Abstract

Cone isolating stimuli were used to assess the temporal frequency response characteristics of L- and M-cone electroretinograms (ERGs) in nine trichromatic and four dichromatic human observers. The stimuli comprised sinusoidal temporal modulations varying from 5 to 100 Hz. ERGs were recorded using corneal fiber electrodes and subjected to fast Fourier transform analysis. At low temporal frequencies (<10Hz) the L- and M-cone ERGs had similar amplitude and exhibited minimal differences in apparent latency. At higher flicker rates (>20Hz) L-cone ERGs had greater amplitudes and shorter apparent latencies than the M-cone responses. These differences between the L- and M-cone ERGs are consistent with their mediation by chromatic and luminance postreceptoral processing pathways at low and high temporal frequencies, respectively.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. T. Brown and T. N. Wiesel, “Localization of origins of electroretinogram components by intraretinal recording in the intact cat eye,” J. Physiol. 158, 257–280 (1961).
  2. D. C. Hood and D. G. Birch, “Human cone receptor activity: the leading edge of the a-wave and models of receptor activity,” Vis. Neurosci. 10, 857–871 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. N. Pugh, B. Falsini, and A. L. Lyubarsky, “The origin of the major rod- and cone-driven components of the rodent electroretinogram and the effect of age and light-rearing history on the magnitude of these components,” in Photostasis and Related Phenomena, T. P. Williams and A. B. Thistle, eds. (Springer, 1998), pp. 93–128.
  4. C. Friedburg, C. P. Allen, P. J. Mason, and T. D. Lamb, “Contribution of cone photoreceptors and post-receptoral mechanisms to the human photopic electroretinogram,” J. Physiol. 556, 819–834 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. A. Fishman, D. G. Birch, G. E. Holder, and M. G. Brigell, “Electrophysiologic testing,” in Disorders of the Retina, Optic Nerve, and Visual Pathway, 2nd ed., Vol. 2 of Ophthalmology Monographs (Foundation of the American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2001).
  6. L. J. Frishman, “Origins of the electroretinogram,” in Principles and Practice of Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision, J. R. Heckenlively and G. B. Arden, eds. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006), pp. 139–184.
  7. K. R. Alexander, A. S. Rajagopalan, A. Raghuram, and G. A. Fishman, “Activation phase of cone phototransduction and the flicker electroretinogram in retinitis pigmentosa,” Vis. Res. 46, 2773–2785 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Verma and M. J. Pianta, “The contribution of human cone photoreceptors to the photopic flicker electroretinogram,” J. Vis. 9(3), 9 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, and M. R. Kreitz, “Analysis of nonlinearities in the flicker ERG,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69, 95–105 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. V. Odom, D. Reits, N. Burgers, and F. C. Riemslag, “Flicker electroretinograms—a systems analytic approach,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69, 106–116 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. H. Seiple, I. M. Siegel, R. E. Carr, and C. Mayron, “Evaluating macular function using the focal ERG,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 1123–1130 (1986).
  12. M. Kondo and P. A. Sieving, “Primate photopic sine-wave flicker ERG: vector modeling analysis of component origins using glutamate analogs,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 305–312 (2001).
  13. V. R. Krishna, K. R. Alexander, and N. S. Peachey, “Temporal properties of the mouse cone electroretinogram,” J. Neurophysiol. 87, 42–48 (2002).
  14. H. Qian, M. R. Shah, K. R. Alexander, and H. Ripps, “Two distinct processes are evident in rat cone flicker ERG responses at low and high temporal frequencies,” Exp. Eye Res. 87, 71–75 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Qian, K. R. Alexander, and H. Ripps, “Harmonic analysis of the cone flicker ERG of rabbit,” Exp. Eye Res. 91, 811–817 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Pangeni, F. K. Horn, and J. Kremers, “A new interpretation of components in the ERG signals to sine wave luminance stimuli at different temporal frequencies and contrasts,” Vis. Neurosci. 27, 79–90 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, “Spectral compensation method for determining flicker characteristics of human color mechanisms,” Vis. Res. 14, 823–830 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  18. O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, “The “silent substitution” method in visual research,” Vis. Res. 22, 681–691 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Kremers, “The assessment of L- and M-cone specific electroretinographical signals in the normal and abnormal human retina,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 22, 579–605 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Kremers and G. Pangeni, “Electroretinographic responses to photoreceptor specific sine wave modulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A306–A313 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  21. V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, M. Davis, and T. Yeh, “Mechanisms subserving temporal-modulation sensitivity in silent-cone substitution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 241–249 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Sun, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Control of the modulation of human photoreceptors,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S69–S75 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Kremers and B. Link, “Electroretinographic responses that may reflect activity of parvo- and magnocellular post-receptoral visual pathways,” J. Vis. 8(15), 11 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Kremers, A. R. Rodrigues, L. C. Silveria, and M. da Silva Filho, “Flicker ERGs representing chromaticity and luminance signals,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 577–587 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. H. Jacobs, J. Neitz, and K. Krogh, “Electroretinogram flicker photometry and its applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 641–648 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and M. F. Wesner, “Variability in cone populations and implications,” in From Pigments to Perception: Advances in Understanding Visual Processes (Plenum, 1991), pp. 23–34.
  27. D. H. Brainard, A. Roorda, Y. Yamauchi, J. B. Calderone, A. Metha, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, and G. H. Jacobs, “Functional consequences of the relative numbers of L and M cones,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 607–614 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. Kremers, H. P. Scholl, H. Knau, T. T. Berendschot, T. Usui, and L. T. Sharpe, “L/M cone ratios in human trichromats assessed by psychophysics, electroretinography, and retinal densitometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 517–526 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  29. L. H. Van Der Tweel and H. F. Lunel, “Human visual responses to sinusoidally modulated light,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 18, 587–598 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  30. D. Regan, “Some characteristics of average steady-state and transient responses evoked by modulated light,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 20, 238–248 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  31. V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion-cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,” J. Physiol. 458, 191–221 (1992).
  32. H. De Lange Dzn, “Research into the dynamic nature of the human fovea-cortex systems with intermittent and modulated light. II. Phase shift in brightness and delay in color perception,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 784–789 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  33. P. L. Walraven and H. J. Leebeek, “Phase shift of alternating coloured stimuli,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 18, 56–71 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  34. B. A. Drum, “Cone interactions at high flicker frequencies—evidence for cone latency differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1601–1603 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  35. W. H. Swanson, T. Ueno, V. C. Smith, and J. Pokorny, “Temporal-modulation sensitivity and pulse-detection thresholds for chromatic and luminance perturbations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1992–2005 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  36. W. H. Swanson, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Effects of temporal frequency on phase-dependent sensitivity to heterochromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2266–2273 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  37. A. G. Shapiro, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Cone-rod receptor spaces with illustrations that use CRT phosphor and light-emitting-diode spectra,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2319–2328 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  38. A. Stockman, D. I. MacLeod, and N. E. Johnson, “Spectral sensitivities of the human cones,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2491–2521 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  39. H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic,” J. Neurosci. 25, 9669–9679 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  40. B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Luminance and chromatic modulation sensitivity of macaque ganglion-cells and human observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 2223–2236 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  41. J. Kremers, B. B. Lee, and P. K. Kaiser, “Sensitivity of macaque retinal ganglion-cells and human observers to combined luminance and chromatic temporal modulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1477–1485 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  42. B. B. Lee, “Visual pathways and psychophysical channels in the primate,” J. Physiol. 589, 41–47 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  43. J. Krauskopf, “Relative number of long- and middle-wavelength sensitive cones in the human fovea,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 510–516 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  44. J. Neitz, J. Carroll, Y. Yamauchi, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Color perception is mediated by a plastic neural mechanism that is adjustable in adults,” Neuron 35, 783–792 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  45. G. H. Jacobs and J. F. Deegan, “Spectral sensitivity of macaque monkeys measured with ERG flicker photometry,” Vis. Neurosci. 14, 921–928 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  46. B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “The physiological-basis of heterochromatic flicker photometry demonstrated in the ganglion-cells of the macaque retina,” J. Physiol. 404, 323–347 (1988).
  47. H. De Lange Dzn, “Research into the dynamic nature of the human fovea-cortex systems with intermittent and modulated light. I. Attenuation characteristics with white and colored light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 777–784 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  48. N. R. Parry, I. J. Murray, A. Panorgias, D. J. McKeefry, B. B. Lee, and J. Kremers, “Simultaneous chromatic and luminance human electroretinogram responses,” J. Physiol. 590, 3141–3154 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  49. F. M. De Monasterio and P. Gouras, “Functional properties of ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,” J. Physiol. 251, 167–195 (1975).
  50. B. Dreher, Y. Fukada, and R. W. Rodieck, “Identification, classification and anatomical segregation of cells with X-like and Y-like properties in the lateral geniculate nucleus of old-world primates,” J. Physiol. 258, 433–452 (1976).
  51. T. P. Hicks, B. B. Lee, and T. R. Vidyasagar, “The response of cells in macaque lateral geniculate nucleus to sinusoidal gratings,” J. Physiol. 337, 183–200 (1983).
  52. A. M. Derrington and P. Lennie, “Spatial and temporal contrast sensitivities of neurones in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. 357, 219–240 (1984).
  53. R. Shapley and V. H. Perry, “Cat and monkey retinal ganglion cells and their visual functional roles,” Trends Neurosci. 9, 229–235 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  54. B. B. Lee, A. Valberg, D. A. Tigwell, and J. Tryti, “An account of responses of spectrally opponent neurons in macaque lateral geniculate nucleus to successive contrast,” Proc. R. Soc. B 230, 293–314 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  55. B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Sensitivity of macaque retinal ganglion cells to chromatic and luminance flicker,” J. Physiol. 414, 223–243 (1989).
  56. P. H. Schiller, N. K. Logothetis, and E. R. Charles, “Functions of the colour-opponent and broad-band channels of the visual system,” Nature 343, 68–70 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  57. T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, “Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115–1156 (1966).
  58. P. K. Kaiser, B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “The physiological basis of the minimally distinct border demonstrated in the ganglion cells of the macaque retina,” J. Physiol. 422, 153–183 (1990).
  59. A. Valberg, B. B. Lee, P. K. Kaiser, and J. Kremers, “Responses of macaque ganglion-cells to movement of chromatic borders,” J. Physiol. 458, 579–602 (1992).
  60. D. M. Dacey, “Primate retina: cell types, circuits and colour opponency,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 18, 737–763 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  61. R. A. Bush and P. A. Sieving, “Inner retinal contributions to the primate photopic fast flicker electroretinogram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 557–565 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  62. R. A. Stockton and M. M. Slaughter, “The b-wave of the electroretinogram; a reflection of ON-bipolar cell activity,” J. Gen. Physiol. 93, 101–122 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  63. B. B. Boycott and H. Wassle, “Morphological classification of bipolar cells of the primate retina,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 3, 1069–1088 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  64. H. Wassle, U. Grünert, P. R. Martin, and B. B. Boycott, “Immunocytochemical characterization and spatial distribution of midget bipolar cells in the macaque monkey retina,” Vis. Res. 34, 561–579 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  65. D. M. Dacey, “Parallel pathways for spectral coding in primate retina,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 23, 743–775 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  66. B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and U. Grünert, “Retinal connectivity in primate vision,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 29, 622–639 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  67. W. Li and H. DeVries, “Bipolar cells pathways for color and luminance vision in a dichromatic mammalian retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 9, 669–675 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  68. B. Erikoz, P. R. Jusuf, K. A. Percival, and U. Grünert, “Distribution of bipolar input to midget and parasol ganglion cells in marmoset retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 67–76 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

N. R. Parry, I. J. Murray, A. Panorgias, D. J. McKeefry, B. B. Lee, and J. Kremers, “Simultaneous chromatic and luminance human electroretinogram responses,” J. Physiol. 590, 3141–3154 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers and G. Pangeni, “Electroretinographic responses to photoreceptor specific sine wave modulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A306–A313 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

B. B. Lee, “Visual pathways and psychophysical channels in the primate,” J. Physiol. 589, 41–47 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and U. Grünert, “Retinal connectivity in primate vision,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 29, 622–639 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, A. R. Rodrigues, L. C. Silveria, and M. da Silva Filho, “Flicker ERGs representing chromaticity and luminance signals,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 577–587 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Qian, K. R. Alexander, and H. Ripps, “Harmonic analysis of the cone flicker ERG of rabbit,” Exp. Eye Res. 91, 811–817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Pangeni, F. K. Horn, and J. Kremers, “A new interpretation of components in the ERG signals to sine wave luminance stimuli at different temporal frequencies and contrasts,” Vis. Neurosci. 27, 79–90 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

R. Verma and M. J. Pianta, “The contribution of human cone photoreceptors to the photopic flicker electroretinogram,” J. Vis. 9(3), 9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

H. Qian, M. R. Shah, K. R. Alexander, and H. Ripps, “Two distinct processes are evident in rat cone flicker ERG responses at low and high temporal frequencies,” Exp. Eye Res. 87, 71–75 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers and B. Link, “Electroretinographic responses that may reflect activity of parvo- and magnocellular post-receptoral visual pathways,” J. Vis. 8(15), 11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Erikoz, P. R. Jusuf, K. A. Percival, and U. Grünert, “Distribution of bipolar input to midget and parasol ganglion cells in marmoset retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 67–76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

W. Li and H. DeVries, “Bipolar cells pathways for color and luminance vision in a dichromatic mammalian retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 9, 669–675 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Alexander, A. S. Rajagopalan, A. Raghuram, and G. A. Fishman, “Activation phase of cone phototransduction and the flicker electroretinogram in retinitis pigmentosa,” Vis. Res. 46, 2773–2785 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic,” J. Neurosci. 25, 9669–9679 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. Friedburg, C. P. Allen, P. J. Mason, and T. D. Lamb, “Contribution of cone photoreceptors and post-receptoral mechanisms to the human photopic electroretinogram,” J. Physiol. 556, 819–834 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Kremers, “The assessment of L- and M-cone specific electroretinographical signals in the normal and abnormal human retina,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 22, 579–605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

V. R. Krishna, K. R. Alexander, and N. S. Peachey, “Temporal properties of the mouse cone electroretinogram,” J. Neurophysiol. 87, 42–48 (2002).

J. Neitz, J. Carroll, Y. Yamauchi, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Color perception is mediated by a plastic neural mechanism that is adjustable in adults,” Neuron 35, 783–792 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. Kondo and P. A. Sieving, “Primate photopic sine-wave flicker ERG: vector modeling analysis of component origins using glutamate analogs,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 305–312 (2001).

H. Sun, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Control of the modulation of human photoreceptors,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S69–S75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

1999 (1)

D. M. Dacey, “Primate retina: cell types, circuits and colour opponency,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 18, 737–763 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

G. H. Jacobs and J. F. Deegan, “Spectral sensitivity of macaque monkeys measured with ERG flicker photometry,” Vis. Neurosci. 14, 921–928 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

H. Wassle, U. Grünert, P. R. Martin, and B. B. Boycott, “Immunocytochemical characterization and spatial distribution of midget bipolar cells in the macaque monkey retina,” Vis. Res. 34, 561–579 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

A. Stockman, D. I. MacLeod, and N. E. Johnson, “Spectral sensitivities of the human cones,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2491–2521 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hood and D. G. Birch, “Human cone receptor activity: the leading edge of the a-wave and models of receptor activity,” Vis. Neurosci. 10, 857–871 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (5)

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, and M. R. Kreitz, “Analysis of nonlinearities in the flicker ERG,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69, 95–105 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Odom, D. Reits, N. Burgers, and F. C. Riemslag, “Flicker electroretinograms—a systems analytic approach,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69, 106–116 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion-cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,” J. Physiol. 458, 191–221 (1992).

J. Kremers, B. B. Lee, and P. K. Kaiser, “Sensitivity of macaque retinal ganglion-cells and human observers to combined luminance and chromatic temporal modulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1477–1485 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Valberg, B. B. Lee, P. K. Kaiser, and J. Kremers, “Responses of macaque ganglion-cells to movement of chromatic borders,” J. Physiol. 458, 579–602 (1992).

1991 (1)

B. B. Boycott and H. Wassle, “Morphological classification of bipolar cells of the primate retina,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 3, 1069–1088 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

P. K. Kaiser, B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “The physiological basis of the minimally distinct border demonstrated in the ganglion cells of the macaque retina,” J. Physiol. 422, 153–183 (1990).

B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Luminance and chromatic modulation sensitivity of macaque ganglion-cells and human observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 2223–2236 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Schiller, N. K. Logothetis, and E. R. Charles, “Functions of the colour-opponent and broad-band channels of the visual system,” Nature 343, 68–70 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Sensitivity of macaque retinal ganglion cells to chromatic and luminance flicker,” J. Physiol. 414, 223–243 (1989).

R. A. Stockton and M. M. Slaughter, “The b-wave of the electroretinogram; a reflection of ON-bipolar cell activity,” J. Gen. Physiol. 93, 101–122 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “The physiological-basis of heterochromatic flicker photometry demonstrated in the ganglion-cells of the macaque retina,” J. Physiol. 404, 323–347 (1988).

1987 (3)

1986 (2)

R. Shapley and V. H. Perry, “Cat and monkey retinal ganglion cells and their visual functional roles,” Trends Neurosci. 9, 229–235 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Seiple, I. M. Siegel, R. E. Carr, and C. Mayron, “Evaluating macular function using the focal ERG,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 1123–1130 (1986).

1984 (1)

A. M. Derrington and P. Lennie, “Spatial and temporal contrast sensitivities of neurones in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. 357, 219–240 (1984).

1983 (1)

T. P. Hicks, B. B. Lee, and T. R. Vidyasagar, “The response of cells in macaque lateral geniculate nucleus to sinusoidal gratings,” J. Physiol. 337, 183–200 (1983).

1982 (1)

O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, “The “silent substitution” method in visual research,” Vis. Res. 22, 681–691 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

1976 (1)

B. Dreher, Y. Fukada, and R. W. Rodieck, “Identification, classification and anatomical segregation of cells with X-like and Y-like properties in the lateral geniculate nucleus of old-world primates,” J. Physiol. 258, 433–452 (1976).

1975 (1)

F. M. De Monasterio and P. Gouras, “Functional properties of ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,” J. Physiol. 251, 167–195 (1975).

1974 (1)

O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, “Spectral compensation method for determining flicker characteristics of human color mechanisms,” Vis. Res. 14, 823–830 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1966 (2)

D. Regan, “Some characteristics of average steady-state and transient responses evoked by modulated light,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 20, 238–248 (1966).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, “Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115–1156 (1966).

1965 (1)

L. H. Van Der Tweel and H. F. Lunel, “Human visual responses to sinusoidally modulated light,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 18, 587–598 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

P. L. Walraven and H. J. Leebeek, “Phase shift of alternating coloured stimuli,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 18, 56–71 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

K. T. Brown and T. N. Wiesel, “Localization of origins of electroretinogram components by intraretinal recording in the intact cat eye,” J. Physiol. 158, 257–280 (1961).

1958 (2)

Alexander, K. R.

H. Qian, K. R. Alexander, and H. Ripps, “Harmonic analysis of the cone flicker ERG of rabbit,” Exp. Eye Res. 91, 811–817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Qian, M. R. Shah, K. R. Alexander, and H. Ripps, “Two distinct processes are evident in rat cone flicker ERG responses at low and high temporal frequencies,” Exp. Eye Res. 87, 71–75 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Alexander, A. S. Rajagopalan, A. Raghuram, and G. A. Fishman, “Activation phase of cone phototransduction and the flicker electroretinogram in retinitis pigmentosa,” Vis. Res. 46, 2773–2785 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Krishna, K. R. Alexander, and N. S. Peachey, “Temporal properties of the mouse cone electroretinogram,” J. Neurophysiol. 87, 42–48 (2002).

Allen, C. P.

C. Friedburg, C. P. Allen, P. J. Mason, and T. D. Lamb, “Contribution of cone photoreceptors and post-receptoral mechanisms to the human photopic electroretinogram,” J. Physiol. 556, 819–834 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berendschot, T. T.

Birch, D. G.

D. C. Hood and D. G. Birch, “Human cone receptor activity: the leading edge of the a-wave and models of receptor activity,” Vis. Neurosci. 10, 857–871 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Fishman, D. G. Birch, G. E. Holder, and M. G. Brigell, “Electrophysiologic testing,” in Disorders of the Retina, Optic Nerve, and Visual Pathway, 2nd ed., Vol. 2 of Ophthalmology Monographs (Foundation of the American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2001).

Boycott, B. B.

H. Wassle, U. Grünert, P. R. Martin, and B. B. Boycott, “Immunocytochemical characterization and spatial distribution of midget bipolar cells in the macaque monkey retina,” Vis. Res. 34, 561–579 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Boycott and H. Wassle, “Morphological classification of bipolar cells of the primate retina,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 3, 1069–1088 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brainard, D. H.

Brigell, M. G.

G. A. Fishman, D. G. Birch, G. E. Holder, and M. G. Brigell, “Electrophysiologic testing,” in Disorders of the Retina, Optic Nerve, and Visual Pathway, 2nd ed., Vol. 2 of Ophthalmology Monographs (Foundation of the American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2001).

Brown, K. T.

K. T. Brown and T. N. Wiesel, “Localization of origins of electroretinogram components by intraretinal recording in the intact cat eye,” J. Physiol. 158, 257–280 (1961).

Burgers, N.

J. V. Odom, D. Reits, N. Burgers, and F. C. Riemslag, “Flicker electroretinograms—a systems analytic approach,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69, 106–116 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Burns, S. A.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, and M. R. Kreitz, “Analysis of nonlinearities in the flicker ERG,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69, 95–105 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bush, R. A.

Calderone, J. B.

Carr, R. E.

W. H. Seiple, I. M. Siegel, R. E. Carr, and C. Mayron, “Evaluating macular function using the focal ERG,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 1123–1130 (1986).

Carroll, J.

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic,” J. Neurosci. 25, 9669–9679 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Neitz, J. Carroll, Y. Yamauchi, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Color perception is mediated by a plastic neural mechanism that is adjustable in adults,” Neuron 35, 783–792 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Charles, E. R.

P. H. Schiller, N. K. Logothetis, and E. R. Charles, “Functions of the colour-opponent and broad-band channels of the visual system,” Nature 343, 68–70 (1990).
[CrossRef]

da Silva Filho, M.

J. Kremers, A. R. Rodrigues, L. C. Silveria, and M. da Silva Filho, “Flicker ERGs representing chromaticity and luminance signals,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 577–587 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dacey, D. M.

D. M. Dacey, “Parallel pathways for spectral coding in primate retina,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 23, 743–775 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Dacey, “Primate retina: cell types, circuits and colour opponency,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 18, 737–763 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Davis, M.

De Lange Dzn, H.

De Monasterio, F. M.

F. M. De Monasterio and P. Gouras, “Functional properties of ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,” J. Physiol. 251, 167–195 (1975).

Deegan, J. F.

G. H. Jacobs and J. F. Deegan, “Spectral sensitivity of macaque monkeys measured with ERG flicker photometry,” Vis. Neurosci. 14, 921–928 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Derrington, A. M.

A. M. Derrington and P. Lennie, “Spatial and temporal contrast sensitivities of neurones in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. 357, 219–240 (1984).

DeVries, H.

W. Li and H. DeVries, “Bipolar cells pathways for color and luminance vision in a dichromatic mammalian retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 9, 669–675 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dreher, B.

B. Dreher, Y. Fukada, and R. W. Rodieck, “Identification, classification and anatomical segregation of cells with X-like and Y-like properties in the lateral geniculate nucleus of old-world primates,” J. Physiol. 258, 433–452 (1976).

Drum, B. A.

Elsner, A. E.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, and M. R. Kreitz, “Analysis of nonlinearities in the flicker ERG,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69, 95–105 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Erikoz, B.

B. Erikoz, P. R. Jusuf, K. A. Percival, and U. Grünert, “Distribution of bipolar input to midget and parasol ganglion cells in marmoset retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 67–76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Estévez, O.

O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, “The “silent substitution” method in visual research,” Vis. Res. 22, 681–691 (1982).
[CrossRef]

O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, “Spectral compensation method for determining flicker characteristics of human color mechanisms,” Vis. Res. 14, 823–830 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Falsini, B.

E. N. Pugh, B. Falsini, and A. L. Lyubarsky, “The origin of the major rod- and cone-driven components of the rodent electroretinogram and the effect of age and light-rearing history on the magnitude of these components,” in Photostasis and Related Phenomena, T. P. Williams and A. B. Thistle, eds. (Springer, 1998), pp. 93–128.

Fishman, G. A.

K. R. Alexander, A. S. Rajagopalan, A. Raghuram, and G. A. Fishman, “Activation phase of cone phototransduction and the flicker electroretinogram in retinitis pigmentosa,” Vis. Res. 46, 2773–2785 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Fishman, D. G. Birch, G. E. Holder, and M. G. Brigell, “Electrophysiologic testing,” in Disorders of the Retina, Optic Nerve, and Visual Pathway, 2nd ed., Vol. 2 of Ophthalmology Monographs (Foundation of the American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2001).

Friedburg, C.

C. Friedburg, C. P. Allen, P. J. Mason, and T. D. Lamb, “Contribution of cone photoreceptors and post-receptoral mechanisms to the human photopic electroretinogram,” J. Physiol. 556, 819–834 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Frishman, L. J.

L. J. Frishman, “Origins of the electroretinogram,” in Principles and Practice of Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision, J. R. Heckenlively and G. B. Arden, eds. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006), pp. 139–184.

Fukada, Y.

B. Dreher, Y. Fukada, and R. W. Rodieck, “Identification, classification and anatomical segregation of cells with X-like and Y-like properties in the lateral geniculate nucleus of old-world primates,” J. Physiol. 258, 433–452 (1976).

Gouras, P.

F. M. De Monasterio and P. Gouras, “Functional properties of ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,” J. Physiol. 251, 167–195 (1975).

Grünert, U.

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and U. Grünert, “Retinal connectivity in primate vision,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 29, 622–639 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Erikoz, P. R. Jusuf, K. A. Percival, and U. Grünert, “Distribution of bipolar input to midget and parasol ganglion cells in marmoset retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 67–76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Wassle, U. Grünert, P. R. Martin, and B. B. Boycott, “Immunocytochemical characterization and spatial distribution of midget bipolar cells in the macaque monkey retina,” Vis. Res. 34, 561–579 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hicks, T. P.

T. P. Hicks, B. B. Lee, and T. R. Vidyasagar, “The response of cells in macaque lateral geniculate nucleus to sinusoidal gratings,” J. Physiol. 337, 183–200 (1983).

Hofer, H.

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic,” J. Neurosci. 25, 9669–9679 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Holder, G. E.

G. A. Fishman, D. G. Birch, G. E. Holder, and M. G. Brigell, “Electrophysiologic testing,” in Disorders of the Retina, Optic Nerve, and Visual Pathway, 2nd ed., Vol. 2 of Ophthalmology Monographs (Foundation of the American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2001).

Hood, D. C.

D. C. Hood and D. G. Birch, “Human cone receptor activity: the leading edge of the a-wave and models of receptor activity,” Vis. Neurosci. 10, 857–871 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Horn, F. K.

G. Pangeni, F. K. Horn, and J. Kremers, “A new interpretation of components in the ERG signals to sine wave luminance stimuli at different temporal frequencies and contrasts,” Vis. Neurosci. 27, 79–90 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hubel, D. H.

T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, “Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115–1156 (1966).

Jacobs, G. H.

Johnson, N. E.

Jusuf, P. R.

B. Erikoz, P. R. Jusuf, K. A. Percival, and U. Grünert, “Distribution of bipolar input to midget and parasol ganglion cells in marmoset retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 67–76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, P. K.

J. Kremers, B. B. Lee, and P. K. Kaiser, “Sensitivity of macaque retinal ganglion-cells and human observers to combined luminance and chromatic temporal modulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1477–1485 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Valberg, B. B. Lee, P. K. Kaiser, and J. Kremers, “Responses of macaque ganglion-cells to movement of chromatic borders,” J. Physiol. 458, 579–602 (1992).

P. K. Kaiser, B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “The physiological basis of the minimally distinct border demonstrated in the ganglion cells of the macaque retina,” J. Physiol. 422, 153–183 (1990).

Knau, H.

Kondo, M.

M. Kondo and P. A. Sieving, “Primate photopic sine-wave flicker ERG: vector modeling analysis of component origins using glutamate analogs,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 305–312 (2001).

Krauskopf, J.

Kreitz, M. R.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, and M. R. Kreitz, “Analysis of nonlinearities in the flicker ERG,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69, 95–105 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kremers, J.

N. R. Parry, I. J. Murray, A. Panorgias, D. J. McKeefry, B. B. Lee, and J. Kremers, “Simultaneous chromatic and luminance human electroretinogram responses,” J. Physiol. 590, 3141–3154 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers and G. Pangeni, “Electroretinographic responses to photoreceptor specific sine wave modulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A306–A313 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Pangeni, F. K. Horn, and J. Kremers, “A new interpretation of components in the ERG signals to sine wave luminance stimuli at different temporal frequencies and contrasts,” Vis. Neurosci. 27, 79–90 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, A. R. Rodrigues, L. C. Silveria, and M. da Silva Filho, “Flicker ERGs representing chromaticity and luminance signals,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 577–587 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers and B. Link, “Electroretinographic responses that may reflect activity of parvo- and magnocellular post-receptoral visual pathways,” J. Vis. 8(15), 11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, “The assessment of L- and M-cone specific electroretinographical signals in the normal and abnormal human retina,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 22, 579–605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, H. P. Scholl, H. Knau, T. T. Berendschot, T. Usui, and L. T. Sharpe, “L/M cone ratios in human trichromats assessed by psychophysics, electroretinography, and retinal densitometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 517–526 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, B. B. Lee, and P. K. Kaiser, “Sensitivity of macaque retinal ganglion-cells and human observers to combined luminance and chromatic temporal modulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1477–1485 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Valberg, B. B. Lee, P. K. Kaiser, and J. Kremers, “Responses of macaque ganglion-cells to movement of chromatic borders,” J. Physiol. 458, 579–602 (1992).

Krishna, V. R.

V. R. Krishna, K. R. Alexander, and N. S. Peachey, “Temporal properties of the mouse cone electroretinogram,” J. Neurophysiol. 87, 42–48 (2002).

Krogh, K.

Lamb, T. D.

C. Friedburg, C. P. Allen, P. J. Mason, and T. D. Lamb, “Contribution of cone photoreceptors and post-receptoral mechanisms to the human photopic electroretinogram,” J. Physiol. 556, 819–834 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. B.

N. R. Parry, I. J. Murray, A. Panorgias, D. J. McKeefry, B. B. Lee, and J. Kremers, “Simultaneous chromatic and luminance human electroretinogram responses,” J. Physiol. 590, 3141–3154 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Lee, “Visual pathways and psychophysical channels in the primate,” J. Physiol. 589, 41–47 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and U. Grünert, “Retinal connectivity in primate vision,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 29, 622–639 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Valberg, B. B. Lee, P. K. Kaiser, and J. Kremers, “Responses of macaque ganglion-cells to movement of chromatic borders,” J. Physiol. 458, 579–602 (1992).

J. Kremers, B. B. Lee, and P. K. Kaiser, “Sensitivity of macaque retinal ganglion-cells and human observers to combined luminance and chromatic temporal modulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1477–1485 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion-cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,” J. Physiol. 458, 191–221 (1992).

P. K. Kaiser, B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “The physiological basis of the minimally distinct border demonstrated in the ganglion cells of the macaque retina,” J. Physiol. 422, 153–183 (1990).

B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Luminance and chromatic modulation sensitivity of macaque ganglion-cells and human observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 2223–2236 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Sensitivity of macaque retinal ganglion cells to chromatic and luminance flicker,” J. Physiol. 414, 223–243 (1989).

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “The physiological-basis of heterochromatic flicker photometry demonstrated in the ganglion-cells of the macaque retina,” J. Physiol. 404, 323–347 (1988).

B. B. Lee, A. Valberg, D. A. Tigwell, and J. Tryti, “An account of responses of spectrally opponent neurons in macaque lateral geniculate nucleus to successive contrast,” Proc. R. Soc. B 230, 293–314 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Hicks, B. B. Lee, and T. R. Vidyasagar, “The response of cells in macaque lateral geniculate nucleus to sinusoidal gratings,” J. Physiol. 337, 183–200 (1983).

Leebeek, H. J.

P. L. Walraven and H. J. Leebeek, “Phase shift of alternating coloured stimuli,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 18, 56–71 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Lennie, P.

A. M. Derrington and P. Lennie, “Spatial and temporal contrast sensitivities of neurones in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. 357, 219–240 (1984).

Li, W.

W. Li and H. DeVries, “Bipolar cells pathways for color and luminance vision in a dichromatic mammalian retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 9, 669–675 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Link, B.

J. Kremers and B. Link, “Electroretinographic responses that may reflect activity of parvo- and magnocellular post-receptoral visual pathways,” J. Vis. 8(15), 11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Logothetis, N. K.

P. H. Schiller, N. K. Logothetis, and E. R. Charles, “Functions of the colour-opponent and broad-band channels of the visual system,” Nature 343, 68–70 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lunel, H. F.

L. H. Van Der Tweel and H. F. Lunel, “Human visual responses to sinusoidally modulated light,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 18, 587–598 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Lyubarsky, A. L.

E. N. Pugh, B. Falsini, and A. L. Lyubarsky, “The origin of the major rod- and cone-driven components of the rodent electroretinogram and the effect of age and light-rearing history on the magnitude of these components,” in Photostasis and Related Phenomena, T. P. Williams and A. B. Thistle, eds. (Springer, 1998), pp. 93–128.

MacLeod, D. I.

Martin, P. R.

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and U. Grünert, “Retinal connectivity in primate vision,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 29, 622–639 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Wassle, U. Grünert, P. R. Martin, and B. B. Boycott, “Immunocytochemical characterization and spatial distribution of midget bipolar cells in the macaque monkey retina,” Vis. Res. 34, 561–579 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion-cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,” J. Physiol. 458, 191–221 (1992).

B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Luminance and chromatic modulation sensitivity of macaque ganglion-cells and human observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 2223–2236 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kaiser, B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “The physiological basis of the minimally distinct border demonstrated in the ganglion cells of the macaque retina,” J. Physiol. 422, 153–183 (1990).

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Sensitivity of macaque retinal ganglion cells to chromatic and luminance flicker,” J. Physiol. 414, 223–243 (1989).

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “The physiological-basis of heterochromatic flicker photometry demonstrated in the ganglion-cells of the macaque retina,” J. Physiol. 404, 323–347 (1988).

Mason, P. J.

C. Friedburg, C. P. Allen, P. J. Mason, and T. D. Lamb, “Contribution of cone photoreceptors and post-receptoral mechanisms to the human photopic electroretinogram,” J. Physiol. 556, 819–834 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mayron, C.

W. H. Seiple, I. M. Siegel, R. E. Carr, and C. Mayron, “Evaluating macular function using the focal ERG,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 1123–1130 (1986).

McKeefry, D. J.

N. R. Parry, I. J. Murray, A. Panorgias, D. J. McKeefry, B. B. Lee, and J. Kremers, “Simultaneous chromatic and luminance human electroretinogram responses,” J. Physiol. 590, 3141–3154 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Metha, A.

Murray, I. J.

N. R. Parry, I. J. Murray, A. Panorgias, D. J. McKeefry, B. B. Lee, and J. Kremers, “Simultaneous chromatic and luminance human electroretinogram responses,” J. Physiol. 590, 3141–3154 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Neitz, J.

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic,” J. Neurosci. 25, 9669–9679 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Neitz, J. Carroll, Y. Yamauchi, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Color perception is mediated by a plastic neural mechanism that is adjustable in adults,” Neuron 35, 783–792 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Brainard, A. Roorda, Y. Yamauchi, J. B. Calderone, A. Metha, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, and G. H. Jacobs, “Functional consequences of the relative numbers of L and M cones,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 607–614 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Jacobs, J. Neitz, and K. Krogh, “Electroretinogram flicker photometry and its applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 641–648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Neitz, M.

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic,” J. Neurosci. 25, 9669–9679 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Neitz, J. Carroll, Y. Yamauchi, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Color perception is mediated by a plastic neural mechanism that is adjustable in adults,” Neuron 35, 783–792 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Brainard, A. Roorda, Y. Yamauchi, J. B. Calderone, A. Metha, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, and G. H. Jacobs, “Functional consequences of the relative numbers of L and M cones,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 607–614 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Odom, J. V.

J. V. Odom, D. Reits, N. Burgers, and F. C. Riemslag, “Flicker electroretinograms—a systems analytic approach,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69, 106–116 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pangeni, G.

J. Kremers and G. Pangeni, “Electroretinographic responses to photoreceptor specific sine wave modulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A306–A313 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Pangeni, F. K. Horn, and J. Kremers, “A new interpretation of components in the ERG signals to sine wave luminance stimuli at different temporal frequencies and contrasts,” Vis. Neurosci. 27, 79–90 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Panorgias, A.

N. R. Parry, I. J. Murray, A. Panorgias, D. J. McKeefry, B. B. Lee, and J. Kremers, “Simultaneous chromatic and luminance human electroretinogram responses,” J. Physiol. 590, 3141–3154 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Parry, N. R.

N. R. Parry, I. J. Murray, A. Panorgias, D. J. McKeefry, B. B. Lee, and J. Kremers, “Simultaneous chromatic and luminance human electroretinogram responses,” J. Physiol. 590, 3141–3154 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Peachey, N. S.

V. R. Krishna, K. R. Alexander, and N. S. Peachey, “Temporal properties of the mouse cone electroretinogram,” J. Neurophysiol. 87, 42–48 (2002).

Percival, K. A.

B. Erikoz, P. R. Jusuf, K. A. Percival, and U. Grünert, “Distribution of bipolar input to midget and parasol ganglion cells in marmoset retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 67–76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perry, V. H.

R. Shapley and V. H. Perry, “Cat and monkey retinal ganglion cells and their visual functional roles,” Trends Neurosci. 9, 229–235 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pianta, M. J.

R. Verma and M. J. Pianta, “The contribution of human cone photoreceptors to the photopic flicker electroretinogram,” J. Vis. 9(3), 9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pokorny, J.

H. Sun, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Control of the modulation of human photoreceptors,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S69–S75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Shapiro, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Cone-rod receptor spaces with illustrations that use CRT phosphor and light-emitting-diode spectra,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2319–2328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, M. Davis, and T. Yeh, “Mechanisms subserving temporal-modulation sensitivity in silent-cone substitution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 241–249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion-cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,” J. Physiol. 458, 191–221 (1992).

B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Luminance and chromatic modulation sensitivity of macaque ganglion-cells and human observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 2223–2236 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Swanson, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Effects of temporal frequency on phase-dependent sensitivity to heterochromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2266–2273 (1987).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Swanson, T. Ueno, V. C. Smith, and J. Pokorny, “Temporal-modulation sensitivity and pulse-detection thresholds for chromatic and luminance perturbations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1992–2005 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and M. F. Wesner, “Variability in cone populations and implications,” in From Pigments to Perception: Advances in Understanding Visual Processes (Plenum, 1991), pp. 23–34.

Pugh, E. N.

E. N. Pugh, B. Falsini, and A. L. Lyubarsky, “The origin of the major rod- and cone-driven components of the rodent electroretinogram and the effect of age and light-rearing history on the magnitude of these components,” in Photostasis and Related Phenomena, T. P. Williams and A. B. Thistle, eds. (Springer, 1998), pp. 93–128.

Qian, H.

H. Qian, K. R. Alexander, and H. Ripps, “Harmonic analysis of the cone flicker ERG of rabbit,” Exp. Eye Res. 91, 811–817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Qian, M. R. Shah, K. R. Alexander, and H. Ripps, “Two distinct processes are evident in rat cone flicker ERG responses at low and high temporal frequencies,” Exp. Eye Res. 87, 71–75 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Raghuram, A.

K. R. Alexander, A. S. Rajagopalan, A. Raghuram, and G. A. Fishman, “Activation phase of cone phototransduction and the flicker electroretinogram in retinitis pigmentosa,” Vis. Res. 46, 2773–2785 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rajagopalan, A. S.

K. R. Alexander, A. S. Rajagopalan, A. Raghuram, and G. A. Fishman, “Activation phase of cone phototransduction and the flicker electroretinogram in retinitis pigmentosa,” Vis. Res. 46, 2773–2785 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Regan, D.

D. Regan, “Some characteristics of average steady-state and transient responses evoked by modulated light,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 20, 238–248 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Reits, D.

J. V. Odom, D. Reits, N. Burgers, and F. C. Riemslag, “Flicker electroretinograms—a systems analytic approach,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69, 106–116 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Riemslag, F. C.

J. V. Odom, D. Reits, N. Burgers, and F. C. Riemslag, “Flicker electroretinograms—a systems analytic approach,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69, 106–116 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ripps, H.

H. Qian, K. R. Alexander, and H. Ripps, “Harmonic analysis of the cone flicker ERG of rabbit,” Exp. Eye Res. 91, 811–817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Qian, M. R. Shah, K. R. Alexander, and H. Ripps, “Two distinct processes are evident in rat cone flicker ERG responses at low and high temporal frequencies,” Exp. Eye Res. 87, 71–75 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rodieck, R. W.

B. Dreher, Y. Fukada, and R. W. Rodieck, “Identification, classification and anatomical segregation of cells with X-like and Y-like properties in the lateral geniculate nucleus of old-world primates,” J. Physiol. 258, 433–452 (1976).

Rodrigues, A. R.

J. Kremers, A. R. Rodrigues, L. C. Silveria, and M. da Silva Filho, “Flicker ERGs representing chromaticity and luminance signals,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 577–587 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roorda, A.

Schiller, P. H.

P. H. Schiller, N. K. Logothetis, and E. R. Charles, “Functions of the colour-opponent and broad-band channels of the visual system,” Nature 343, 68–70 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Scholl, H. P.

Seiple, W. H.

W. H. Seiple, I. M. Siegel, R. E. Carr, and C. Mayron, “Evaluating macular function using the focal ERG,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 1123–1130 (1986).

Shah, M. R.

H. Qian, M. R. Shah, K. R. Alexander, and H. Ripps, “Two distinct processes are evident in rat cone flicker ERG responses at low and high temporal frequencies,” Exp. Eye Res. 87, 71–75 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, A. G.

Shapley, R.

R. Shapley and V. H. Perry, “Cat and monkey retinal ganglion cells and their visual functional roles,” Trends Neurosci. 9, 229–235 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, L. T.

Siegel, I. M.

W. H. Seiple, I. M. Siegel, R. E. Carr, and C. Mayron, “Evaluating macular function using the focal ERG,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 1123–1130 (1986).

Sieving, P. A.

M. Kondo and P. A. Sieving, “Primate photopic sine-wave flicker ERG: vector modeling analysis of component origins using glutamate analogs,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 305–312 (2001).

R. A. Bush and P. A. Sieving, “Inner retinal contributions to the primate photopic fast flicker electroretinogram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 557–565 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Silveria, L. C.

J. Kremers, A. R. Rodrigues, L. C. Silveria, and M. da Silva Filho, “Flicker ERGs representing chromaticity and luminance signals,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 577–587 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Slaughter, M. M.

R. A. Stockton and M. M. Slaughter, “The b-wave of the electroretinogram; a reflection of ON-bipolar cell activity,” J. Gen. Physiol. 93, 101–122 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Smith, V. C.

H. Sun, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Control of the modulation of human photoreceptors,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S69–S75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Shapiro, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Cone-rod receptor spaces with illustrations that use CRT phosphor and light-emitting-diode spectra,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2319–2328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, M. Davis, and T. Yeh, “Mechanisms subserving temporal-modulation sensitivity in silent-cone substitution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 241–249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion-cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,” J. Physiol. 458, 191–221 (1992).

B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Luminance and chromatic modulation sensitivity of macaque ganglion-cells and human observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 2223–2236 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Swanson, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Effects of temporal frequency on phase-dependent sensitivity to heterochromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2266–2273 (1987).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Swanson, T. Ueno, V. C. Smith, and J. Pokorny, “Temporal-modulation sensitivity and pulse-detection thresholds for chromatic and luminance perturbations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1992–2005 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and M. F. Wesner, “Variability in cone populations and implications,” in From Pigments to Perception: Advances in Understanding Visual Processes (Plenum, 1991), pp. 23–34.

Spekreijse, H.

O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, “The “silent substitution” method in visual research,” Vis. Res. 22, 681–691 (1982).
[CrossRef]

O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, “Spectral compensation method for determining flicker characteristics of human color mechanisms,” Vis. Res. 14, 823–830 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, A.

Stockton, R. A.

R. A. Stockton and M. M. Slaughter, “The b-wave of the electroretinogram; a reflection of ON-bipolar cell activity,” J. Gen. Physiol. 93, 101–122 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.

H. Sun, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Control of the modulation of human photoreceptors,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S69–S75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, W. H.

Tigwell, D. A.

B. B. Lee, A. Valberg, D. A. Tigwell, and J. Tryti, “An account of responses of spectrally opponent neurons in macaque lateral geniculate nucleus to successive contrast,” Proc. R. Soc. B 230, 293–314 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tryti, J.

B. B. Lee, A. Valberg, D. A. Tigwell, and J. Tryti, “An account of responses of spectrally opponent neurons in macaque lateral geniculate nucleus to successive contrast,” Proc. R. Soc. B 230, 293–314 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, T.

Usui, T.

Valberg, A.

V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion-cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,” J. Physiol. 458, 191–221 (1992).

A. Valberg, B. B. Lee, P. K. Kaiser, and J. Kremers, “Responses of macaque ganglion-cells to movement of chromatic borders,” J. Physiol. 458, 579–602 (1992).

P. K. Kaiser, B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “The physiological basis of the minimally distinct border demonstrated in the ganglion cells of the macaque retina,” J. Physiol. 422, 153–183 (1990).

B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Luminance and chromatic modulation sensitivity of macaque ganglion-cells and human observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 2223–2236 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Sensitivity of macaque retinal ganglion cells to chromatic and luminance flicker,” J. Physiol. 414, 223–243 (1989).

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “The physiological-basis of heterochromatic flicker photometry demonstrated in the ganglion-cells of the macaque retina,” J. Physiol. 404, 323–347 (1988).

B. B. Lee, A. Valberg, D. A. Tigwell, and J. Tryti, “An account of responses of spectrally opponent neurons in macaque lateral geniculate nucleus to successive contrast,” Proc. R. Soc. B 230, 293–314 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Van Der Tweel, L. H.

L. H. Van Der Tweel and H. F. Lunel, “Human visual responses to sinusoidally modulated light,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 18, 587–598 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Verma, R.

R. Verma and M. J. Pianta, “The contribution of human cone photoreceptors to the photopic flicker electroretinogram,” J. Vis. 9(3), 9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vidyasagar, T. R.

T. P. Hicks, B. B. Lee, and T. R. Vidyasagar, “The response of cells in macaque lateral geniculate nucleus to sinusoidal gratings,” J. Physiol. 337, 183–200 (1983).

Walraven, P. L.

P. L. Walraven and H. J. Leebeek, “Phase shift of alternating coloured stimuli,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 18, 56–71 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Wassle, H.

H. Wassle, U. Grünert, P. R. Martin, and B. B. Boycott, “Immunocytochemical characterization and spatial distribution of midget bipolar cells in the macaque monkey retina,” Vis. Res. 34, 561–579 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Boycott and H. Wassle, “Morphological classification of bipolar cells of the primate retina,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 3, 1069–1088 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wesner, M. F.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and M. F. Wesner, “Variability in cone populations and implications,” in From Pigments to Perception: Advances in Understanding Visual Processes (Plenum, 1991), pp. 23–34.

Wiesel, T. N.

T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, “Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115–1156 (1966).

K. T. Brown and T. N. Wiesel, “Localization of origins of electroretinogram components by intraretinal recording in the intact cat eye,” J. Physiol. 158, 257–280 (1961).

Williams, D. R.

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic,” J. Neurosci. 25, 9669–9679 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Neitz, J. Carroll, Y. Yamauchi, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Color perception is mediated by a plastic neural mechanism that is adjustable in adults,” Neuron 35, 783–792 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Brainard, A. Roorda, Y. Yamauchi, J. B. Calderone, A. Metha, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, and G. H. Jacobs, “Functional consequences of the relative numbers of L and M cones,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 607–614 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, Y.

J. Neitz, J. Carroll, Y. Yamauchi, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Color perception is mediated by a plastic neural mechanism that is adjustable in adults,” Neuron 35, 783–792 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Brainard, A. Roorda, Y. Yamauchi, J. B. Calderone, A. Metha, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, and G. H. Jacobs, “Functional consequences of the relative numbers of L and M cones,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 607–614 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, T.

Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (1)

D. M. Dacey, “Parallel pathways for spectral coding in primate retina,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 23, 743–775 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Color Res. Appl. (1)

H. Sun, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Control of the modulation of human photoreceptors,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S69–S75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Doc. Ophthalmol. (1)

P. L. Walraven and H. J. Leebeek, “Phase shift of alternating coloured stimuli,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 18, 56–71 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. (2)

L. H. Van Der Tweel and H. F. Lunel, “Human visual responses to sinusoidally modulated light,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 18, 587–598 (1965).
[CrossRef]

D. Regan, “Some characteristics of average steady-state and transient responses evoked by modulated light,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 20, 238–248 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Neurosci. (1)

B. B. Boycott and H. Wassle, “Morphological classification of bipolar cells of the primate retina,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 3, 1069–1088 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Eye Res. (2)

H. Qian, M. R. Shah, K. R. Alexander, and H. Ripps, “Two distinct processes are evident in rat cone flicker ERG responses at low and high temporal frequencies,” Exp. Eye Res. 87, 71–75 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Qian, K. R. Alexander, and H. Ripps, “Harmonic analysis of the cone flicker ERG of rabbit,” Exp. Eye Res. 91, 811–817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (3)

W. H. Seiple, I. M. Siegel, R. E. Carr, and C. Mayron, “Evaluating macular function using the focal ERG,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 1123–1130 (1986).

M. Kondo and P. A. Sieving, “Primate photopic sine-wave flicker ERG: vector modeling analysis of component origins using glutamate analogs,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 305–312 (2001).

J. Kremers, A. R. Rodrigues, L. C. Silveria, and M. da Silva Filho, “Flicker ERGs representing chromaticity and luminance signals,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 577–587 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

R. A. Stockton and M. M. Slaughter, “The b-wave of the electroretinogram; a reflection of ON-bipolar cell activity,” J. Gen. Physiol. 93, 101–122 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurophysiol. (2)

T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, “Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115–1156 (1966).

V. R. Krishna, K. R. Alexander, and N. S. Peachey, “Temporal properties of the mouse cone electroretinogram,” J. Neurophysiol. 87, 42–48 (2002).

J. Neurosci. (1)

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic,” J. Neurosci. 25, 9669–9679 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (13)

J. Kremers and G. Pangeni, “Electroretinographic responses to photoreceptor specific sine wave modulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, A306–A313 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Swanson, T. Ueno, V. C. Smith, and J. Pokorny, “Temporal-modulation sensitivity and pulse-detection thresholds for chromatic and luminance perturbations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1992–2005 (1987).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Swanson, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Effects of temporal frequency on phase-dependent sensitivity to heterochromatic flicker,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2266–2273 (1987).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Luminance and chromatic modulation sensitivity of macaque ganglion-cells and human observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 2223–2236 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Stockman, D. I. MacLeod, and N. E. Johnson, “Spectral sensitivities of the human cones,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2491–2521 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bush and P. A. Sieving, “Inner retinal contributions to the primate photopic fast flicker electroretinogram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 557–565 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Jacobs, J. Neitz, and K. Krogh, “Electroretinogram flicker photometry and its applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 641–648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, M. Davis, and T. Yeh, “Mechanisms subserving temporal-modulation sensitivity in silent-cone substitution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 241–249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Shapiro, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Cone-rod receptor spaces with illustrations that use CRT phosphor and light-emitting-diode spectra,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2319–2328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Krauskopf, “Relative number of long- and middle-wavelength sensitive cones in the human fovea,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 510–516 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, H. P. Scholl, H. Knau, T. T. Berendschot, T. Usui, and L. T. Sharpe, “L/M cone ratios in human trichromats assessed by psychophysics, electroretinography, and retinal densitometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 517–526 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Brainard, A. Roorda, Y. Yamauchi, J. B. Calderone, A. Metha, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, D. R. Williams, and G. H. Jacobs, “Functional consequences of the relative numbers of L and M cones,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 607–614 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, B. B. Lee, and P. K. Kaiser, “Sensitivity of macaque retinal ganglion-cells and human observers to combined luminance and chromatic temporal modulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1477–1485 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Physiol. (13)

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Sensitivity of macaque retinal ganglion cells to chromatic and luminance flicker,” J. Physiol. 414, 223–243 (1989).

B. B. Lee, “Visual pathways and psychophysical channels in the primate,” J. Physiol. 589, 41–47 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion-cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,” J. Physiol. 458, 191–221 (1992).

P. K. Kaiser, B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “The physiological basis of the minimally distinct border demonstrated in the ganglion cells of the macaque retina,” J. Physiol. 422, 153–183 (1990).

A. Valberg, B. B. Lee, P. K. Kaiser, and J. Kremers, “Responses of macaque ganglion-cells to movement of chromatic borders,” J. Physiol. 458, 579–602 (1992).

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “The physiological-basis of heterochromatic flicker photometry demonstrated in the ganglion-cells of the macaque retina,” J. Physiol. 404, 323–347 (1988).

N. R. Parry, I. J. Murray, A. Panorgias, D. J. McKeefry, B. B. Lee, and J. Kremers, “Simultaneous chromatic and luminance human electroretinogram responses,” J. Physiol. 590, 3141–3154 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. M. De Monasterio and P. Gouras, “Functional properties of ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,” J. Physiol. 251, 167–195 (1975).

B. Dreher, Y. Fukada, and R. W. Rodieck, “Identification, classification and anatomical segregation of cells with X-like and Y-like properties in the lateral geniculate nucleus of old-world primates,” J. Physiol. 258, 433–452 (1976).

T. P. Hicks, B. B. Lee, and T. R. Vidyasagar, “The response of cells in macaque lateral geniculate nucleus to sinusoidal gratings,” J. Physiol. 337, 183–200 (1983).

A. M. Derrington and P. Lennie, “Spatial and temporal contrast sensitivities of neurones in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. 357, 219–240 (1984).

K. T. Brown and T. N. Wiesel, “Localization of origins of electroretinogram components by intraretinal recording in the intact cat eye,” J. Physiol. 158, 257–280 (1961).

C. Friedburg, C. P. Allen, P. J. Mason, and T. D. Lamb, “Contribution of cone photoreceptors and post-receptoral mechanisms to the human photopic electroretinogram,” J. Physiol. 556, 819–834 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Vis. (2)

R. Verma and M. J. Pianta, “The contribution of human cone photoreceptors to the photopic flicker electroretinogram,” J. Vis. 9(3), 9 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers and B. Link, “Electroretinographic responses that may reflect activity of parvo- and magnocellular post-receptoral visual pathways,” J. Vis. 8(15), 11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Neurosci. (1)

W. Li and H. DeVries, “Bipolar cells pathways for color and luminance vision in a dichromatic mammalian retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 9, 669–675 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

P. H. Schiller, N. K. Logothetis, and E. R. Charles, “Functions of the colour-opponent and broad-band channels of the visual system,” Nature 343, 68–70 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Neuron (1)

J. Neitz, J. Carroll, Y. Yamauchi, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, “Color perception is mediated by a plastic neural mechanism that is adjustable in adults,” Neuron 35, 783–792 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Optom. Vis. Sci. (2)

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, and M. R. Kreitz, “Analysis of nonlinearities in the flicker ERG,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69, 95–105 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Odom, D. Reits, N. Burgers, and F. C. Riemslag, “Flicker electroretinograms—a systems analytic approach,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69, 106–116 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. B (1)

B. B. Lee, A. Valberg, D. A. Tigwell, and J. Tryti, “An account of responses of spectrally opponent neurons in macaque lateral geniculate nucleus to successive contrast,” Proc. R. Soc. B 230, 293–314 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Retinal Eye Res. (3)

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and U. Grünert, “Retinal connectivity in primate vision,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 29, 622–639 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, “The assessment of L- and M-cone specific electroretinographical signals in the normal and abnormal human retina,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 22, 579–605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Dacey, “Primate retina: cell types, circuits and colour opponency,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 18, 737–763 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Trends Neurosci. (1)

R. Shapley and V. H. Perry, “Cat and monkey retinal ganglion cells and their visual functional roles,” Trends Neurosci. 9, 229–235 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Neurosci. (4)

G. H. Jacobs and J. F. Deegan, “Spectral sensitivity of macaque monkeys measured with ERG flicker photometry,” Vis. Neurosci. 14, 921–928 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Pangeni, F. K. Horn, and J. Kremers, “A new interpretation of components in the ERG signals to sine wave luminance stimuli at different temporal frequencies and contrasts,” Vis. Neurosci. 27, 79–90 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hood and D. G. Birch, “Human cone receptor activity: the leading edge of the a-wave and models of receptor activity,” Vis. Neurosci. 10, 857–871 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Erikoz, P. R. Jusuf, K. A. Percival, and U. Grünert, “Distribution of bipolar input to midget and parasol ganglion cells in marmoset retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 67–76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Res. (4)

H. Wassle, U. Grünert, P. R. Martin, and B. B. Boycott, “Immunocytochemical characterization and spatial distribution of midget bipolar cells in the macaque monkey retina,” Vis. Res. 34, 561–579 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, “Spectral compensation method for determining flicker characteristics of human color mechanisms,” Vis. Res. 14, 823–830 (1974).
[CrossRef]

O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, “The “silent substitution” method in visual research,” Vis. Res. 22, 681–691 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Alexander, A. S. Rajagopalan, A. Raghuram, and G. A. Fishman, “Activation phase of cone phototransduction and the flicker electroretinogram in retinitis pigmentosa,” Vis. Res. 46, 2773–2785 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

E. N. Pugh, B. Falsini, and A. L. Lyubarsky, “The origin of the major rod- and cone-driven components of the rodent electroretinogram and the effect of age and light-rearing history on the magnitude of these components,” in Photostasis and Related Phenomena, T. P. Williams and A. B. Thistle, eds. (Springer, 1998), pp. 93–128.

G. A. Fishman, D. G. Birch, G. E. Holder, and M. G. Brigell, “Electrophysiologic testing,” in Disorders of the Retina, Optic Nerve, and Visual Pathway, 2nd ed., Vol. 2 of Ophthalmology Monographs (Foundation of the American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2001).

L. J. Frishman, “Origins of the electroretinogram,” in Principles and Practice of Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision, J. R. Heckenlively and G. B. Arden, eds. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006), pp. 139–184.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and M. F. Wesner, “Variability in cone populations and implications,” in From Pigments to Perception: Advances in Understanding Visual Processes (Plenum, 1991), pp. 23–34.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Temporal frequency response functions plotting the amplitude of (a) fundamental and (b) second harmonic components of L- and M-cone isolated ERGs. The functions represent vector averages of results from nine color normal trichromatic observers. The dashed lines in (a) represent measures of noise based upon the mean signal amplitude at F+1Hz and F1Hz (see methods).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Temporal frequency response functions plotting the amplitude of the fundamental component of L- and M-cone isolated ERGs from (a) deuteranopic and (b) protanopic observers. Similar conventions apply as in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Intensively sampled temporal frequency response functions plotting fundamental amplitude of L- and M-cone isolated ERGs in a group of six trichromatic observers. (b) L:M cone ERG response amplitude ratios of the data from (a) plotted as a function of temporal frequency. Error bars represent+1 standard deviation of the mean.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Phase versus temporal frequency plots of fundamental L- and M-cone isolated ERG responses. The data represent vector averages for a group of six trichromatic observers. (b) Variation in apparent latency, τ (see methods for calculation), of the L- and M-cone responses as a function of temporal frequency. Individual data points are five-point running averages.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) L:M ERG amplitude ratios measured at a flicker stimulation frequency of 5 Hz. The plot illustrates the measured values from two deuteranopes (gray bars) and two protanopes (white bars) and how they compare with the group averaged L:M amplitude ratios in six color normal trichromats (dark bars). (b) L:M ERG amplitude ratios for the same dichromatic and trichromatic observers obtained at a stimulation frequency of 30 Hz. Error bars represent+1 standard deviation of the mean.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N=(A(F1Hz)+A(F+1Hz))/2.
τ=(1/360)*(Δϕ/Δf).

Metrics