Abstract

Spectral sensitivity varies markedly across the center of gaze, in part because of the rapid decline in the density of macular pigment outside the fovea. Yet despite these retinal inhomogeneities, the color appearance of large uniform fields remains very uniform. We explored some of the processes contributing to these stable color percepts by measuring the effects of field size and eccentricity on saturated purples, whose spectra should show the largest biases with macular pigment screening. Small purple fields at 0° and 8° eccentricities differ in appearance but by much less than predicted by the macular screening or by compensation for the average effects of this screening at the two loci. This shows that the compensation is already nearly complete because of local adjustments that filter out the sensitivity variation and confirms that this filtering includes adjustments beyond average gain changes in the cones. In large fields, the appearance is dominated by the local peripheral color. This bias persists when the field edge is fixated or when abrupt edges are removed in Gaussian spots, suggesting that the spreading is not strongly dependent on luminance edges.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. M. Snodderly, J. D. Auran, and F. C. Delori, “The macular pigment. II. Spatial distribution in primate retinas,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 674–685 (1984).
  2. B. R. Wooten and B. R. Hammond, “Spectral absorbance and spatial distribution of macular pigment using heterochromatic flicker photometry,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 82, 378–386 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. S. Werner and L. Spillmann, “UV-absorbing intraocular lenses: safety, efficacy, and consequences for the cataract patient,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 227, 248–256 (1989).
  4. R. A. Bone and J. M. Sparrock, “Comparison of macular pigment densities in human eyes,” Vis. Res. 11, 1057–1064 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Magnussen, L. Spillmann, F. Sturzel, and J. S. Werner, “Unveiling the foveal blue scotoma through an afterimage,” Vis. Res. 44, 377–383 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. A. Spencer, “An investigation of Maxwell’s spot,” Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 24, 103–147 (1967).
  7. M. B. Fairbairn, “Physical models of Haidinger’s brush,” J. R. Astron. Soc. Can. 95, 248–251 (2001).
  8. A. Stockman, D. I. MacLeod, and N. E. Johnson, “Spectral sensitivities of the human cones,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2491–2521 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Beer, J. Wortman, G. Horwitz, and D. MacLeod, “Compensation of white for macular filtering [Abstract],” J. Vis. 5(8), 282 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. A. Webster and D. Leonard, “Adaptation and perceptual norms in color vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 2817–2825 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. A. Webster, K. Halen, A. J. Meyers, P. Winkler, and J. S. Werner, “Colour appearance and compensation in the near periphery,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 277, 1817–1825 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. H. Foster, “Color constancy,” Vis. Res. 51, 674–700 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. E. Smithson, “Sensory, computational and cognitive components of human colour constancy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 360, 1329–1346 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Bompas, G. Powell, and P. Sumner, “Systematic biases in adult color perception persist despite lifelong information sufficient to calibrate them,” J. Vis. 13(1), 19 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Hibino, “Red–green and yellow–blue opponent-color responses as a function of retinal eccentricity,” Vis. Res. 32, 1955–1964 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. M. Stringham and B. R. Hammond, “Compensation for light loss due to filtering by macular pigment: relation to hue cancellation,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 27, 232–237 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. M. Stringham, B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, “Compensation for light loss resulting from filtering by macular pigment: relation to the S-cone pathway,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 83, 887–894 (2006).
  18. A. Valberg and T. Seim, “Chromatic induction: responses of neurophysiological double opponent units?” Biol. Cybern. 46, 149–158 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. R. Conway and M. S. Livingstone, “Spatial and temporal properties of cone signals in alert macaque primary visual cortex,” J. Neurosci. 26, 10826–10846 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. V. A. Billock, “The relationship between simple and double opponent cells,” Vis. Res. 31, 33–42 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  21. N. W. Daw, “Color-coded cells in goldfish, cat, and Rhesus monkey,” Investig. Ophthalmol. 11, 411–417 (1972).
  22. R. Shapley and M. J. Hawken, “Color in the cortex: single- and double-opponent cells,” Vis. Res. 51, 701–717 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. K. O’Regan and A. Noe, “A sensorimotor account of vision and visual consciousness,” Behav. Brain Sci. 24, 939–1031 (2001).
  24. S. F. O’Neil, K. C. McDermott, Y. Mizokami, J. S. Werner, M. A. Crognale, and M. A. Webster, “Tests of a functional account of the Abney effect,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A165–A173 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity coordinates of unique and other constant hues,” Vis. Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  26. W. Kurtenbach, C. E. Sternheim, and L. Spillmann, “Change in hue of spectral colors by dilution with white light (Abney effect),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 365–372 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Y. Mizokami, J. S. Werner, M. A. Crognale, and M. A. Webster, “Nonlinearities in color coding: compensating color appearance for the eye’s spectral sensitivity,” J. Vision 6(9):12, 999–107 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  28. L. Spillmann, “Fading, filling-in, and the perception of uniform surfaces,” Chin. J. Psychol. 53, 399–411 (2011).
  29. M. A. Paradiso, S. Blau, X. Huang, S. P. MacEvoy, A. F. Rossi, and G. Shalev, “Lightness, filling-in, and the fundamental role of context in visual perception,” Prog. Brain Res. 155, 109–123 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  30. L. Spillmann, T. Otte, K. Hamburger, and S. Magnussen, “Perceptual filling-in from the edge of the blind spot,” Vis. Res. 46, 4252–4257 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  31. V. S. Ramachandran, “Filling in the blind spot,” Nature 356, 115 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  32. R. L. De Valois, M. A. Webster, K. K. De Valois, and B. Lingelbach, “Temporal properties of brightness and color induction,” Vis. Res. 26, 887–897 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  33. B. Blakeslee and M. E. McCourt, “Spatiotemporal analysis of brightness induction,” Vis. Res. 51, 1872–1879 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  34. A. F. Rossi and M. A. Paradiso, “Temporal limits of brightness induction and mechanisms of brightness perception,” Vis. Res. 36, 1391–1398 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  35. B. Pinna, J. S. Werner, and L. Spillmann, “The watercolor effect: a new principle of grouping and figure-ground organization,” Vis. Res. 43, 43–52 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  36. V. A. Billock, G. A. Gleason, and B. H. Tsou, “Perception of forbidden colors in retinally stabilized equiluminant images: an indication of softwired cortical color opponency?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2398–2403 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  37. K. Hamburger, H. Prior, V. Sarris, and L. Spillmann, “Filling-in with colour: different modes of surface completion,” Vis. Res. 46, 1129–1138 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  38. T. Wachtler and C. Wehrhahn, “The Craik–O’Brien–Cornsweet illusion in colour: quantitative characterisation and comparison with luminance,” Perception 26, 1423–1430 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  39. J. Broerse, T. Vladusich, and R. P. O’Shea, “Colour at edges and colour spreading in McCollough effects,” Vis. Res. 39, 1305–1320 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  40. P. Bressan, E. Mingolla, L. Spillmann, and T. Watanabe, “Neon color spreading: a review,” Perception 26, 1353–1366 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  41. F. Devinck, P. B. Delahunt, J. L. Hardy, L. Spillmann, and J. S. Werner, “The watercolor effect: quantitative evidence for luminance-dependent mechanisms of long-range color assimilation,” Vis. Res. 45, 1413–1424 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  42. D. R. Williams, D. I. MacLeod, and M. M. Hayhoe, “Foveal tritanopia,” Vis. Res. 21, 1341–1356 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  43. S. Magnussen, L. Spillmann, F. Sturzel, and J. S. Werner, “Filling-in of the foveal blue scotoma,” Vis. Res. 41, 2961–2967 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  44. I. Abramov and J. Gordon, “Color appearance: on seeing red—or yellow, or green, or blue,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 45, 451–485 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  45. B. Balas and P. Sinha, “‘Filling-in’ colour in natural scenes,” Vis. Cogn. 15, 765–778 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  46. D. I. MacLeod and R. M. Boynton, “Chromaticity diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1183–1186 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  47. M. A. Webster, E. Miyahara, G. Malkoc, and V. E. Raker, “Variations in normal color vision. II. unique hues,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1545–1555 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  48. G. Malkoc, P. Kay, and M. A. Webster, “Variations in normal color vision. IV. binary hues and hue scaling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2154–2168 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  49. V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500  nm,” Vis. Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  50. B. R. Wooten, B. R. Hammond, R. I. Land, and D. M. Snodderly, “A practical method for measuring macular pigment optical density,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 2481–2489 (1999).
  51. J. Krauskopf, “Heterochromatic stabilized images: a classroom demonstration,” Am. J. Psychol. 80, 634–637 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  52. K. T. Mullen and F. A. Kingdom, “Losses in peripheral colour sensitivity predicted from ‘hit and miss’ post-receptoral cone connections,” Vis. Res. 36, 1995–2000 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  53. K. T. Mullen and F. A. Kingdom, “Differential distributions of red–green and blue–yellow cone opponency across the visual field,” Vis. Neurosci. 19, 109–118 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  54. D. J. McKeefry, I. J. Murray, and N. R. Parry, “Perceived shifts in saturation and hue of chromatic stimuli in the near peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3168–3179 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  55. I. J. Murray, N. R. Parry, and D. J. McKeefry, “Cone opponency in the near peripheral retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 503–507 (2006).
  56. N. R. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and I. J. Murray, “Variant and invariant color perception in the near peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1586–1597 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  57. J. L. Nerger, V. J. Volbrecht, and C. J. Ayde, “Unique hue judgments as a function of test size in the fovea and at 20-deg temporal eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1225–1232 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  58. J. D. Moreland, “Peripheral color vision,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, J. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer, 1972), pp. 517–536.
  59. I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  60. V. J. Volbrecht, E. E. Shrago, B. E. Schefrin, and J. S. Werner, “Spatial summation in human cone mechanisms from 0 degrees to 20 degrees in the superior retina,” J. Opt. Soc Am. A 17, 641–650 (2000).
  61. A. Bompas and J. K. O’Regan, “Evidence for a role of action in colour perception,” Perception 35, 65–78 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  62. B. E. Schefrin and J. S. Werner, “Loci of spectral unique hues throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 305–311 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  63. R. van Lier, M. Vergeer, and S. Anstis, “Filling-in afterimage colors between the lines,” Curr. Biol. 19, R323–R324 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2013

A. Bompas, G. Powell, and P. Sumner, “Systematic biases in adult color perception persist despite lifelong information sufficient to calibrate them,” J. Vis. 13(1), 19 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

R. Shapley and M. J. Hawken, “Color in the cortex: single- and double-opponent cells,” Vis. Res. 51, 701–717 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Foster, “Color constancy,” Vis. Res. 51, 674–700 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Spillmann, “Fading, filling-in, and the perception of uniform surfaces,” Chin. J. Psychol. 53, 399–411 (2011).

B. Blakeslee and M. E. McCourt, “Spatiotemporal analysis of brightness induction,” Vis. Res. 51, 1872–1879 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

M. A. Webster, K. Halen, A. J. Meyers, P. Winkler, and J. S. Werner, “Colour appearance and compensation in the near periphery,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 277, 1817–1825 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

R. van Lier, M. Vergeer, and S. Anstis, “Filling-in afterimage colors between the lines,” Curr. Biol. 19, R323–R324 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

D. J. McKeefry, I. J. Murray, and N. R. Parry, “Perceived shifts in saturation and hue of chromatic stimuli in the near peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3168–3179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Balas and P. Sinha, “‘Filling-in’ colour in natural scenes,” Vis. Cogn. 15, 765–778 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Stringham and B. R. Hammond, “Compensation for light loss due to filtering by macular pigment: relation to hue cancellation,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 27, 232–237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. M. Stringham, B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, “Compensation for light loss resulting from filtering by macular pigment: relation to the S-cone pathway,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 83, 887–894 (2006).

B. R. Conway and M. S. Livingstone, “Spatial and temporal properties of cone signals in alert macaque primary visual cortex,” J. Neurosci. 26, 10826–10846 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mizokami, J. S. Werner, M. A. Crognale, and M. A. Webster, “Nonlinearities in color coding: compensating color appearance for the eye’s spectral sensitivity,” J. Vision 6(9):12, 999–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Paradiso, S. Blau, X. Huang, S. P. MacEvoy, A. F. Rossi, and G. Shalev, “Lightness, filling-in, and the fundamental role of context in visual perception,” Prog. Brain Res. 155, 109–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Spillmann, T. Otte, K. Hamburger, and S. Magnussen, “Perceptual filling-in from the edge of the blind spot,” Vis. Res. 46, 4252–4257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Hamburger, H. Prior, V. Sarris, and L. Spillmann, “Filling-in with colour: different modes of surface completion,” Vis. Res. 46, 1129–1138 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Murray, N. R. Parry, and D. J. McKeefry, “Cone opponency in the near peripheral retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 503–507 (2006).

A. Bompas and J. K. O’Regan, “Evidence for a role of action in colour perception,” Perception 35, 65–78 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and I. J. Murray, “Variant and invariant color perception in the near peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1586–1597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

G. Malkoc, P. Kay, and M. A. Webster, “Variations in normal color vision. IV. binary hues and hue scaling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2154–2168 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Beer, J. Wortman, G. Horwitz, and D. MacLeod, “Compensation of white for macular filtering [Abstract],” J. Vis. 5(8), 282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Devinck, P. B. Delahunt, J. L. Hardy, L. Spillmann, and J. S. Werner, “The watercolor effect: quantitative evidence for luminance-dependent mechanisms of long-range color assimilation,” Vis. Res. 45, 1413–1424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Smithson, “Sensory, computational and cognitive components of human colour constancy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 360, 1329–1346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Wooten and B. R. Hammond, “Spectral absorbance and spatial distribution of macular pigment using heterochromatic flicker photometry,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 82, 378–386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Magnussen, L. Spillmann, F. Sturzel, and J. S. Werner, “Unveiling the foveal blue scotoma through an afterimage,” Vis. Res. 44, 377–383 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

B. Pinna, J. S. Werner, and L. Spillmann, “The watercolor effect: a new principle of grouping and figure-ground organization,” Vis. Res. 43, 43–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. T. Mullen and F. A. Kingdom, “Differential distributions of red–green and blue–yellow cone opponency across the visual field,” Vis. Neurosci. 19, 109–118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

V. A. Billock, G. A. Gleason, and B. H. Tsou, “Perception of forbidden colors in retinally stabilized equiluminant images: an indication of softwired cortical color opponency?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2398–2403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Fairbairn, “Physical models of Haidinger’s brush,” J. R. Astron. Soc. Can. 95, 248–251 (2001).

J. K. O’Regan and A. Noe, “A sensorimotor account of vision and visual consciousness,” Behav. Brain Sci. 24, 939–1031 (2001).

S. Magnussen, L. Spillmann, F. Sturzel, and J. S. Werner, “Filling-in of the foveal blue scotoma,” Vis. Res. 41, 2961–2967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. A. Webster, E. Miyahara, G. Malkoc, and V. E. Raker, “Variations in normal color vision. II. unique hues,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1545–1555 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Volbrecht, E. E. Shrago, B. E. Schefrin, and J. S. Werner, “Spatial summation in human cone mechanisms from 0 degrees to 20 degrees in the superior retina,” J. Opt. Soc Am. A 17, 641–650 (2000).

1999

B. R. Wooten, B. R. Hammond, R. I. Land, and D. M. Snodderly, “A practical method for measuring macular pigment optical density,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 2481–2489 (1999).

J. Broerse, T. Vladusich, and R. P. O’Shea, “Colour at edges and colour spreading in McCollough effects,” Vis. Res. 39, 1305–1320 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. Bressan, E. Mingolla, L. Spillmann, and T. Watanabe, “Neon color spreading: a review,” Perception 26, 1353–1366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Wachtler and C. Wehrhahn, “The Craik–O’Brien–Cornsweet illusion in colour: quantitative characterisation and comparison with luminance,” Perception 26, 1423–1430 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. F. Rossi and M. A. Paradiso, “Temporal limits of brightness induction and mechanisms of brightness perception,” Vis. Res. 36, 1391–1398 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Mullen and F. A. Kingdom, “Losses in peripheral colour sensitivity predicted from ‘hit and miss’ post-receptoral cone connections,” Vis. Res. 36, 1995–2000 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

I. Abramov and J. Gordon, “Color appearance: on seeing red—or yellow, or green, or blue,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 45, 451–485 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

V. S. Ramachandran, “Filling in the blind spot,” Nature 356, 115 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Hibino, “Red–green and yellow–blue opponent-color responses as a function of retinal eccentricity,” Vis. Res. 32, 1955–1964 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

1990

1989

J. S. Werner and L. Spillmann, “UV-absorbing intraocular lenses: safety, efficacy, and consequences for the cataract patient,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 227, 248–256 (1989).

1986

R. L. De Valois, M. A. Webster, K. K. De Valois, and B. Lingelbach, “Temporal properties of brightness and color induction,” Vis. Res. 26, 887–897 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

D. M. Snodderly, J. D. Auran, and F. C. Delori, “The macular pigment. II. Spatial distribution in primate retinas,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 674–685 (1984).

W. Kurtenbach, C. E. Sternheim, and L. Spillmann, “Change in hue of spectral colors by dilution with white light (Abney effect),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 365–372 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity coordinates of unique and other constant hues,” Vis. Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

A. Valberg and T. Seim, “Chromatic induction: responses of neurophysiological double opponent units?” Biol. Cybern. 46, 149–158 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981

D. R. Williams, D. I. MacLeod, and M. M. Hayhoe, “Foveal tritanopia,” Vis. Res. 21, 1341–1356 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979

1975

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500  nm,” Vis. Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972

N. W. Daw, “Color-coded cells in goldfish, cat, and Rhesus monkey,” Investig. Ophthalmol. 11, 411–417 (1972).

1971

R. A. Bone and J. M. Sparrock, “Comparison of macular pigment densities in human eyes,” Vis. Res. 11, 1057–1064 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1967

J. A. Spencer, “An investigation of Maxwell’s spot,” Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 24, 103–147 (1967).

J. Krauskopf, “Heterochromatic stabilized images: a classroom demonstration,” Am. J. Psychol. 80, 634–637 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Abramov, I.

I. Abramov and J. Gordon, “Color appearance: on seeing red—or yellow, or green, or blue,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 45, 451–485 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Anstis, S.

R. van Lier, M. Vergeer, and S. Anstis, “Filling-in afterimage colors between the lines,” Curr. Biol. 19, R323–R324 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Auran, J. D.

D. M. Snodderly, J. D. Auran, and F. C. Delori, “The macular pigment. II. Spatial distribution in primate retinas,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 674–685 (1984).

Ayde, C. J.

Balas, B.

B. Balas and P. Sinha, “‘Filling-in’ colour in natural scenes,” Vis. Cogn. 15, 765–778 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beer, D.

D. Beer, J. Wortman, G. Horwitz, and D. MacLeod, “Compensation of white for macular filtering [Abstract],” J. Vis. 5(8), 282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Billock, V. A.

Blakeslee, B.

B. Blakeslee and M. E. McCourt, “Spatiotemporal analysis of brightness induction,” Vis. Res. 51, 1872–1879 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Blau, S.

M. A. Paradiso, S. Blau, X. Huang, S. P. MacEvoy, A. F. Rossi, and G. Shalev, “Lightness, filling-in, and the fundamental role of context in visual perception,” Prog. Brain Res. 155, 109–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bompas, A.

A. Bompas, G. Powell, and P. Sumner, “Systematic biases in adult color perception persist despite lifelong information sufficient to calibrate them,” J. Vis. 13(1), 19 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Bompas and J. K. O’Regan, “Evidence for a role of action in colour perception,” Perception 35, 65–78 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bone, R. A.

R. A. Bone and J. M. Sparrock, “Comparison of macular pigment densities in human eyes,” Vis. Res. 11, 1057–1064 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Boynton, R. M.

Bressan, P.

P. Bressan, E. Mingolla, L. Spillmann, and T. Watanabe, “Neon color spreading: a review,” Perception 26, 1353–1366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Broerse, J.

J. Broerse, T. Vladusich, and R. P. O’Shea, “Colour at edges and colour spreading in McCollough effects,” Vis. Res. 39, 1305–1320 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burns, S. A.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity coordinates of unique and other constant hues,” Vis. Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H.

Conway, B. R.

B. R. Conway and M. S. Livingstone, “Spatial and temporal properties of cone signals in alert macaque primary visual cortex,” J. Neurosci. 26, 10826–10846 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Crognale, M. A.

S. F. O’Neil, K. C. McDermott, Y. Mizokami, J. S. Werner, M. A. Crognale, and M. A. Webster, “Tests of a functional account of the Abney effect,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A165–A173 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mizokami, J. S. Werner, M. A. Crognale, and M. A. Webster, “Nonlinearities in color coding: compensating color appearance for the eye’s spectral sensitivity,” J. Vision 6(9):12, 999–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Daw, N. W.

N. W. Daw, “Color-coded cells in goldfish, cat, and Rhesus monkey,” Investig. Ophthalmol. 11, 411–417 (1972).

De Valois, K. K.

R. L. De Valois, M. A. Webster, K. K. De Valois, and B. Lingelbach, “Temporal properties of brightness and color induction,” Vis. Res. 26, 887–897 (1986).
[CrossRef]

De Valois, R. L.

R. L. De Valois, M. A. Webster, K. K. De Valois, and B. Lingelbach, “Temporal properties of brightness and color induction,” Vis. Res. 26, 887–897 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Delahunt, P. B.

F. Devinck, P. B. Delahunt, J. L. Hardy, L. Spillmann, and J. S. Werner, “The watercolor effect: quantitative evidence for luminance-dependent mechanisms of long-range color assimilation,” Vis. Res. 45, 1413–1424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Delori, F. C.

D. M. Snodderly, J. D. Auran, and F. C. Delori, “The macular pigment. II. Spatial distribution in primate retinas,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 674–685 (1984).

Devinck, F.

F. Devinck, P. B. Delahunt, J. L. Hardy, L. Spillmann, and J. S. Werner, “The watercolor effect: quantitative evidence for luminance-dependent mechanisms of long-range color assimilation,” Vis. Res. 45, 1413–1424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Elsner, A. E.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity coordinates of unique and other constant hues,” Vis. Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fairbairn, M. B.

M. B. Fairbairn, “Physical models of Haidinger’s brush,” J. R. Astron. Soc. Can. 95, 248–251 (2001).

Foster, D. H.

D. H. Foster, “Color constancy,” Vis. Res. 51, 674–700 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gleason, G. A.

Gordon, J.

I. Abramov and J. Gordon, “Color appearance: on seeing red—or yellow, or green, or blue,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 45, 451–485 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Halen, K.

M. A. Webster, K. Halen, A. J. Meyers, P. Winkler, and J. S. Werner, “Colour appearance and compensation in the near periphery,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 277, 1817–1825 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hamburger, K.

L. Spillmann, T. Otte, K. Hamburger, and S. Magnussen, “Perceptual filling-in from the edge of the blind spot,” Vis. Res. 46, 4252–4257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Hamburger, H. Prior, V. Sarris, and L. Spillmann, “Filling-in with colour: different modes of surface completion,” Vis. Res. 46, 1129–1138 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hammond, B. R.

J. M. Stringham and B. R. Hammond, “Compensation for light loss due to filtering by macular pigment: relation to hue cancellation,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 27, 232–237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Stringham, B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, “Compensation for light loss resulting from filtering by macular pigment: relation to the S-cone pathway,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 83, 887–894 (2006).

B. R. Wooten and B. R. Hammond, “Spectral absorbance and spatial distribution of macular pigment using heterochromatic flicker photometry,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 82, 378–386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Wooten, B. R. Hammond, R. I. Land, and D. M. Snodderly, “A practical method for measuring macular pigment optical density,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 2481–2489 (1999).

Hardy, J. L.

F. Devinck, P. B. Delahunt, J. L. Hardy, L. Spillmann, and J. S. Werner, “The watercolor effect: quantitative evidence for luminance-dependent mechanisms of long-range color assimilation,” Vis. Res. 45, 1413–1424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hawken, M. J.

R. Shapley and M. J. Hawken, “Color in the cortex: single- and double-opponent cells,” Vis. Res. 51, 701–717 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hayhoe, M. M.

D. R. Williams, D. I. MacLeod, and M. M. Hayhoe, “Foveal tritanopia,” Vis. Res. 21, 1341–1356 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hibino, H.

H. Hibino, “Red–green and yellow–blue opponent-color responses as a function of retinal eccentricity,” Vis. Res. 32, 1955–1964 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Horwitz, G.

D. Beer, J. Wortman, G. Horwitz, and D. MacLeod, “Compensation of white for macular filtering [Abstract],” J. Vis. 5(8), 282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

M. A. Paradiso, S. Blau, X. Huang, S. P. MacEvoy, A. F. Rossi, and G. Shalev, “Lightness, filling-in, and the fundamental role of context in visual perception,” Prog. Brain Res. 155, 109–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. E.

Kay, P.

Kingdom, F. A.

K. T. Mullen and F. A. Kingdom, “Differential distributions of red–green and blue–yellow cone opponency across the visual field,” Vis. Neurosci. 19, 109–118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Mullen and F. A. Kingdom, “Losses in peripheral colour sensitivity predicted from ‘hit and miss’ post-receptoral cone connections,” Vis. Res. 36, 1995–2000 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krauskopf, J.

J. Krauskopf, “Heterochromatic stabilized images: a classroom demonstration,” Am. J. Psychol. 80, 634–637 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Kurtenbach, W.

Land, R. I.

B. R. Wooten, B. R. Hammond, R. I. Land, and D. M. Snodderly, “A practical method for measuring macular pigment optical density,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 2481–2489 (1999).

Leonard, D.

Lingelbach, B.

R. L. De Valois, M. A. Webster, K. K. De Valois, and B. Lingelbach, “Temporal properties of brightness and color induction,” Vis. Res. 26, 887–897 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Livingstone, M. S.

B. R. Conway and M. S. Livingstone, “Spatial and temporal properties of cone signals in alert macaque primary visual cortex,” J. Neurosci. 26, 10826–10846 (2006).
[CrossRef]

MacEvoy, S. P.

M. A. Paradiso, S. Blau, X. Huang, S. P. MacEvoy, A. F. Rossi, and G. Shalev, “Lightness, filling-in, and the fundamental role of context in visual perception,” Prog. Brain Res. 155, 109–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

MacLeod, D.

D. Beer, J. Wortman, G. Horwitz, and D. MacLeod, “Compensation of white for macular filtering [Abstract],” J. Vis. 5(8), 282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

MacLeod, D. I.

Magnussen, S.

L. Spillmann, T. Otte, K. Hamburger, and S. Magnussen, “Perceptual filling-in from the edge of the blind spot,” Vis. Res. 46, 4252–4257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Magnussen, L. Spillmann, F. Sturzel, and J. S. Werner, “Unveiling the foveal blue scotoma through an afterimage,” Vis. Res. 44, 377–383 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Magnussen, L. Spillmann, F. Sturzel, and J. S. Werner, “Filling-in of the foveal blue scotoma,” Vis. Res. 41, 2961–2967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Malkoc, G.

McCourt, M. E.

B. Blakeslee and M. E. McCourt, “Spatiotemporal analysis of brightness induction,” Vis. Res. 51, 1872–1879 (2011).
[CrossRef]

McDermott, K. C.

McKeefry, D. J.

Meyers, A. J.

M. A. Webster, K. Halen, A. J. Meyers, P. Winkler, and J. S. Werner, “Colour appearance and compensation in the near periphery,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 277, 1817–1825 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mingolla, E.

P. Bressan, E. Mingolla, L. Spillmann, and T. Watanabe, “Neon color spreading: a review,” Perception 26, 1353–1366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miyahara, E.

Mizokami, Y.

S. F. O’Neil, K. C. McDermott, Y. Mizokami, J. S. Werner, M. A. Crognale, and M. A. Webster, “Tests of a functional account of the Abney effect,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A165–A173 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mizokami, J. S. Werner, M. A. Crognale, and M. A. Webster, “Nonlinearities in color coding: compensating color appearance for the eye’s spectral sensitivity,” J. Vision 6(9):12, 999–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moreland, J. D.

J. D. Moreland, “Peripheral color vision,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, J. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer, 1972), pp. 517–536.

Mullen, K. T.

K. T. Mullen and F. A. Kingdom, “Differential distributions of red–green and blue–yellow cone opponency across the visual field,” Vis. Neurosci. 19, 109–118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Mullen and F. A. Kingdom, “Losses in peripheral colour sensitivity predicted from ‘hit and miss’ post-receptoral cone connections,” Vis. Res. 36, 1995–2000 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Murray, I. J.

Nerger, J. L.

Noe, A.

J. K. O’Regan and A. Noe, “A sensorimotor account of vision and visual consciousness,” Behav. Brain Sci. 24, 939–1031 (2001).

O’Neil, S. F.

O’Regan, J. K.

A. Bompas and J. K. O’Regan, “Evidence for a role of action in colour perception,” Perception 35, 65–78 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. O’Regan and A. Noe, “A sensorimotor account of vision and visual consciousness,” Behav. Brain Sci. 24, 939–1031 (2001).

O’Shea, R. P.

J. Broerse, T. Vladusich, and R. P. O’Shea, “Colour at edges and colour spreading in McCollough effects,” Vis. Res. 39, 1305–1320 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Otte, T.

L. Spillmann, T. Otte, K. Hamburger, and S. Magnussen, “Perceptual filling-in from the edge of the blind spot,” Vis. Res. 46, 4252–4257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paradiso, M. A.

M. A. Paradiso, S. Blau, X. Huang, S. P. MacEvoy, A. F. Rossi, and G. Shalev, “Lightness, filling-in, and the fundamental role of context in visual perception,” Prog. Brain Res. 155, 109–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Rossi and M. A. Paradiso, “Temporal limits of brightness induction and mechanisms of brightness perception,” Vis. Res. 36, 1391–1398 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Parry, N. R.

Pinna, B.

B. Pinna, J. S. Werner, and L. Spillmann, “The watercolor effect: a new principle of grouping and figure-ground organization,” Vis. Res. 43, 43–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pokorny, J.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity coordinates of unique and other constant hues,” Vis. Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500  nm,” Vis. Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Powell, G.

A. Bompas, G. Powell, and P. Sumner, “Systematic biases in adult color perception persist despite lifelong information sufficient to calibrate them,” J. Vis. 13(1), 19 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Prior, H.

K. Hamburger, H. Prior, V. Sarris, and L. Spillmann, “Filling-in with colour: different modes of surface completion,” Vis. Res. 46, 1129–1138 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Raker, V. E.

Ramachandran, V. S.

V. S. Ramachandran, “Filling in the blind spot,” Nature 356, 115 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, A. F.

M. A. Paradiso, S. Blau, X. Huang, S. P. MacEvoy, A. F. Rossi, and G. Shalev, “Lightness, filling-in, and the fundamental role of context in visual perception,” Prog. Brain Res. 155, 109–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Rossi and M. A. Paradiso, “Temporal limits of brightness induction and mechanisms of brightness perception,” Vis. Res. 36, 1391–1398 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sarris, V.

K. Hamburger, H. Prior, V. Sarris, and L. Spillmann, “Filling-in with colour: different modes of surface completion,” Vis. Res. 46, 1129–1138 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schefrin, B. E.

V. J. Volbrecht, E. E. Shrago, B. E. Schefrin, and J. S. Werner, “Spatial summation in human cone mechanisms from 0 degrees to 20 degrees in the superior retina,” J. Opt. Soc Am. A 17, 641–650 (2000).

B. E. Schefrin and J. S. Werner, “Loci of spectral unique hues throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 305–311 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Seim, T.

A. Valberg and T. Seim, “Chromatic induction: responses of neurophysiological double opponent units?” Biol. Cybern. 46, 149–158 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Shalev, G.

M. A. Paradiso, S. Blau, X. Huang, S. P. MacEvoy, A. F. Rossi, and G. Shalev, “Lightness, filling-in, and the fundamental role of context in visual perception,” Prog. Brain Res. 155, 109–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shapley, R.

R. Shapley and M. J. Hawken, “Color in the cortex: single- and double-opponent cells,” Vis. Res. 51, 701–717 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shrago, E. E.

V. J. Volbrecht, E. E. Shrago, B. E. Schefrin, and J. S. Werner, “Spatial summation in human cone mechanisms from 0 degrees to 20 degrees in the superior retina,” J. Opt. Soc Am. A 17, 641–650 (2000).

Sinha, P.

B. Balas and P. Sinha, “‘Filling-in’ colour in natural scenes,” Vis. Cogn. 15, 765–778 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, V. C.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity coordinates of unique and other constant hues,” Vis. Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500  nm,” Vis. Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Smithson, H. E.

H. E. Smithson, “Sensory, computational and cognitive components of human colour constancy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 360, 1329–1346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Snodderly, D. M.

J. M. Stringham, B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, “Compensation for light loss resulting from filtering by macular pigment: relation to the S-cone pathway,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 83, 887–894 (2006).

B. R. Wooten, B. R. Hammond, R. I. Land, and D. M. Snodderly, “A practical method for measuring macular pigment optical density,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 2481–2489 (1999).

D. M. Snodderly, J. D. Auran, and F. C. Delori, “The macular pigment. II. Spatial distribution in primate retinas,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 674–685 (1984).

Sparrock, J. M.

R. A. Bone and J. M. Sparrock, “Comparison of macular pigment densities in human eyes,” Vis. Res. 11, 1057–1064 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, J. A.

J. A. Spencer, “An investigation of Maxwell’s spot,” Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 24, 103–147 (1967).

Spillmann, L.

L. Spillmann, “Fading, filling-in, and the perception of uniform surfaces,” Chin. J. Psychol. 53, 399–411 (2011).

L. Spillmann, T. Otte, K. Hamburger, and S. Magnussen, “Perceptual filling-in from the edge of the blind spot,” Vis. Res. 46, 4252–4257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Hamburger, H. Prior, V. Sarris, and L. Spillmann, “Filling-in with colour: different modes of surface completion,” Vis. Res. 46, 1129–1138 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Devinck, P. B. Delahunt, J. L. Hardy, L. Spillmann, and J. S. Werner, “The watercolor effect: quantitative evidence for luminance-dependent mechanisms of long-range color assimilation,” Vis. Res. 45, 1413–1424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Magnussen, L. Spillmann, F. Sturzel, and J. S. Werner, “Unveiling the foveal blue scotoma through an afterimage,” Vis. Res. 44, 377–383 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Pinna, J. S. Werner, and L. Spillmann, “The watercolor effect: a new principle of grouping and figure-ground organization,” Vis. Res. 43, 43–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Magnussen, L. Spillmann, F. Sturzel, and J. S. Werner, “Filling-in of the foveal blue scotoma,” Vis. Res. 41, 2961–2967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Bressan, E. Mingolla, L. Spillmann, and T. Watanabe, “Neon color spreading: a review,” Perception 26, 1353–1366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Werner and L. Spillmann, “UV-absorbing intraocular lenses: safety, efficacy, and consequences for the cataract patient,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 227, 248–256 (1989).

W. Kurtenbach, C. E. Sternheim, and L. Spillmann, “Change in hue of spectral colors by dilution with white light (Abney effect),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 365–372 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sternheim, C. E.

Stockman, A.

Stringham, J. M.

J. M. Stringham and B. R. Hammond, “Compensation for light loss due to filtering by macular pigment: relation to hue cancellation,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 27, 232–237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Stringham, B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, “Compensation for light loss resulting from filtering by macular pigment: relation to the S-cone pathway,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 83, 887–894 (2006).

Sturzel, F.

S. Magnussen, L. Spillmann, F. Sturzel, and J. S. Werner, “Unveiling the foveal blue scotoma through an afterimage,” Vis. Res. 44, 377–383 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Magnussen, L. Spillmann, F. Sturzel, and J. S. Werner, “Filling-in of the foveal blue scotoma,” Vis. Res. 41, 2961–2967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sumner, P.

A. Bompas, G. Powell, and P. Sumner, “Systematic biases in adult color perception persist despite lifelong information sufficient to calibrate them,” J. Vis. 13(1), 19 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tsou, B. H.

Valberg, A.

A. Valberg and T. Seim, “Chromatic induction: responses of neurophysiological double opponent units?” Biol. Cybern. 46, 149–158 (1983).
[CrossRef]

van Lier, R.

R. van Lier, M. Vergeer, and S. Anstis, “Filling-in afterimage colors between the lines,” Curr. Biol. 19, R323–R324 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vergeer, M.

R. van Lier, M. Vergeer, and S. Anstis, “Filling-in afterimage colors between the lines,” Curr. Biol. 19, R323–R324 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vladusich, T.

J. Broerse, T. Vladusich, and R. P. O’Shea, “Colour at edges and colour spreading in McCollough effects,” Vis. Res. 39, 1305–1320 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Volbrecht, V. J.

V. J. Volbrecht, E. E. Shrago, B. E. Schefrin, and J. S. Werner, “Spatial summation in human cone mechanisms from 0 degrees to 20 degrees in the superior retina,” J. Opt. Soc Am. A 17, 641–650 (2000).

J. L. Nerger, V. J. Volbrecht, and C. J. Ayde, “Unique hue judgments as a function of test size in the fovea and at 20-deg temporal eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1225–1232 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wachtler, T.

T. Wachtler and C. Wehrhahn, “The Craik–O’Brien–Cornsweet illusion in colour: quantitative characterisation and comparison with luminance,” Perception 26, 1423–1430 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

P. Bressan, E. Mingolla, L. Spillmann, and T. Watanabe, “Neon color spreading: a review,” Perception 26, 1353–1366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Webster, M. A.

S. F. O’Neil, K. C. McDermott, Y. Mizokami, J. S. Werner, M. A. Crognale, and M. A. Webster, “Tests of a functional account of the Abney effect,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A165–A173 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Webster, K. Halen, A. J. Meyers, P. Winkler, and J. S. Werner, “Colour appearance and compensation in the near periphery,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 277, 1817–1825 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Webster and D. Leonard, “Adaptation and perceptual norms in color vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 2817–2825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mizokami, J. S. Werner, M. A. Crognale, and M. A. Webster, “Nonlinearities in color coding: compensating color appearance for the eye’s spectral sensitivity,” J. Vision 6(9):12, 999–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Malkoc, P. Kay, and M. A. Webster, “Variations in normal color vision. IV. binary hues and hue scaling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2154–2168 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Webster, E. Miyahara, G. Malkoc, and V. E. Raker, “Variations in normal color vision. II. unique hues,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1545–1555 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. L. De Valois, M. A. Webster, K. K. De Valois, and B. Lingelbach, “Temporal properties of brightness and color induction,” Vis. Res. 26, 887–897 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wehrhahn, C.

T. Wachtler and C. Wehrhahn, “The Craik–O’Brien–Cornsweet illusion in colour: quantitative characterisation and comparison with luminance,” Perception 26, 1423–1430 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Werner, J. S.

S. F. O’Neil, K. C. McDermott, Y. Mizokami, J. S. Werner, M. A. Crognale, and M. A. Webster, “Tests of a functional account of the Abney effect,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A165–A173 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Webster, K. Halen, A. J. Meyers, P. Winkler, and J. S. Werner, “Colour appearance and compensation in the near periphery,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 277, 1817–1825 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mizokami, J. S. Werner, M. A. Crognale, and M. A. Webster, “Nonlinearities in color coding: compensating color appearance for the eye’s spectral sensitivity,” J. Vision 6(9):12, 999–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Devinck, P. B. Delahunt, J. L. Hardy, L. Spillmann, and J. S. Werner, “The watercolor effect: quantitative evidence for luminance-dependent mechanisms of long-range color assimilation,” Vis. Res. 45, 1413–1424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Magnussen, L. Spillmann, F. Sturzel, and J. S. Werner, “Unveiling the foveal blue scotoma through an afterimage,” Vis. Res. 44, 377–383 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Pinna, J. S. Werner, and L. Spillmann, “The watercolor effect: a new principle of grouping and figure-ground organization,” Vis. Res. 43, 43–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Magnussen, L. Spillmann, F. Sturzel, and J. S. Werner, “Filling-in of the foveal blue scotoma,” Vis. Res. 41, 2961–2967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Volbrecht, E. E. Shrago, B. E. Schefrin, and J. S. Werner, “Spatial summation in human cone mechanisms from 0 degrees to 20 degrees in the superior retina,” J. Opt. Soc Am. A 17, 641–650 (2000).

B. E. Schefrin and J. S. Werner, “Loci of spectral unique hues throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 305–311 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Werner and L. Spillmann, “UV-absorbing intraocular lenses: safety, efficacy, and consequences for the cataract patient,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 227, 248–256 (1989).

Williams, D. R.

D. R. Williams, D. I. MacLeod, and M. M. Hayhoe, “Foveal tritanopia,” Vis. Res. 21, 1341–1356 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Winkler, P.

M. A. Webster, K. Halen, A. J. Meyers, P. Winkler, and J. S. Werner, “Colour appearance and compensation in the near periphery,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 277, 1817–1825 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wooten, B. R.

J. M. Stringham, B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, “Compensation for light loss resulting from filtering by macular pigment: relation to the S-cone pathway,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 83, 887–894 (2006).

B. R. Wooten and B. R. Hammond, “Spectral absorbance and spatial distribution of macular pigment using heterochromatic flicker photometry,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 82, 378–386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Wooten, B. R. Hammond, R. I. Land, and D. M. Snodderly, “A practical method for measuring macular pigment optical density,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 2481–2489 (1999).

Wortman, J.

D. Beer, J. Wortman, G. Horwitz, and D. MacLeod, “Compensation of white for macular filtering [Abstract],” J. Vis. 5(8), 282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Psychol.

J. Krauskopf, “Heterochromatic stabilized images: a classroom demonstration,” Am. J. Psychol. 80, 634–637 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Psychol.

I. Abramov and J. Gordon, “Color appearance: on seeing red—or yellow, or green, or blue,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 45, 451–485 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Behav. Brain Sci.

J. K. O’Regan and A. Noe, “A sensorimotor account of vision and visual consciousness,” Behav. Brain Sci. 24, 939–1031 (2001).

Biol. Cybern.

A. Valberg and T. Seim, “Chromatic induction: responses of neurophysiological double opponent units?” Biol. Cybern. 46, 149–158 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Brit. J. Physiol. Opt.

J. A. Spencer, “An investigation of Maxwell’s spot,” Brit. J. Physiol. Opt. 24, 103–147 (1967).

Chin. J. Psychol.

L. Spillmann, “Fading, filling-in, and the perception of uniform surfaces,” Chin. J. Psychol. 53, 399–411 (2011).

Curr. Biol.

R. van Lier, M. Vergeer, and S. Anstis, “Filling-in afterimage colors between the lines,” Curr. Biol. 19, R323–R324 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.

J. S. Werner and L. Spillmann, “UV-absorbing intraocular lenses: safety, efficacy, and consequences for the cataract patient,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 227, 248–256 (1989).

Investig. Ophthalmol.

N. W. Daw, “Color-coded cells in goldfish, cat, and Rhesus monkey,” Investig. Ophthalmol. 11, 411–417 (1972).

Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

D. M. Snodderly, J. D. Auran, and F. C. Delori, “The macular pigment. II. Spatial distribution in primate retinas,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 674–685 (1984).

B. R. Wooten, B. R. Hammond, R. I. Land, and D. M. Snodderly, “A practical method for measuring macular pigment optical density,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 2481–2489 (1999).

J. Neurosci.

B. R. Conway and M. S. Livingstone, “Spatial and temporal properties of cone signals in alert macaque primary visual cortex,” J. Neurosci. 26, 10826–10846 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc Am. A

V. J. Volbrecht, E. E. Shrago, B. E. Schefrin, and J. S. Werner, “Spatial summation in human cone mechanisms from 0 degrees to 20 degrees in the superior retina,” J. Opt. Soc Am. A 17, 641–650 (2000).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

M. A. Webster and D. Leonard, “Adaptation and perceptual norms in color vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 2817–2825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. F. O’Neil, K. C. McDermott, Y. Mizokami, J. S. Werner, M. A. Crognale, and M. A. Webster, “Tests of a functional account of the Abney effect,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A165–A173 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Kurtenbach, C. E. Sternheim, and L. Spillmann, “Change in hue of spectral colors by dilution with white light (Abney effect),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 365–372 (1984).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Schefrin and J. S. Werner, “Loci of spectral unique hues throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 305–311 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Stockman, D. I. MacLeod, and N. E. Johnson, “Spectral sensitivities of the human cones,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2491–2521 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Nerger, V. J. Volbrecht, and C. J. Ayde, “Unique hue judgments as a function of test size in the fovea and at 20-deg temporal eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1225–1232 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Webster, E. Miyahara, G. Malkoc, and V. E. Raker, “Variations in normal color vision. II. unique hues,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1545–1555 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Billock, G. A. Gleason, and B. H. Tsou, “Perception of forbidden colors in retinally stabilized equiluminant images: an indication of softwired cortical color opponency?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2398–2403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Malkoc, P. Kay, and M. A. Webster, “Variations in normal color vision. IV. binary hues and hue scaling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2154–2168 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and I. J. Murray, “Variant and invariant color perception in the near peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1586–1597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. J. McKeefry, I. J. Murray, and N. R. Parry, “Perceived shifts in saturation and hue of chromatic stimuli in the near peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3168–3179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Astron. Soc. Can.

M. B. Fairbairn, “Physical models of Haidinger’s brush,” J. R. Astron. Soc. Can. 95, 248–251 (2001).

J. Vis.

A. Bompas, G. Powell, and P. Sumner, “Systematic biases in adult color perception persist despite lifelong information sufficient to calibrate them,” J. Vis. 13(1), 19 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Beer, J. Wortman, G. Horwitz, and D. MacLeod, “Compensation of white for macular filtering [Abstract],” J. Vis. 5(8), 282 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Vision

Y. Mizokami, J. S. Werner, M. A. Crognale, and M. A. Webster, “Nonlinearities in color coding: compensating color appearance for the eye’s spectral sensitivity,” J. Vision 6(9):12, 999–107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

V. S. Ramachandran, “Filling in the blind spot,” Nature 356, 115 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.

J. M. Stringham and B. R. Hammond, “Compensation for light loss due to filtering by macular pigment: relation to hue cancellation,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 27, 232–237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Optom. Vis. Sci.

J. M. Stringham, B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, “Compensation for light loss resulting from filtering by macular pigment: relation to the S-cone pathway,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 83, 887–894 (2006).

B. R. Wooten and B. R. Hammond, “Spectral absorbance and spatial distribution of macular pigment using heterochromatic flicker photometry,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 82, 378–386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perception

T. Wachtler and C. Wehrhahn, “The Craik–O’Brien–Cornsweet illusion in colour: quantitative characterisation and comparison with luminance,” Perception 26, 1423–1430 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Bressan, E. Mingolla, L. Spillmann, and T. Watanabe, “Neon color spreading: a review,” Perception 26, 1353–1366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Bompas and J. K. O’Regan, “Evidence for a role of action in colour perception,” Perception 35, 65–78 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B

H. E. Smithson, “Sensory, computational and cognitive components of human colour constancy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 360, 1329–1346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B

M. A. Webster, K. Halen, A. J. Meyers, P. Winkler, and J. S. Werner, “Colour appearance and compensation in the near periphery,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 277, 1817–1825 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Brain Res.

M. A. Paradiso, S. Blau, X. Huang, S. P. MacEvoy, A. F. Rossi, and G. Shalev, “Lightness, filling-in, and the fundamental role of context in visual perception,” Prog. Brain Res. 155, 109–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Cogn.

B. Balas and P. Sinha, “‘Filling-in’ colour in natural scenes,” Vis. Cogn. 15, 765–778 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Neurosci.

K. T. Mullen and F. A. Kingdom, “Differential distributions of red–green and blue–yellow cone opponency across the visual field,” Vis. Neurosci. 19, 109–118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Murray, N. R. Parry, and D. J. McKeefry, “Cone opponency in the near peripheral retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 503–507 (2006).

Vis. Res.

K. T. Mullen and F. A. Kingdom, “Losses in peripheral colour sensitivity predicted from ‘hit and miss’ post-receptoral cone connections,” Vis. Res. 36, 1995–2000 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity coordinates of unique and other constant hues,” Vis. Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500  nm,” Vis. Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Broerse, T. Vladusich, and R. P. O’Shea, “Colour at edges and colour spreading in McCollough effects,” Vis. Res. 39, 1305–1320 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Devinck, P. B. Delahunt, J. L. Hardy, L. Spillmann, and J. S. Werner, “The watercolor effect: quantitative evidence for luminance-dependent mechanisms of long-range color assimilation,” Vis. Res. 45, 1413–1424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Williams, D. I. MacLeod, and M. M. Hayhoe, “Foveal tritanopia,” Vis. Res. 21, 1341–1356 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. Magnussen, L. Spillmann, F. Sturzel, and J. S. Werner, “Filling-in of the foveal blue scotoma,” Vis. Res. 41, 2961–2967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Spillmann, T. Otte, K. Hamburger, and S. Magnussen, “Perceptual filling-in from the edge of the blind spot,” Vis. Res. 46, 4252–4257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. L. De Valois, M. A. Webster, K. K. De Valois, and B. Lingelbach, “Temporal properties of brightness and color induction,” Vis. Res. 26, 887–897 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. Blakeslee and M. E. McCourt, “Spatiotemporal analysis of brightness induction,” Vis. Res. 51, 1872–1879 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Rossi and M. A. Paradiso, “Temporal limits of brightness induction and mechanisms of brightness perception,” Vis. Res. 36, 1391–1398 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Pinna, J. S. Werner, and L. Spillmann, “The watercolor effect: a new principle of grouping and figure-ground organization,” Vis. Res. 43, 43–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Hamburger, H. Prior, V. Sarris, and L. Spillmann, “Filling-in with colour: different modes of surface completion,” Vis. Res. 46, 1129–1138 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Foster, “Color constancy,” Vis. Res. 51, 674–700 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bone and J. M. Sparrock, “Comparison of macular pigment densities in human eyes,” Vis. Res. 11, 1057–1064 (1971).
[CrossRef]

S. Magnussen, L. Spillmann, F. Sturzel, and J. S. Werner, “Unveiling the foveal blue scotoma through an afterimage,” Vis. Res. 44, 377–383 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Hibino, “Red–green and yellow–blue opponent-color responses as a function of retinal eccentricity,” Vis. Res. 32, 1955–1964 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Billock, “The relationship between simple and double opponent cells,” Vis. Res. 31, 33–42 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Shapley and M. J. Hawken, “Color in the cortex: single- and double-opponent cells,” Vis. Res. 51, 701–717 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. D. Moreland, “Peripheral color vision,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, J. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer, 1972), pp. 517–536.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Circles: predictions for LvsM and SvsLM contrast settings needed to maintain a balanced purple for full macular pigment (solid line) and for macular pigment reductions of 0.1 to 0.3 log units (dashed lines). Triangles: actual settings by observers MW and SO for foveal settings (solid symbols and solid line) or peripheral settings at 8° (empty symbols and dashed line).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Hue angle settings to maintain a balanced purple, as a function of monitor background luminance.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(Top) Hue angle settings from foveally fixated fields ranging in size from 1° to 16° presented for 500 ms (solid lines) compared to settings for a 1° spot presented at 8° eccentricity (dashed lines) for each observer. (Bottom) Foveal and peripheral settings for a spot presented for 5 s (solid lines) compared to a foveally presented 16° field (dashed line).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Settings for 1° to 16° spots fixated on the edge (solid lines) compared to settings for a centrally fixated 1° spot at 8° eccentricity.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Settings for uniform 1° fields at 0° and 8° eccentricity (solid lines) compared to a 8° foveal field with luminance edges replaced by a Gaussian taper (dashed lines).

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

LvsMcontrast=(rmb0.6568)*2754,SvsLMcontrast=(bmb0.01825)*4099,

Metrics