Abstract

The physiology and anatomy of the primate visual pathway are reviewed from a historical perspective, especially in relation to color vision. From the work of the last decades, certain issues have been selected which remain unresolved and still pose a challenge for neurobiologists and psychophysicists. It is suggested that the structure of the primate visual pathway has been colored by the evolution of trichromacy and that many features of the parvocellular pathway represent adaptations to this end.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2012 (3)

2011 (5)

B. B. Lee, H. Sun, and A. Valberg, “Segregation of chromatic and luminance signals using a novel grating stimulus,” J. Physiol. 589, 59–73 (2011).
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J. D. Crook, M. B. Manookin, O. S. Packer, and D. M. Dacey, “Horizontal cell feedback without cone type-selective inhibition mediates “red-green” color opponency in midget ganglion cells of the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 31, 1762–1772 (2011).
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D. V. D’Souza, T. Auer, H. Strasburger, J. Frahm, and B. B. Lee, “An fMRI study of chromatic processing in humans: temporal characteristics of cortical visual areas,” J. Vis. 11(8):8 (2011).
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B. B. Lee, “Visual pathways and psychophysical channels in the primate,” J. Physiol. 589, 41–47 (2011).
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P. R. Martin, E. M. Blessing, P. Buzas, B. A. Szmajda, and J. D. Forte, “Transmission of colour and acuity signals by parvocellular cells in marmoset monkeys,” J. Physiol. 589, 2795–2812 (2011).
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2010 (2)

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and U. Grünert, “Retinal connectivity and primate vision,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 29, 622–639 (2010).
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D. Cao, B. B. Lee, and H. Sun, “Combination of rod and cone inputs in parasol ganglion cells of the magnocellular pathway,” J. Vis. 10(11):4 (2010).
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2009 (3)

J. D. Mollon, “A neural basis for unique hues?” Curr. Biol. 19, R441–R442; author reply R442–R443 (2009).
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L. C. Sincich, Y. Zhang, P. Tiruveedhula, J. C. Horton, and A. Roorda, “Resolving single cone inputs to visual receptive fields,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 967–969 (2009).
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J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
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2008 (7)

C. Tailby, B. A. Szmajda, P. Buzas, B. B. Lee, and P. R. Martin, “Transmission of blue (S) cone signals through the primate lateral geniculate nucleus,” J. Physiol. 586, 5947–5967 (2008).
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J. D. Crook, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, F. R. Robinson, J. B. Troy, and D. M. Dacey, “Y-cell receptive field and collicular projection of parasol ganglion cells in macaque monkey retina,” J. Neurosci. 28, 11277–11291 (2008).
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C. Tailby, S. G. Solomon, and P. Lennie, “Functional asymmetries in visual pathways carrying S-cone signals in macaque,” J. Neurosci. 28, 4078–4087 (2008).
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B. B. Lee, “The evolution of concepts of color vision,” Neuroçiencias 4, 209–224 (2008).

C. M. Stoughton and B. R. Conway, “Neural basis for unique hues,” Curr. Biol. 18, R698–R699 (2008).
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B. B. Lee, “Neural models and physiological reality,” Vis. Neurosci. 251, 231–241 (2008).

2007 (4)

S. G. Solomon and P. Lennie, “The machinery of colour vision,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 8, 276–286 (2007).
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K. T. Mullen, S. O. Dumoulin, K. L. McMahon, G. I. de Zubicaray, and R. F. Hess, “Selectivity of human retinotopic visual cortex to S-cone-opponent, L/M-cone-opponent and achromatic stimulation,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 25, 491–502 (2007).
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D. D’Souza, “Do chromatic responses in V1 match retinal output or perceptual performance?” J. Vis. 7(15):60 (2007).
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B. B. Lee, H. Sun, and W. Zucchini, “The temporal properties of the response of macaque ganglion cells and central mechanisms of flicker detection,” J. Vis. 7(14):1 (2007).
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2006 (3)

P. Buzas, E. M. Blessing, B. A. Szmadja, and P. R. Martin, “Specificity of M and L cone inputs to receptive fields in the parvocellular pathway: random wiring with functional bias,” J. Neurosci. 26, 11148–11161 (2006).
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S. Vanni, L. Henriksson, M. Viikari, and A. C. James, “Retinotopic distribution of chromatic responses in human primary visual cortex,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 24, 1821–1831 (2006).
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J. Mollon, “Monge: the verriest lecture, Lyon, July 2005,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 297–309 (2006).
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2005 (4)

S. G. Solomon, B. B. Lee, A. J. White, L. Ruttiger, and P. R. Martin, “Chromatic organization of ganglion cell receptive fields in the peripheral retina,” J. Neurosci. 25, 4527–4539 (2005).
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D. M. Dacey, H. W. Liao, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K. Y. Yau, and P. D. Gamlin, “Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal colour and irradiance and project to the LGN,” Nature 433, 749–754 (2005).
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S. C. Lee, I. Telkes, and U. Grunert, “S-cones do not contribute to the OFF-midget pathway in the retina of the marmoset, Callithrix jacchus,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 22, 437–447 (2005).
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P. Lennie and J. A. Movshon, “Coding of color and form in the geniculostriate visual pathway (invited review),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2013–2033 (2005).
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2003 (2)

D. M. Dacey, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, and P. D. Gamlin, “Fireworks in the primate retina: in vitro photodynamics reveals diverse LGN-projecting ganglion cell types,” Neuron 37, 15–27 (2003).
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K. Klug, S. Herr, I. T. Ngo, P. Sterling, and S. Schein, “Macaque retina contains an S-cone OFF midget pathway,” J. Neurosci. 23, 9881–9887 (2003).

2002 (4)

D. M. Dacey, B. B. Peterson, and F. R. Robinson, “Identification of an S-cone opponent OFF pathway in the macaque retina: morphology, physiology and possible circuitry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, E-abstract, 2983 (2002).

A. J. White, H. Sun, W. H. Swanson, and B. B. Lee, “An examination of physiological mechanisms underlying the frequency-doubling illusion,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 3590–3599 (2002).

R. C. Reid and R. M. Shapley, “Space and time maps of cone photoreceptor signals in macaque lateral geniculate nucleus,” J. Neurosci. 22, 6158–6175 (2002).

L. Rüttiger, B. B. Lee, and H. Sun, “Transient cells can be neurometrically sustained; the positional accuracy of retinal signals to moving targets,” J. Vis. 2(3):3, 232–242 (2002).
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2001 (2)

A. Valberg, “Unique hues: an old problem for a new generation,” Vis. Res. 41, 1645–1657 (2001).
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P. R. Martin, B. B. Lee, A. J. White, S. G. Solomon, and L. Rüttiger, “Chromatic sensitivity of ganglion cells in peripheral primate retina,” Nature 410, 933–936 (2001).
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2000 (1)

M. J. McMahon, M. J. Lankheet, P. Lennie, and D. R. Williams, “Fine structure of parvocellular receptive fields in the primate fovea revealed by laser interferometry,” J. Neurosci. 20, 2043–2053 (2000).

1999 (2)

P. Azzopardi, K. E. Jones, and A. Cowey, “Uneven mapping of magnocellular and parvocellular projections from the lateral geniculate nucleus to the striate cortex in the macaque monkey,” Vis. Res. 39, 2179–2189 (1999).
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L. C. Silveira, B. B. Lee, E. S. Yamada, J. Kremers, D. M. Hunt, P. R. Martin, and F. L. Gomes, “Ganglion cells of a short-wavelength-sensitive cone pathway in New World monkeys: morphology and physiology,” Vis. Neurosci. 16, 333–343 (1999).
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1998 (2)

B. B. Lee, J. Kremers, and T. Yeh, “Receptive fields of primate ganglion cells studied with a novel technique,” Vis. Neurosci. 15, 161–175 (1998).
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M. J. Lankheet, P. Lennie, and J. Krauskopf, “Temporal-chromatic interactions in LGN P-cells,” Vis. Neurosci. 15, 47–54 (1998).

1997 (3)

M. J. Hawken, R. Shapley, F. Mechler, and D. L. Ringach, “Temporal frequency tuning of macaque V1 neurons to chromatic and luminance stimuli,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, S968 (1997).

B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 37, 2813–2828 (1997).
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U. Grünert, “Anatomical evidence for rod input to the parvocellular pathway in primate,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 9, 617–621 (1997).
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1996 (2)

D. J. Calkins and P. Sterling, “Absence of spectrally specific lateral inputs to midget ganglion cells in primate retina,” Nature 381, 613–615 (1996).
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K. T. Mullen and F. A. Kingdom, “Losses in peripheral colour sensitivity predicted from ‘hit or miss’ post-receptoral cone connections,” Vis. Res. 36, 1995–2000 (1996).
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1995 (2)

H. Wassle, U. Grunert, M. H. Chun, and B. B. Boycott, “The rod pathway of the macaque monkey retina: identification of AII-amacrine cells with antibodies against calretinin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 361, 537–551 (1995).
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B. B. Lee, C. Wehrhahn, G. Westheimer, and J. Kremers, “The spatial precision of macaque ganglion cell responses in relation to vernier acuity of human observers,” Vis. Res. 35, 2743–2758 (1995).
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1994 (1)

D. M. Dacey and B. B. Lee, “The blue-ON opponent pathway in primate retina originates from a distinct bistratified ganglion cell type,” Nature 367, 731–735 (1994).
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1993 (4)

U. Grünert, U. Greferath, B. B. Boycott, and H. Wässle, “Parasol (Pα) ganglion cells of the primate fovea: immunocytochemical staining with antibodies against GABAA-receptors,” Vis. Res. 33, 1–14 (1993).
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R. L. DeValois and K. K. DeValois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vis. Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
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B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, A. Valberg, and J. Kremers, “Physiological mechanisms underlying psychophysical sensitivity to combined luminance and chromatic modulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1403–1412 (1993).
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B. B. Lee, C. Wehrhahn, G. Westheimer, and J. Kremers, “Macaque ganglion cell responses to stimuli that elicit hyperacuity in man: detection of small displacements,” J. Neurosci. 13, 1001–1009 (1993).

1992 (2)

R. C. Reid and R. M. Shapley, “Spatial structure of cone inputs to receptive fields in primate lateral geniculate nucleus,” Nature 356, 716–718 (1992).
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D. I. A. MacLeod, D. R. Williams, and W. Makous, “A visual non-linearity fed by single cones,” Vis. Res. 32, 347–363 (1992).
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1991 (3)

H. Wässle and B. B. Boycott, “Functional architecture of the mammalian retina,” Physiol. Rev. 71, 447–480 (1991).

L. C. L. Silveira and V. H. Perry, “The topography of magnocellular projecting ganglion cells (M-ganglion cells) in the primate retina,” Neuroscience 40, 217–237 (1991).
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K. T. Mullen, “Colour vision as a post-receptoral specialization of the central visual field,” Vis. Res. 31, 119–130 (1991).
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1990 (2)

1989 (1)

O. Packer, A. E. Hendrickson, and C. A. Curcio, “Photoreceptor topography of the retina in the adult pigtail macaque (macaca nemestrina),” J. Comp. Neurol. 288, 165–183 (1989).
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1988 (3)

V. H. Perry and L. C. L. Silveira, “Functional lamination in the ganglion cell layer of the macaque’s retina,” J. Neurosci. 25, 217–223 (1988).
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P. Lennie and M. D. D’Zmura, “Mechanisms of color vision,” Crit. Rev. Neurobiol. 3, 333–400 (1988).

K. Purpura, E. Kaplan, and R. M. Shapley, “Background light and the contrast gain of primate P and M retinal ganglion cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 4534–4537 (1988).
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1987 (4)

W. H. Swanson, T. Ueno, V. C. Smith, and J. Pokorny, “Temporal modulation sensitivity and pulse detection thresholds for chromatic and luminance perturbations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1992–2005 (1987).
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A. Valberg, B. B. Lee, and J. Tryti, “Simulation of responses of spectrally opponent neurones in the macaque lateral geniculate nucleus to chromatic and achromatic light stimuli,” Vis. Res. 27, 867–882 (1987).
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B. B. Lee, A. Valberg, D. A. Tigwell, and J. Tryti, “An account of responses of spectrally opponent neurons in macaque lateral geniculate nucleus to successive contrast,” Proc. R. Soc. B 230, 293–314 (1987).
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J. M. Crook, B. B. Lee, D. A. Tigwell, and A. Valberg, “Thresholds to chromatic spots of cells in the macaque geniculate nucleus as compared to detection sensitivity in man,” J. Physiol. 392, 193–211 (1987).

1986 (4)

A. Valberg, B. B. Lee, and D. A. Tigwell, “Neurons with strong inhibitory S-cone inputs in the macaque lateral geniculate nucleus,” Vis. Res. 26, 1061–1064 (1986).
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R. Shapley and V. H. Perry, “Cat and monkey retinal ganglion cells and their visual functional roles,” Trends Neurosci. 9, 229–235 (1986).
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C. Blakemore and F. Vital-Durand, “Organization and post-natal development of the monkey’s lateral geniculate nucleus,” J. Physiol. 380, 453–492 (1986).

J. D. Mollon and C. R. Cavonius, “The chromatic antagonisms of opponent process theory are not the same as those revealed in studies of detection and discrimination,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 46, 473–483 (1986).

1985 (1)

K. T. Mullen, “The contrast sensitivity of human colour vision to red-green and blue-yellow chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. 359, 381–400 (1985).

1984 (2)

A. M. Derrington and P. Lennie, “Spatial and temporal contrast sensitivities of neurons in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. 357, 219–240 (1984).

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, and P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. 357, 241–265 (1984).

1983 (2)

W. Paulus and A. Kröger-Paulus, “A new concept of retinal colour coding,” Vis. Res. 23, 529–540 (1983).
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G. Buchsbaum and A. Gottschalk, “Trichromacy, opponent colours coding and optimum colour information transmission in the retina,” Proc. R. Soc. B 220, 89–113 (1983).
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1982 (1)

E. Kaplan and R. M. Shapley, “X and Y cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the macaque monkeys,” J. Physiol. 330, 125–143 (1982).

1981 (2)

H. Wässle, L. Peichl, and B. B. Boycott, “Dendritic territories of cat retinal ganglion cells,” Nature 292, 344–345 (1981).
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H. Wässle, L. Peichl, and B. B. Boycott, “Morphology and topography of on- and off-alpha cells in the cat retina,” Proc. R. Soc. B 212, 157–175 (1981).
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1979 (4)

B. G. Cleland, T. H. Harding, and U. Tulunay-Keesey, “Visual resolution and receptive field size: examination of two kinds of cat retinal ganglion cells,” Science 205, 1015–1017 (1979).
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O. D. Creutzfeldt, B. B. Lee, and A. Elepfandt, “A quantitative study of chromatic organisation and receptive fields of cells in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey,” Exp. Brain Res. 35, 527–545 (1979).
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P. Gouras and E. Zrenner, “Enhancement of luminance flicker by color-opponent mechanisms,” Science 205, 587–589 (1979).
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L. Peichl and H. Wassle, “Size, scatter and coverage of ganglion cell receptive field centres in the cat retina,” J. Physiol. 291, 117–141 (1979).

1978 (3)

F. M. de Monasterio, “Properties of concentrically organised X and Y ganglion cells of macaque retina,” J. Neurophysiol. 41, 1394–1417 (1978).

F. M. de Monasterio, “Properties of ganglion cells with atypical receptive field organization in retina of macaques,” J. Neurophysiol. 41, 1435–1449 (1978).

F. M. de Monasterio, “Center and surround mechanisms of opponent-color X and Y ganglion cells of retina of macaques,” J. Neurophysiol. 41, 1418–1434 (1978).

1977 (1)

R. T. Marrocco and R. L. DeValois, “Locus of spectral neutral point in monkey opponent cells depends on stimulus luminance relative to background,” Brain Res. 119, 465–470 (1977).
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1976 (1)

B. Dreher, Y. Fukuda, and R. W. Rodieck, “Identification, classification and anatomical segregation of cells with X-like and Y-like properties in the lateral geniculate nucleus of old-world primates,” J. Physiol. 258, 433–452 (1976).

1975 (4)

H. Wässle, W. R. Levick, and B. G. Cleland, “The distribution of the alpha type of ganglion cells in the cat’s retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 159, 419–437 (1975).
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F. M. de Monasterio and P. Gouras, “Functional properties of ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,” J. Physiol. 251, 167–195 (1975).

F. M. de Monasterio, P. Gouras, and D. J. Tolhurst, “Concealed colour-opponency in ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,” J. Physiol. 251, 217–229 (1975).

F. M. de Monasterio, P. Gouras, and D. J. Tolhurst, “Trichromatic colour opponency in ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,” J. Physiol. 251, 187–216 (1975).

1973 (1)

B. G. Cleland, W. R. Levick, and K. J. Sanderson, “Properties of sustained and transient ganglion cells in the cat retina,” J. Physiol. 228, 649–680 (1973).

1972 (1)

H. B. Barlow, “Single units and sensation: a neuron doctrine for perceptual psychology?” Perception 1, 371–394 (1972).
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1971 (1)

B. G. Cleland, M. W. Dubin, and W. R. Levick, “Sustained and transient neurons in the cat’s retina and lateral geniculate nucleus,” J. Physiol. 217, 473–496 (1971).

1969 (2)

P. Gouras, “Antidromic responses of orthodromically identified ganglion cells in monkey retina,” J. Physiol. 204, 407–419 (1969).

B. B. Boycott and J. E. Dowling, “Organization of the primate retina: light microscopy,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 255, 109–184 (1969).
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1968 (1)

P. Gouras, “Identification of cone mechanisms in monkey ganglion cells,” J. Physiol. 199, 533–547 (1968).

1966 (4)

T. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, “Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115–1156 (1966).

R. L. DeValois, I. Abramov, and G. H. Jacobs, “Analysis of response patterns of LGN cells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966–977 (1966).
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C. Enroth-Cugell and J. G. Robson, “The contrast sensitivity of retinal ganglion cells of the cat,” J. Physiol. 187, 517–552 (1966).

1964 (2)

R. L. Devalois, G. H. Jacobs, and I. Abramov, “Responses of single cells in visual system to shifts in the wavelength of light,” Science 146, 1184–1186 (1964).
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T. Dobzhansky, “Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution,” Am. Biol. Teach. 35, 443–452 (1964).

1958 (1)

R. L. DeValois, C. J. Smith, S. T. Kitai, and A. J. Karoly, “Response of single cells in monkey lateral geniculate nucleus to monochromatic light,” Science 127, 238–239 (1958).
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1957 (1)

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, “An opponent-process theory of color vision,” Psychol. Rev. 64, 384–404 (1957).
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1949 (1)

W. E. Clark, “The laminar pattern of the lateral geniculate nucleus considered in relation to colour vision,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 57–64 (1949).
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1947 (1)

W. E. L. G. Clark and L. Chacko, “A possible central mechanism for colour vision,” Nature 160, 123–124 (1947).
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1941 (2)

W. E. L. G. Clark, “The laminar organisation and cell content of the lateral geniculate body in the monkey,” J. Anat. 75, 419–433 (1941).

P. Glees and W. E. L. G. Clark, “The termination of optic nerve fibres in the lateral geniculate body of the monkey,” J. Anat. 75, 295–308 (1941).

1940 (1)

W. E. L. G. Clark, “Anatomical basis of colour vision,” Nature 146, 558–559 (1940).
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1939 (1)

W. F. Grether, “Color vision and color blindness in monkeys,” Comp. Psychol. Monogr. 15, 1–39 (1939).

1934 (1)

W. E. L. G. Clark and G. G. Penman, “The projection of the retina in the lateral geniclate body,” Proc. R. Soc. B 114, 291–313 (1934).
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1930 (1)

W. Trendelenberg and I. Schmidt, “Untersuchungen über das Farbensystem der Affen,” Fachschrift für vergleichende Physiologie 12, 249–278 (1930).

Abramov, I.

R. L. DeValois, I. Abramov, and G. H. Jacobs, “Analysis of response patterns of LGN cells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966–977 (1966).
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R. L. Devalois, G. H. Jacobs, and I. Abramov, “Responses of single cells in visual system to shifts in the wavelength of light,” Science 146, 1184–1186 (1964).
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Auer, T.

D. V. D’Souza, T. Auer, H. Strasburger, J. Frahm, and B. B. Lee, “An fMRI study of chromatic processing in humans: temporal characteristics of cortical visual areas,” J. Vis. 11(8):8 (2011).
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Azzopardi, P.

P. Azzopardi, K. E. Jones, and A. Cowey, “Uneven mapping of magnocellular and parvocellular projections from the lateral geniculate nucleus to the striate cortex in the macaque monkey,” Vis. Res. 39, 2179–2189 (1999).
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Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow, “Single units and sensation: a neuron doctrine for perceptual psychology?” Perception 1, 371–394 (1972).
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Blakemore, C.

C. Blakemore and F. Vital-Durand, “Organization and post-natal development of the monkey’s lateral geniculate nucleus,” J. Physiol. 380, 453–492 (1986).

Blessing, E. M.

P. R. Martin, E. M. Blessing, P. Buzas, B. A. Szmajda, and J. D. Forte, “Transmission of colour and acuity signals by parvocellular cells in marmoset monkeys,” J. Physiol. 589, 2795–2812 (2011).
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P. Buzas, E. M. Blessing, B. A. Szmadja, and P. R. Martin, “Specificity of M and L cone inputs to receptive fields in the parvocellular pathway: random wiring with functional bias,” J. Neurosci. 26, 11148–11161 (2006).
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Boycott, B. B.

H. Wassle, U. Grunert, M. H. Chun, and B. B. Boycott, “The rod pathway of the macaque monkey retina: identification of AII-amacrine cells with antibodies against calretinin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 361, 537–551 (1995).
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U. Grünert, U. Greferath, B. B. Boycott, and H. Wässle, “Parasol (Pα) ganglion cells of the primate fovea: immunocytochemical staining with antibodies against GABAA-receptors,” Vis. Res. 33, 1–14 (1993).
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H. Wässle and B. B. Boycott, “Functional architecture of the mammalian retina,” Physiol. Rev. 71, 447–480 (1991).

H. Wässle, L. Peichl, and B. B. Boycott, “Morphology and topography of on- and off-alpha cells in the cat retina,” Proc. R. Soc. B 212, 157–175 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. Wässle, L. Peichl, and B. B. Boycott, “Dendritic territories of cat retinal ganglion cells,” Nature 292, 344–345 (1981).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Boycott and J. E. Dowling, “Organization of the primate retina: light microscopy,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 255, 109–184 (1969).
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H. Wässle, U. Grünert, P. R. Martin, and B. B. Boycott, “Color coding in the primate retina: predictions and constrants from anatomy,” in Structural and Functional Organization of the Neocortex. A Symposium in the Memory of Otto D. Creutzfeldt, B. Albowitz, K. Albus, U. Kuhnt, H. Ch. Nothdurft, and P. Wahle, eds. (Springer, 1994), pp. 94–104.

Buchsbaum, G.

G. Buchsbaum and A. Gottschalk, “Trichromacy, opponent colours coding and optimum colour information transmission in the retina,” Proc. R. Soc. B 220, 89–113 (1983).
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Buzas, P.

P. R. Martin, E. M. Blessing, P. Buzas, B. A. Szmajda, and J. D. Forte, “Transmission of colour and acuity signals by parvocellular cells in marmoset monkeys,” J. Physiol. 589, 2795–2812 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Responses of two parafoveal PC LGN cells to monochromatic wavelengths or white stimuli (4 deg; 300 ms 100cd/m2) on a dark background or replacing an equiluminant white field. Both cells received opponent M, L cone inputs as indicated. Cells may be excited or inhibited by different wavelengths; vertical dashed lines aid in identifying stimulus timing. Under photopic conditions both cells show a crossover between excitatory and inhibitory responses around 570 nm. On a dark background this crossover moves to shorter wavelengths; this can be accounted for on the basis of a change in cone balance [19]. (b) Distribution of cone weights under photopic conditions for cells studied under the conditions in A [19]. Weights were derived from responses to a variety of wavelengths (and weight) over a large intensity range. Cells have been segregated dependent on opponency and receptive field type. A distinguishing feature of PC cells is a clustering of weights around a 11 ratio. (c) Spatial frequency tuning curves (2 Hz; 40cd/m2) for a selection of parafoveal PC ganglion cells. There is a variety in shape reflecting a variety in center-surround structure [43].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Sketch of foveal structure of midget pathway cells illustrating elements of center structure. (a) Composite of foveal cone array [63] and Golgi preparation of near-foveal midget bipolar and ganglion cells [64]. It should be noted that midget morphology (i.e., dendritic tree size) does not change much in the central 10 deg. If one-to-one connectivity holds, midget ganglion cell dendritic tree diameter is not related to center size. (b) Upper row: a hypothetical foveal cone array. Below: estimated cone sampling aperture [65]. Third curve: estimated profile of foveal PC center; Gaussian radius has been estimated from an average of literature estimates [62]. Lowest profile: line-spread function of eye optics with white light [69] can largely account for discrepancy between anatomy and physiology.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Three examples of how some signals of the PC pathway are not used perceptually. (a) Relative responsivity of PC cells compared to relative psychophysical sensitivity as a function of retinal eccentricity [91]. Responsivity of many PC cells is well maintained with eccentricity in comparison with the decrease in psychophysical sensitivity. (b) The temporal response of PC cells to |M-L| modulation extends to higher frequencies [116] than the perception of chromatic modulation by human observers [104]. (c) The spatial frequency tuning of most PC cells shows a similar high-frequency tuning cutoff to luminance and red–green chromatic gratings. Human observers show poorer visual resolution to the latter [110].

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