Abstract

Two subjects, protanomalous and deuteranomalous, performed the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test with and without prescribed ColorView spectacle aids under simulated D65 lighting. Errors were greater with aids than without. Using spectral measurements of test reflectance, aid transmittance and lighting, chromaticities of the 100-hue caps were calculated with and without aids in the uniform chromaticity diagrams for protanomaly and protanomaly [Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 685 (2010).]. Errors were modeled from chromatic spacing on a smoothed 100-hue locus together with a distractor term, derived from the distances of raw data from that locus. Good correspondence was found between the measured test and model profiles for the major maxima as well as other aspects of shape and position.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. I. Schmidt, “Visual aids for correction of red-green colour deficiencies,” Can. J. Optom. 38, 38–47 (1976).
  2. L. T. Sharpe and H. Jägle, “I used to be color blind,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S269–S272 (2001).
  3. S. P. Taylor, “The X-Chrom lens: does it have any effect on colour perception of colour-deficient observers,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 46, 467–471 (1987).
  4. M. Siegel, “The X-Chrom lens. On seeing red,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 25, 312–324 (1981).
  5. J. D. Moreland, S. Westland, V. Cheung, and S. J. Dain, “Quantitative assessment of commercial filter ‘aids’ for red-green colour defectives,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 685–692 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Krastel, H. Gehrung, K. Dax, and K. Rohrschneider, “Clinical application of the Heidelberg anomaloscope,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 54, 135–149 (1991). This anomaloscope employs a 2° bipartite field with narrow bandwidth stimuli. One half is a yellow (589 nm) and the other a mixture of red and green (664 nm and 548 nm). Rayleigh matches are metameric foveal color matches made between the two half-fields.
  7. Color matches made by anomalous trichromats are shifted from those of normal trichromats; matches with excess red in the mixture diagnose protanomaly while those with excess green diagnose deuteranomaly.
  8. http://www.color-view.com/products.php#model .
  9. D. Farnsworth, The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test: For the Examination of Color Discrimination (Munsell Color Company, 1957).
  10. Courtesy of Prof. Ron Douglas, City University, London, U.K.
  11. The 100 hue manual states, “The score for a cap is the sum of the (absolute) differences between the number of that cap and the numbers of the caps adjacent to it.”
  12. P. Kinnear, “Proposals for scoring and assessing the 100-hue test,” Vis. Res. 10, 423–433 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Farnsworth coined portmanteau terms which cover anomalous trichromacy and dichromacy: protan for protanomaly and protanopia and deutan for deuteranomaly and deuteranopia.
  14. P. DeMarco, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Full-spectrum cone sensitivity functions for X-chromosome-linked anomalous trichromats,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1465–1476 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Reference [5]. The compressive equation converting the long wavelength cone excitations l to a uniform scale is fn(l)=a log([lp]b+c, where lp is a projective transform of l and a, b, and c are constants which optimize uniformity of the fn(l) scale. The equation for fn(s) has the same form but with different constants. The fn(s) scale of Ref. [5] is reduced here by a factor of 5 to harmonize with the fn(l) scale.
  16. G. Verriest, J. V. Laethem, and A. Uvijls, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the 100 hue total scores,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 33, 199–208 (1982).
  17. The 100 hue cap score for a correct arrangement is 2, which is subtracted in summing the total error score.
  18. Farnsworth incorporated “slight differences” to require “some aptitude in normals” and to detect “color defectives by forcing them to resort to criteria other than hue difference.”
  19. K. H. Ruddock, “Light transmission through the ocular media and macular pigment and its significance for psychophysical investigation,” in Visual Psychophysics, Handbook of Sensory Physiology, D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer, 1972), Vol. 7/4, pp. 455–469.
  20. J. D. Moreland and S. L. Dain, “Macular pigment contributes to variance in 100 hue tests,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 57, 517–522 (1995).

2010

J. D. Moreland, S. Westland, V. Cheung, and S. J. Dain, “Quantitative assessment of commercial filter ‘aids’ for red-green colour defectives,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 685–692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2001

L. T. Sharpe and H. Jägle, “I used to be color blind,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S269–S272 (2001).

1995

J. D. Moreland and S. L. Dain, “Macular pigment contributes to variance in 100 hue tests,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 57, 517–522 (1995).

1992

1991

H. Krastel, H. Gehrung, K. Dax, and K. Rohrschneider, “Clinical application of the Heidelberg anomaloscope,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 54, 135–149 (1991). This anomaloscope employs a 2° bipartite field with narrow bandwidth stimuli. One half is a yellow (589 nm) and the other a mixture of red and green (664 nm and 548 nm). Rayleigh matches are metameric foveal color matches made between the two half-fields.

1987

S. P. Taylor, “The X-Chrom lens: does it have any effect on colour perception of colour-deficient observers,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 46, 467–471 (1987).

1982

G. Verriest, J. V. Laethem, and A. Uvijls, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the 100 hue total scores,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 33, 199–208 (1982).

1981

M. Siegel, “The X-Chrom lens. On seeing red,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 25, 312–324 (1981).

1976

I. Schmidt, “Visual aids for correction of red-green colour deficiencies,” Can. J. Optom. 38, 38–47 (1976).

1970

P. Kinnear, “Proposals for scoring and assessing the 100-hue test,” Vis. Res. 10, 423–433 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, V.

J. D. Moreland, S. Westland, V. Cheung, and S. J. Dain, “Quantitative assessment of commercial filter ‘aids’ for red-green colour defectives,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 685–692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dain, S. J.

J. D. Moreland, S. Westland, V. Cheung, and S. J. Dain, “Quantitative assessment of commercial filter ‘aids’ for red-green colour defectives,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 685–692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dain, S. L.

J. D. Moreland and S. L. Dain, “Macular pigment contributes to variance in 100 hue tests,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 57, 517–522 (1995).

Dax, K.

H. Krastel, H. Gehrung, K. Dax, and K. Rohrschneider, “Clinical application of the Heidelberg anomaloscope,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 54, 135–149 (1991). This anomaloscope employs a 2° bipartite field with narrow bandwidth stimuli. One half is a yellow (589 nm) and the other a mixture of red and green (664 nm and 548 nm). Rayleigh matches are metameric foveal color matches made between the two half-fields.

DeMarco, P.

Farnsworth, D.

D. Farnsworth, The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test: For the Examination of Color Discrimination (Munsell Color Company, 1957).

Gehrung, H.

H. Krastel, H. Gehrung, K. Dax, and K. Rohrschneider, “Clinical application of the Heidelberg anomaloscope,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 54, 135–149 (1991). This anomaloscope employs a 2° bipartite field with narrow bandwidth stimuli. One half is a yellow (589 nm) and the other a mixture of red and green (664 nm and 548 nm). Rayleigh matches are metameric foveal color matches made between the two half-fields.

Jägle, H.

L. T. Sharpe and H. Jägle, “I used to be color blind,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S269–S272 (2001).

Kinnear, P.

P. Kinnear, “Proposals for scoring and assessing the 100-hue test,” Vis. Res. 10, 423–433 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Krastel, H.

H. Krastel, H. Gehrung, K. Dax, and K. Rohrschneider, “Clinical application of the Heidelberg anomaloscope,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 54, 135–149 (1991). This anomaloscope employs a 2° bipartite field with narrow bandwidth stimuli. One half is a yellow (589 nm) and the other a mixture of red and green (664 nm and 548 nm). Rayleigh matches are metameric foveal color matches made between the two half-fields.

Laethem, J. V.

G. Verriest, J. V. Laethem, and A. Uvijls, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the 100 hue total scores,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 33, 199–208 (1982).

Moreland, J. D.

J. D. Moreland, S. Westland, V. Cheung, and S. J. Dain, “Quantitative assessment of commercial filter ‘aids’ for red-green colour defectives,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 685–692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Moreland and S. L. Dain, “Macular pigment contributes to variance in 100 hue tests,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 57, 517–522 (1995).

Pokorny, J.

Rohrschneider, K.

H. Krastel, H. Gehrung, K. Dax, and K. Rohrschneider, “Clinical application of the Heidelberg anomaloscope,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 54, 135–149 (1991). This anomaloscope employs a 2° bipartite field with narrow bandwidth stimuli. One half is a yellow (589 nm) and the other a mixture of red and green (664 nm and 548 nm). Rayleigh matches are metameric foveal color matches made between the two half-fields.

Ruddock, K. H.

K. H. Ruddock, “Light transmission through the ocular media and macular pigment and its significance for psychophysical investigation,” in Visual Psychophysics, Handbook of Sensory Physiology, D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer, 1972), Vol. 7/4, pp. 455–469.

Schmidt, I.

I. Schmidt, “Visual aids for correction of red-green colour deficiencies,” Can. J. Optom. 38, 38–47 (1976).

Sharpe, L. T.

L. T. Sharpe and H. Jägle, “I used to be color blind,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S269–S272 (2001).

Siegel, M.

M. Siegel, “The X-Chrom lens. On seeing red,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 25, 312–324 (1981).

Smith, V. C.

Taylor, S. P.

S. P. Taylor, “The X-Chrom lens: does it have any effect on colour perception of colour-deficient observers,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 46, 467–471 (1987).

Uvijls, A.

G. Verriest, J. V. Laethem, and A. Uvijls, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the 100 hue total scores,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 33, 199–208 (1982).

Verriest, G.

G. Verriest, J. V. Laethem, and A. Uvijls, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the 100 hue total scores,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 33, 199–208 (1982).

Westland, S.

J. D. Moreland, S. Westland, V. Cheung, and S. J. Dain, “Quantitative assessment of commercial filter ‘aids’ for red-green colour defectives,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 685–692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Optom.

I. Schmidt, “Visual aids for correction of red-green colour deficiencies,” Can. J. Optom. 38, 38–47 (1976).

Color Res. Appl.

L. T. Sharpe and H. Jägle, “I used to be color blind,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S269–S272 (2001).

Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser.

S. P. Taylor, “The X-Chrom lens: does it have any effect on colour perception of colour-deficient observers,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 46, 467–471 (1987).

H. Krastel, H. Gehrung, K. Dax, and K. Rohrschneider, “Clinical application of the Heidelberg anomaloscope,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 54, 135–149 (1991). This anomaloscope employs a 2° bipartite field with narrow bandwidth stimuli. One half is a yellow (589 nm) and the other a mixture of red and green (664 nm and 548 nm). Rayleigh matches are metameric foveal color matches made between the two half-fields.

G. Verriest, J. V. Laethem, and A. Uvijls, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the 100 hue total scores,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 33, 199–208 (1982).

J. D. Moreland and S. L. Dain, “Macular pigment contributes to variance in 100 hue tests,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 57, 517–522 (1995).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt.

J. D. Moreland, S. Westland, V. Cheung, and S. J. Dain, “Quantitative assessment of commercial filter ‘aids’ for red-green colour defectives,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 685–692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Surv. Ophthalmol.

M. Siegel, “The X-Chrom lens. On seeing red,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 25, 312–324 (1981).

Vis. Res.

P. Kinnear, “Proposals for scoring and assessing the 100-hue test,” Vis. Res. 10, 423–433 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Other

Farnsworth coined portmanteau terms which cover anomalous trichromacy and dichromacy: protan for protanomaly and protanopia and deutan for deuteranomaly and deuteranopia.

Reference [5]. The compressive equation converting the long wavelength cone excitations l to a uniform scale is fn(l)=a log([lp]b+c, where lp is a projective transform of l and a, b, and c are constants which optimize uniformity of the fn(l) scale. The equation for fn(s) has the same form but with different constants. The fn(s) scale of Ref. [5] is reduced here by a factor of 5 to harmonize with the fn(l) scale.

The 100 hue cap score for a correct arrangement is 2, which is subtracted in summing the total error score.

Farnsworth incorporated “slight differences” to require “some aptitude in normals” and to detect “color defectives by forcing them to resort to criteria other than hue difference.”

K. H. Ruddock, “Light transmission through the ocular media and macular pigment and its significance for psychophysical investigation,” in Visual Psychophysics, Handbook of Sensory Physiology, D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer, 1972), Vol. 7/4, pp. 455–469.

Color matches made by anomalous trichromats are shifted from those of normal trichromats; matches with excess red in the mixture diagnose protanomaly while those with excess green diagnose deuteranomaly.

http://www.color-view.com/products.php#model .

D. Farnsworth, The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test: For the Examination of Color Discrimination (Munsell Color Company, 1957).

Courtesy of Prof. Ron Douglas, City University, London, U.K.

The 100 hue manual states, “The score for a cap is the sum of the (absolute) differences between the number of that cap and the numbers of the caps adjacent to it.”

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Spectral transmittance profiles of two ColorView aids A5 and B1 and the relative spectral power distribution of the simulated D65 illuminant.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Smoothed sessional average test error profiles. Circles: error scale—0, 5, 10, and 15. Arcs: cap number range of the protan and deutan (Farnsworth’s portmanteau terms) peak error positions. Small empty circles: raw results. Black line: results with errors corrected for intersessional learning. Note: correction for learning increases all errors. Both aids increase errors and rotate the profiles clockwise.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Uniform chromaticity diagrams for protanomaly and for deuteranomaly. Axes, fn(l) and fn(s), are compressive transforms of the anomalous l and s cone excitations [5,15]. Circles: 100-hue caps. Squares: simulated D65 illuminant. Empty symbols denote no aid; filled symbols denote aid (ColorView B1 for Pa and A5 for Da). The aids shift the 100-hue locus bodily across the chromaticity chart: toward red for B1 and toward purple for A5. The 100-hue locus is compressed horizontally for both Pa and Da, reflecting their poor red–green discrimination; both the B1 and A5 aids compress that locus further.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Change of log (total error score) across sessions. Left panel: raw data. Center panel: data aligned with “Pa no aid”: Session 1 is excluded from the regression. Right panel: as for center panel after reassigning cap numbers (see Section 4).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Disruption in chromatic order. Detail from the left panel of Fig. 3. The general trend for 100-hue caps is for their chromaticities to progress clockwise around D65. The change for caps 34 and 35 is anticlockwise; consequently, for the purpose of modeling, their numbers are interchanged. All such exceptions are similarly corrected so that “hue angle” measured with respect to the horizontal through D65 varies sequentially in one direction.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Detail from the left panel of Fig. 3 with the aspect ratio of axes changed for clarity. Filled circles: 100-hue chromaticities for Pa with ColorView aid B1 illuminated by simulated D65. Empty circles: smoothed data extrapolated along radii (dotted line) through D65 and each raw chromaticity. The model uses the spacing of the smoothed data together with a distractor term, estimated from the distances of raw data from the smooth locus, in predicting 100-hue errors.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Smoothed error profiles. As for Fig. 2. Small empty circles: no aid. Black line: ColorView aid worn (Pa—B1, Da—A5). Top: sessional average100-hue test results with caps reassigned and errors corrected for intersessional learning. Bottom: model based on spacing on a smoothed 100-hue locus combined with a distractor term derived from scatter around that locus.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Total Error Scores for the 100-hue Test

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E=a(SbP)c,
P=ABS(p1p2)+ABS(p2p3)

Metrics