Abstract

A representation of the color gamut of special effect coatings is proposed and shown for six different samples, whose colors were calculated from spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements at different geometries. The most important characteristic of the proposed representation is that it allows a straightforward understanding of the color shift to be done both in terms of conventional irradiation and viewing angles and in terms of flake-based parameters. A different line was proposed to assess the color shift of special effect coatings on a*,b*-diagrams: the absorption line. Similar to interference and aspecular lines (constant aspecular and irradiation angles, respectively), an absorption line is the locus of calculated color coordinates from measurement geometries with a fixed bistatic angle. The advantages of using the absorption lines to characterize the contributions to the spectral BRDF of the scattering at the absorption pigments and the reflection at interference pigments for different geometries are shown.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Pfaff and P. Reynders, “Angle-dependent optical effects deriving from submicron structures of films and pigments,” Chem. Rev. 99, 1963–1982 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. J. Maile, G. Pfaff, and P. Reynders, “Effect pigments—past, present and future” Prog. Org. Coat. 54, 150–163 (2005).
  3. H. J. Streitberger and K. F. Dössel, Automotive Paints and Coatings (Wiley-VCH, 2008).
  4. M. E. Nadal and E. A. Early, “Color measurements for pearlescent coatings,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 38–42 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Baba, “Gonio-spectrophotometric analysis of pearl-mica paint,” Die Farbe 37, 99–110 (1990).
  6. T. A. Germer and M. E. Nadal, “Modeling the appearance of special effect pigment coatings,” Proc. SPIE 4447, 77–86 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. E. Nadal and T. A. Germer, “Colorimetric characterization of pearlescent coatings,” Proc. SPIE 4421, 757–760 (2002).
  8. B. Parker, “Color shift of light interference pigments,” Surf. Coat. Aust. 39, 10–13 (2002).
  9. F. Leloup, P. Hanselaer, M. Pointer, and J. Versluys, “Characterization of gonio-apparent colours,” in Proceedings of AIC Color (AIC, 2005), pp. 515–518.
  10. C. A. Nicholls, “Visual and instrumental characterisation of special-effect colours,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Leeds, 2000).
  11. R. Besold, “Metallic effect-characterization, parameter and methods for instrumentally determination,” Die Farbe 37, 79–85 (1990).
  12. DIN 6175-2, “Tolerances for automotive paints, part 2: goniochromatic paints (Farbtoleranzen für automobillackierungen-teil 2: effektlackierungen),” 2001.
  13. E. Chorro, E. Perales, F. M. Martínez-Verdú, J. Campos, and A. Pons, “Colorimetric and spectral evaluation of the optical anisotropy of metallic and pearlescent samples,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1457–1465 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Kirchner, G. J. Van den Kieboom, L. Njo, R. Supér, and R. Gottenbos, “Observation of visual texture of metallic and pearlescent materials,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 256–266 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. R. Cramer, “Reflections on the right angle,” Eur. Coat. J. 4, 32–37 (2012).
  16. W. R. Cramer, “Examples of interference and the color pigment mixtures green with red and red with green,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 276–281 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. R. Cramer, “Der richtige blickwinkel: visuelle und instrumentelle abmusterung von interferenzpigmenten im vergleich,” Farbe Lack 112, 26–30 (2006).
  18. W. R. Cramer and P. W. Gabel, “Das gewisse etwas: dreiecksbeziehungen aus bunt-, aluminium- und interferenzpigmenten,” Farbe Lack 109, 78–84 (2003).
  19. W. R. Cramer, “Effekte sichten und beziffern: cis- und trans-geometrien bei farbmetrischer beurteilung von effektpigmenten,” Farbe Lack 108, 48–55 (2002).
  20. W. R. Cramer and P. W. Gabel, “Effektvolles messen,” Farbe Lack 107, 42–48 (2001).
  21. W. R. Cramer and P. W. Gabel, “Measuring special effects,” Paint. Coat. Ind. 9, 36–46 (2001).
  22. E. Kirchner and W. Cramer, “Making sense of measurement geometries for multi-angle spectrophotometers,” Color Res. Appl. 37, 186–198 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Ferrero, A. Rabal, J. Campos, F. Martínez-Verdú, E. Chorro, E. Perales, A. Pons, and M. L. Hernanz, “Spectral BRDF-based determination of proper measurement geometries to characterize color shift of special effect coatings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 30, 206–214 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Ferrero, J. Campos, A. M. Rabal, A. Pons, M. L. Hernanz, and A. Corróns, “Principal components analysis on the spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution function of ceramic colour standards,” Opt. Express 19, 19199–19211 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Ferrero, J. Campos, A. M. Rabal, A. Pons, M. L. Hernanz, and A. Corróns, “Variables separation of the spectral BRDF for better understanding color variation in special effect pigment coatings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 842–847 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  26. ASTM E 2539-08, “Standard practice for multiangle color measurement of interference pigments” (American Society for the Testing of Materials, 2009).
  27. F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, and J. J. Hsia, “Geometrical considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Monogr. 160, 1–7 (1977).
  28. A. M. Rabal, A. Ferrero, J. Campos, J. L. Fontecha, A. Pons, A. M. Rubiño, and A. Corróns, “Automatic gonio-spectrophotometer for the absolute measurement of the spectral BRDF at in and out-of-plane and retroreflection geometries,” Metrologia 49, 213–223 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  29. P. Green and L. W. MacDonald, Colour Engineering: Achieving Device Independent Colour (Wiley, 2002).

2013

2012

W. R. Cramer, “Reflections on the right angle,” Eur. Coat. J. 4, 32–37 (2012).

A. Ferrero, J. Campos, A. M. Rabal, A. Pons, M. L. Hernanz, and A. Corróns, “Variables separation of the spectral BRDF for better understanding color variation in special effect pigment coatings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 842–847 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Kirchner and W. Cramer, “Making sense of measurement geometries for multi-angle spectrophotometers,” Color Res. Appl. 37, 186–198 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rabal, A. Ferrero, J. Campos, J. L. Fontecha, A. Pons, A. M. Rubiño, and A. Corróns, “Automatic gonio-spectrophotometer for the absolute measurement of the spectral BRDF at in and out-of-plane and retroreflection geometries,” Metrologia 49, 213–223 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2009

E. Chorro, E. Perales, F. M. Martínez-Verdú, J. Campos, and A. Pons, “Colorimetric and spectral evaluation of the optical anisotropy of metallic and pearlescent samples,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1457–1465 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

E. Kirchner, G. J. Van den Kieboom, L. Njo, R. Supér, and R. Gottenbos, “Observation of visual texture of metallic and pearlescent materials,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 256–266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

W. R. Cramer, “Der richtige blickwinkel: visuelle und instrumentelle abmusterung von interferenzpigmenten im vergleich,” Farbe Lack 112, 26–30 (2006).

2005

F. J. Maile, G. Pfaff, and P. Reynders, “Effect pigments—past, present and future” Prog. Org. Coat. 54, 150–163 (2005).

2004

M. E. Nadal and E. A. Early, “Color measurements for pearlescent coatings,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 38–42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

W. R. Cramer and P. W. Gabel, “Das gewisse etwas: dreiecksbeziehungen aus bunt-, aluminium- und interferenzpigmenten,” Farbe Lack 109, 78–84 (2003).

2002

W. R. Cramer, “Effekte sichten und beziffern: cis- und trans-geometrien bei farbmetrischer beurteilung von effektpigmenten,” Farbe Lack 108, 48–55 (2002).

W. R. Cramer, “Examples of interference and the color pigment mixtures green with red and red with green,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 276–281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Nadal and T. A. Germer, “Colorimetric characterization of pearlescent coatings,” Proc. SPIE 4421, 757–760 (2002).

B. Parker, “Color shift of light interference pigments,” Surf. Coat. Aust. 39, 10–13 (2002).

2001

T. A. Germer and M. E. Nadal, “Modeling the appearance of special effect pigment coatings,” Proc. SPIE 4447, 77–86 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Cramer and P. W. Gabel, “Effektvolles messen,” Farbe Lack 107, 42–48 (2001).

W. R. Cramer and P. W. Gabel, “Measuring special effects,” Paint. Coat. Ind. 9, 36–46 (2001).

1999

G. Pfaff and P. Reynders, “Angle-dependent optical effects deriving from submicron structures of films and pigments,” Chem. Rev. 99, 1963–1982 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1990

G. Baba, “Gonio-spectrophotometric analysis of pearl-mica paint,” Die Farbe 37, 99–110 (1990).

R. Besold, “Metallic effect-characterization, parameter and methods for instrumentally determination,” Die Farbe 37, 79–85 (1990).

1977

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, and J. J. Hsia, “Geometrical considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Monogr. 160, 1–7 (1977).

Baba, G.

G. Baba, “Gonio-spectrophotometric analysis of pearl-mica paint,” Die Farbe 37, 99–110 (1990).

Besold, R.

R. Besold, “Metallic effect-characterization, parameter and methods for instrumentally determination,” Die Farbe 37, 79–85 (1990).

Campos, J.

Chorro, E.

A. Ferrero, A. Rabal, J. Campos, F. Martínez-Verdú, E. Chorro, E. Perales, A. Pons, and M. L. Hernanz, “Spectral BRDF-based determination of proper measurement geometries to characterize color shift of special effect coatings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 30, 206–214 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. Chorro, E. Perales, F. M. Martínez-Verdú, J. Campos, and A. Pons, “Colorimetric and spectral evaluation of the optical anisotropy of metallic and pearlescent samples,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1457–1465 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Corróns, A.

Cramer, W.

E. Kirchner and W. Cramer, “Making sense of measurement geometries for multi-angle spectrophotometers,” Color Res. Appl. 37, 186–198 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cramer, W. R.

W. R. Cramer, “Reflections on the right angle,” Eur. Coat. J. 4, 32–37 (2012).

W. R. Cramer, “Der richtige blickwinkel: visuelle und instrumentelle abmusterung von interferenzpigmenten im vergleich,” Farbe Lack 112, 26–30 (2006).

W. R. Cramer and P. W. Gabel, “Das gewisse etwas: dreiecksbeziehungen aus bunt-, aluminium- und interferenzpigmenten,” Farbe Lack 109, 78–84 (2003).

W. R. Cramer, “Examples of interference and the color pigment mixtures green with red and red with green,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 276–281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Cramer, “Effekte sichten und beziffern: cis- und trans-geometrien bei farbmetrischer beurteilung von effektpigmenten,” Farbe Lack 108, 48–55 (2002).

W. R. Cramer and P. W. Gabel, “Effektvolles messen,” Farbe Lack 107, 42–48 (2001).

W. R. Cramer and P. W. Gabel, “Measuring special effects,” Paint. Coat. Ind. 9, 36–46 (2001).

Dössel, K. F.

H. J. Streitberger and K. F. Dössel, Automotive Paints and Coatings (Wiley-VCH, 2008).

Early, E. A.

M. E. Nadal and E. A. Early, “Color measurements for pearlescent coatings,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 38–42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ferrero, A.

Fontecha, J. L.

A. M. Rabal, A. Ferrero, J. Campos, J. L. Fontecha, A. Pons, A. M. Rubiño, and A. Corróns, “Automatic gonio-spectrophotometer for the absolute measurement of the spectral BRDF at in and out-of-plane and retroreflection geometries,” Metrologia 49, 213–223 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gabel, P. W.

W. R. Cramer and P. W. Gabel, “Das gewisse etwas: dreiecksbeziehungen aus bunt-, aluminium- und interferenzpigmenten,” Farbe Lack 109, 78–84 (2003).

W. R. Cramer and P. W. Gabel, “Measuring special effects,” Paint. Coat. Ind. 9, 36–46 (2001).

W. R. Cramer and P. W. Gabel, “Effektvolles messen,” Farbe Lack 107, 42–48 (2001).

Germer, T. A.

M. E. Nadal and T. A. Germer, “Colorimetric characterization of pearlescent coatings,” Proc. SPIE 4421, 757–760 (2002).

T. A. Germer and M. E. Nadal, “Modeling the appearance of special effect pigment coatings,” Proc. SPIE 4447, 77–86 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gottenbos, R.

E. Kirchner, G. J. Van den Kieboom, L. Njo, R. Supér, and R. Gottenbos, “Observation of visual texture of metallic and pearlescent materials,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 256–266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Green, P.

P. Green and L. W. MacDonald, Colour Engineering: Achieving Device Independent Colour (Wiley, 2002).

Hanselaer, P.

F. Leloup, P. Hanselaer, M. Pointer, and J. Versluys, “Characterization of gonio-apparent colours,” in Proceedings of AIC Color (AIC, 2005), pp. 515–518.

Hernanz, M. L.

Hsia, J. J.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, and J. J. Hsia, “Geometrical considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Monogr. 160, 1–7 (1977).

Kirchner, E.

E. Kirchner and W. Cramer, “Making sense of measurement geometries for multi-angle spectrophotometers,” Color Res. Appl. 37, 186–198 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Kirchner, G. J. Van den Kieboom, L. Njo, R. Supér, and R. Gottenbos, “Observation of visual texture of metallic and pearlescent materials,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 256–266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leloup, F.

F. Leloup, P. Hanselaer, M. Pointer, and J. Versluys, “Characterization of gonio-apparent colours,” in Proceedings of AIC Color (AIC, 2005), pp. 515–518.

MacDonald, L. W.

P. Green and L. W. MacDonald, Colour Engineering: Achieving Device Independent Colour (Wiley, 2002).

Maile, F. J.

F. J. Maile, G. Pfaff, and P. Reynders, “Effect pigments—past, present and future” Prog. Org. Coat. 54, 150–163 (2005).

Martínez-Verdú, F.

Martínez-Verdú, F. M.

E. Chorro, E. Perales, F. M. Martínez-Verdú, J. Campos, and A. Pons, “Colorimetric and spectral evaluation of the optical anisotropy of metallic and pearlescent samples,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1457–1465 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nadal, M. E.

M. E. Nadal and E. A. Early, “Color measurements for pearlescent coatings,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 38–42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Nadal and T. A. Germer, “Colorimetric characterization of pearlescent coatings,” Proc. SPIE 4421, 757–760 (2002).

T. A. Germer and M. E. Nadal, “Modeling the appearance of special effect pigment coatings,” Proc. SPIE 4447, 77–86 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nicholls, C. A.

C. A. Nicholls, “Visual and instrumental characterisation of special-effect colours,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Leeds, 2000).

Nicodemus, F. E.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, and J. J. Hsia, “Geometrical considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Monogr. 160, 1–7 (1977).

Njo, L.

E. Kirchner, G. J. Van den Kieboom, L. Njo, R. Supér, and R. Gottenbos, “Observation of visual texture of metallic and pearlescent materials,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 256–266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Parker, B.

B. Parker, “Color shift of light interference pigments,” Surf. Coat. Aust. 39, 10–13 (2002).

Perales, E.

A. Ferrero, A. Rabal, J. Campos, F. Martínez-Verdú, E. Chorro, E. Perales, A. Pons, and M. L. Hernanz, “Spectral BRDF-based determination of proper measurement geometries to characterize color shift of special effect coatings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 30, 206–214 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. Chorro, E. Perales, F. M. Martínez-Verdú, J. Campos, and A. Pons, “Colorimetric and spectral evaluation of the optical anisotropy of metallic and pearlescent samples,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1457–1465 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pfaff, G.

F. J. Maile, G. Pfaff, and P. Reynders, “Effect pigments—past, present and future” Prog. Org. Coat. 54, 150–163 (2005).

G. Pfaff and P. Reynders, “Angle-dependent optical effects deriving from submicron structures of films and pigments,” Chem. Rev. 99, 1963–1982 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pointer, M.

F. Leloup, P. Hanselaer, M. Pointer, and J. Versluys, “Characterization of gonio-apparent colours,” in Proceedings of AIC Color (AIC, 2005), pp. 515–518.

Pons, A.

Rabal, A.

Rabal, A. M.

Reynders, P.

F. J. Maile, G. Pfaff, and P. Reynders, “Effect pigments—past, present and future” Prog. Org. Coat. 54, 150–163 (2005).

G. Pfaff and P. Reynders, “Angle-dependent optical effects deriving from submicron structures of films and pigments,” Chem. Rev. 99, 1963–1982 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Richmond, J. C.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, and J. J. Hsia, “Geometrical considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Monogr. 160, 1–7 (1977).

Rubiño, A. M.

A. M. Rabal, A. Ferrero, J. Campos, J. L. Fontecha, A. Pons, A. M. Rubiño, and A. Corróns, “Automatic gonio-spectrophotometer for the absolute measurement of the spectral BRDF at in and out-of-plane and retroreflection geometries,” Metrologia 49, 213–223 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Streitberger, H. J.

H. J. Streitberger and K. F. Dössel, Automotive Paints and Coatings (Wiley-VCH, 2008).

Supér, R.

E. Kirchner, G. J. Van den Kieboom, L. Njo, R. Supér, and R. Gottenbos, “Observation of visual texture of metallic and pearlescent materials,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 256–266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van den Kieboom, G. J.

E. Kirchner, G. J. Van den Kieboom, L. Njo, R. Supér, and R. Gottenbos, “Observation of visual texture of metallic and pearlescent materials,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 256–266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Versluys, J.

F. Leloup, P. Hanselaer, M. Pointer, and J. Versluys, “Characterization of gonio-apparent colours,” in Proceedings of AIC Color (AIC, 2005), pp. 515–518.

Chem. Rev.

G. Pfaff and P. Reynders, “Angle-dependent optical effects deriving from submicron structures of films and pigments,” Chem. Rev. 99, 1963–1982 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Color Res. Appl.

M. E. Nadal and E. A. Early, “Color measurements for pearlescent coatings,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 38–42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Cramer, “Examples of interference and the color pigment mixtures green with red and red with green,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 276–281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Kirchner, G. J. Van den Kieboom, L. Njo, R. Supér, and R. Gottenbos, “Observation of visual texture of metallic and pearlescent materials,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 256–266 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Kirchner and W. Cramer, “Making sense of measurement geometries for multi-angle spectrophotometers,” Color Res. Appl. 37, 186–198 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Die Farbe

G. Baba, “Gonio-spectrophotometric analysis of pearl-mica paint,” Die Farbe 37, 99–110 (1990).

R. Besold, “Metallic effect-characterization, parameter and methods for instrumentally determination,” Die Farbe 37, 79–85 (1990).

Eur. Coat. J.

W. R. Cramer, “Reflections on the right angle,” Eur. Coat. J. 4, 32–37 (2012).

Farbe Lack

W. R. Cramer, “Der richtige blickwinkel: visuelle und instrumentelle abmusterung von interferenzpigmenten im vergleich,” Farbe Lack 112, 26–30 (2006).

W. R. Cramer and P. W. Gabel, “Das gewisse etwas: dreiecksbeziehungen aus bunt-, aluminium- und interferenzpigmenten,” Farbe Lack 109, 78–84 (2003).

W. R. Cramer, “Effekte sichten und beziffern: cis- und trans-geometrien bei farbmetrischer beurteilung von effektpigmenten,” Farbe Lack 108, 48–55 (2002).

W. R. Cramer and P. W. Gabel, “Effektvolles messen,” Farbe Lack 107, 42–48 (2001).

J. Mod. Opt.

E. Chorro, E. Perales, F. M. Martínez-Verdú, J. Campos, and A. Pons, “Colorimetric and spectral evaluation of the optical anisotropy of metallic and pearlescent samples,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 1457–1465 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Metrologia

A. M. Rabal, A. Ferrero, J. Campos, J. L. Fontecha, A. Pons, A. M. Rubiño, and A. Corróns, “Automatic gonio-spectrophotometer for the absolute measurement of the spectral BRDF at in and out-of-plane and retroreflection geometries,” Metrologia 49, 213–223 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Monogr.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, and J. J. Hsia, “Geometrical considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Monogr. 160, 1–7 (1977).

Opt. Express

Paint. Coat. Ind.

W. R. Cramer and P. W. Gabel, “Measuring special effects,” Paint. Coat. Ind. 9, 36–46 (2001).

Proc. SPIE

T. A. Germer and M. E. Nadal, “Modeling the appearance of special effect pigment coatings,” Proc. SPIE 4447, 77–86 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Nadal and T. A. Germer, “Colorimetric characterization of pearlescent coatings,” Proc. SPIE 4421, 757–760 (2002).

Prog. Org. Coat.

F. J. Maile, G. Pfaff, and P. Reynders, “Effect pigments—past, present and future” Prog. Org. Coat. 54, 150–163 (2005).

Surf. Coat. Aust.

B. Parker, “Color shift of light interference pigments,” Surf. Coat. Aust. 39, 10–13 (2002).

Other

F. Leloup, P. Hanselaer, M. Pointer, and J. Versluys, “Characterization of gonio-apparent colours,” in Proceedings of AIC Color (AIC, 2005), pp. 515–518.

C. A. Nicholls, “Visual and instrumental characterisation of special-effect colours,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Leeds, 2000).

H. J. Streitberger and K. F. Dössel, Automotive Paints and Coatings (Wiley-VCH, 2008).

DIN 6175-2, “Tolerances for automotive paints, part 2: goniochromatic paints (Farbtoleranzen für automobillackierungen-teil 2: effektlackierungen),” 2001.

ASTM E 2539-08, “Standard practice for multiangle color measurement of interference pigments” (American Society for the Testing of Materials, 2009).

P. Green and L. W. MacDonald, Colour Engineering: Achieving Device Independent Colour (Wiley, 2002).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Geometrical variables needed to describe the flake-related reflection mechanism.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Proposed representation of the color gamut for special effect coatings.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Relation between flake-based parameters θinc and θflake and conventional measurement angles θi and θs. (a) θinc versus θbi, (b) θflake versus θasp, and (c) θinc versus θi.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Representation of the color gamut, (b) the a*,b*-diagram, and (c) the a*,b*-diagram with three aspecular lines for lapis sunlight (MC1).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Representation of the color gamut and (b) the a*,b*-diagram for arctic fire (MC2).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Representation of the color gamut and (b) the a*,b*-diagram for light yellow and solaris red (MXi).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Representation of the color gamut and (b) the a*,b*-diagram for burgundy and olive green coating (BASF1).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Representation of the color gamut and (b) the a*,b*-diagram for laurel green and greenish blue coating (BASF2).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) Representation of the color gamut and (b) the a*,b*-diagram for light blue and pale turquoise coating (BASF3).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Outline of the general color shift of effect coatings. (a) Absorption pigment color shift. (b) Metallic pigment color shift. (c) Special effect pigment color shift. (d) A possible color shift for a coating with a mixture of A2 and S1 pigments.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

(a) Chroma and (b) hue angle variation along the length of the absorption line with θbi=10° of studied coatings.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Description of Interference, Absorption, and Aspecular Lines for the Interpretation of the Color Shift of Special Effect Coatings

Tables Icon

Table 2. Special Effect Coatings Studied in this Work

Tables Icon

Table 3. Values of the Proposed Descriptors to Characterize Special Effect Coatings

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

θflake=12|arcsin(nairncoatsinθs)+arcsin(nairncoatsinθi)|,
θinc=12|arcsin(nairncoatsinθs)+arcsin(nairncoatsinθi)|.
θflakeθasp,
θincθbi,
θasp=θi+θs,
θbi=θiθs,
θi=12(θasp+θbi),
θs=12(θaspθbi).

Metrics