch and W. S. Stiles, “The colour change of monochromatic light with retinal angle of incidence,” Optom. Wkly. 8, 329–358 (1961).

W. S. Stiles, “The luminous efficiency of monochromatic rays entering the eye pupil at different points and a new colour effect,” Proc. R. Soc. B 123, 90–118 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Trezona, P. W.

P. W. Trezona, “Aspects of peripheral colour vision,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 52–70 (1976).

Troup, L. J.

Virsu, V.

V. Virsu, B. B. Lee, and O. D. Creutzfeldt, “Mesopic spectral responses and the Purkinje shift of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus cells,” Vis. Res. 27, 191–200 (1987).
[CrossRef]

V. Virsu and B. B. Lee, “Light adaptation in cells of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus and its relation to human light adaptation,” J. Neurophysiol. 50, 864–878 (1983).

Volbrecht, V. J.

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos, “Literature review of human macular absorption in the visible and its consequences for the cone receptor primaries,” Report No.  (Institute for Perception RVO-TNO, 1972).

Walraven, P. L.

Warburton, F. L.

L. C. Martin, F. L. Warburton, and W. J. Morgan, “Determination of the sensitiveness of the eye to differences in the saturation of colours,” Report No.  (His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1933).

Webb, R. H.

Werner, J. S.

A. B. Renner, H. Knau, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, and J. S. Werner, “Photopigment optical density of the human foveola and a paradoxical senescent increase outside the fovea,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 827–834 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vis. Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, “The saturation discrimination of two trichromats,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 49, 329–331 (1937).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, “The colour-vision characteristics of two trichromats,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 47, 205–217 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Atten. Percept. Psychophys. (1)

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance: properties of the uniform appearance diagram derived from hue and saturation scaling,” Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 71, 632–643 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Comp. Neurol. (3)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Curcio and K. A. Allen, “Topography of ganglion cells in human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 300, 5–25 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

V. Virsu and B. B. Lee, “Light adaptation in cells of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus and its relation to human light adaptation,” J. Neurophysiol. 50, 864–878 (1983).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (12)

L. J. Troup, M. A. Pitts, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Effect of stimulus intensity on the sizes of chromatic perceptive fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2137–2142 (2005).
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I. Abramov and J. Gordon, “Seeing unique hues,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2143–2153 (2005).
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N. R. A. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and I. J. Murray, “Variant and invariant color perception in the near peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1586–1597 (2006).
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D. J. McKeefry, I. J. Murray, and N. R. A. Parry, “Perceived shifts in saturation and hue of chromatic stimuli in the near peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3168–3179 (2007).
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V. J. Volbrecht, C. L. Clark, J. L. Nerger, and C. E. Randell, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes measured at 10° eccentricity along the horizontal and vertical meridians,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1167–1177 (2009).
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V. J. Volbrecht and J. L. Nerger, “Color appearance at ±10° along the vertical and horizontal meridians,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A44–A51 (2012).
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U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Rod-cone color mixture: effect of size and exposure time,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2638–2642 (1999).
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B. Drum, “Hue signals from short- and middle-wavelength-sensitive cones,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 153–157 (1989).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
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I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance across the retina: effects of a white surround,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 195–202 (1992).
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A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, and R. H. Webb, “Mapping cone photopigment optical density,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 52–58 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Nerger, V. J. Volbrecht, and C. J. Ayde, “Unique hue judgments as a function of test size in the fovea and at 20-deg temporal eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1225–1232 (1995).
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J. Physiol. (2)

G. S. Brindley, “The effects on colour vision of adaptation to very bright lights,” J. Physiol. 122, 332–350 (1953).

P. Gouras and K. Link, “Rod and cone interaction in dark-adapted monkey ganglion cells,” J. Physiol. 184, 499–510 (1966).

Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. (1)

P. W. Trezona, “Aspects of peripheral colour vision,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 52–70 (1976).

Nature (1)

M. Alpern, “Effect of a bright light flash on dark adaptation of human rods,” Nature 230, 394–396 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

J. D. Moreland and A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Optom. Wkly. (1)

J. M. Enoch and W. S. Stiles, “The colour change of monochromatic light with retinal angle of incidence,” Optom. Wkly. 8, 329–358 (1961).

Percept. Psychophys. (2)

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, and H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Ambler, “Hue discrimination in peripheral vision under conditions of dark and light adaptation,” Percept. Psychophys. 15, 586–590 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Phys. Soc. (2)

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, “The saturation discrimination of two trichromats,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 49, 329–331 (1937).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, “The colour-vision characteristics of two trichromats,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 47, 205–217 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. B (1)

W. S. Stiles, “The luminous efficiency of monochromatic rays entering the eye pupil at different points and a new colour effect,” Proc. R. Soc. B 123, 90–118 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Psychol. Rev. (1)

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, “An opponent-process theory of color vision,” Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. E. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relation measured by color-naming method for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Schneeweis and J. L. Schnapf, “Photovoltage of rods and cones in the macaque retina,” Science 268, 1053–1056 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Neurosci. (1)

A. B. Renner, H. Knau, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, and J. S. Werner, “Photopigment optical density of the human foveola and a paradoxical senescent increase outside the fovea,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 827–834 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Res. (10)

R. Knight and S. L. Buck, “Time-dependent changes of rod influence on hue perception,” Vis. Res. 42, 1651–1662 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Virsu, B. B. Lee, and O. D. Creutzfeldt, “Mesopic spectral responses and the Purkinje shift of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus cells,” Vis. Res. 27, 191–200 (1987).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 37, 2813–2828 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to peripheral colour vision,” Vis. Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
[CrossRef]

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision: effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vis. Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, R. F. Knight, and J. Bechtold, “Opponent-color models and the influence of rod signals on the loci of unique hues,” Vis. Res. 40, 3333–3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Fuld, “The contribution of chromatic and achromatic valence to spectral saturation,” Vis. Res. 31, 237–246 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. A. H. Rushton and D. S. Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vis. Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).
[CrossRef]

G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vis. Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
[CrossRef]

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, “Fixation-light bias: an unwanted by-product of fixation control,” Vis. Res. 7, 805–809 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J. Gordon and I. Abramov, “Color vision,” in Blackwell Handbook of Sensation and Perception, B. E. Goldstein, ed. (Blackwell, 2001), pp. 92–127.

J. J. Vos, “Literature review of human macular absorption in the visible and its consequences for the cone receptor primaries,” Report No.  (Institute for Perception RVO-TNO, 1972).

L. C. Martin, F. L. Warburton, and W. J. Morgan, “Determination of the sensitiveness of the eye to differences in the saturation of colours,” Report No.  (His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1933).

P. Gouras, “Precortical physiology of colour vision,” in The Perception of Colour, P. Gouras, ed. (CRC Press, 1991), pp. 163–178.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The left panel presents a traditional saturation function with data from the fovea (open circles) and the temporal-bleach condition (filled circles) for one observer. Error bars are ±1 standard deviation. The right panel presents data from the same observer and retinal locations in a UAD.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Comparison of UADs from the peripheral bleach (dashed line), peripheral no-bleach (dotted line), and foveal (solid line) conditions for observer JN.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Same as Fig. 2, except for observer VV.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Same as Fig. 2, except for observer CA.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of unique blue (top row), unique green (middle row), and unique yellow (bottom row) loci from the bleach (left column) and no-bleach (right column) conditions for the different retinal locations (F, fovea; T, temporal; N, nasal; S, superior; I, inferior) and different observers (JN, squares; VV, diamonds; and CA, circles).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Top row: comparison of UADs from the foveal no-bleach condition (solid line) to the foveal bleach condition (dashed line) for observers CA (left panel) and VV (right panel). Bottom row: comparison of UADs from the foveal bleach condition to the peripheral bleach (left panel) and no-bleach (right panel) conditions for observer VV.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Top row: comparison of foveal UADs from the 1° no-bleach (dashed line) condition and the two 2° conditions (condition 1, solid line; condition 2, dotted line) for observers CA (left panel) and VV (right panel). Bottom row: comparison of UADs from Condition 1 with the 2° foveal stimulus (see text) to the peripheral bleach (left panel) and no-bleach (right panel) conditions for observer VV.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The change in a peripheral wavelength at 10° nasal retinal eccentricity required to match a foveal wavelength is plotted as a function of foveal wavelength for observers VV (left panel) and JN (right panel). Open squares (circles) denote values derived from the bleach (no-bleach) condition in the hue-scaling study. These values are compared to data (solid diamonds and X’s) from two SCII studies (see text).

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