Abstract

Commercial off-the-shelf digital cameras are inexpensive and easy-to-use instruments that can be used for quantitative scientific data acquisition if images are captured in raw format and processed so that they maintain a linear relationship with scene radiance. Here we describe the image-processing steps required for consistent data acquisition with color cameras. In addition, we present a method for scene-specific color calibration that increases the accuracy of color capture when a scene contains colors that are not well represented in the gamut of a standard color-calibration target. We demonstrate applications of the proposed methodology in the fields of biomedical engineering, artwork photography, perception science, marine biology, and underwater imaging.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  27. U. A. Gurkan, S. Tasoglu, D. Akkaynak, O. Avci, S. Unluisler, S. Canikyan, N. MacCallum, and U. Demirci, “Smart interface materials integrated with microfluidics for on-demand local capture and release of cells,” Adv. Healthcare Mat. 1, 661–668 (2012).
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  28. M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. R. Rosen and F. S. Frey, “RIT American museums survey on digital imaging for direct capture of artwork,” in Society for Imaging Science and Technology Archiving Conference (2005).
  30. F. S. Frey and S. P. Farnand, “Benchmarking art image interchange cycles,” Tech. Rep. (Rochester Institute of Technology, 2011).
  31. D. Akkaynak, J. Allen, L. Mäthger, C.-C. Chiao, and R. Hanlon, “Quantification of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) camouflage: a study of color and luminance using in situ spectrometry,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 199, 211–225 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  32. U. Siebeck, N. Marshall, A. Klüter, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg, “Monitoring coral bleaching using a colour reference card,” Coral Reefs 25, 453–460 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  33. G. Winters, R. Holzman, A. Blekhman, S. Beer, and Y. Loya, “Photographic assessment of coral chlorophyll contents: implications for ecophysiological studies and coral monitoring,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 380, 25–35 (2009).
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  34. T. W. Pike, “Using digital cameras to investigate animal colouration: estimating sensor sensitivity functions,” Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 65, 849–858 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

B. D. McKay, “The use of digital photography in systematics,” Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 110, 1–13 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Akkaynak, J. Allen, L. Mäthger, C.-C. Chiao, and R. Hanlon, “Quantification of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) camouflage: a study of color and luminance using in situ spectrometry,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 199, 211–225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

U. A. Gurkan, S. Tasoglu, D. Akkaynak, O. Avci, S. Unluisler, S. Canikyan, N. MacCallum, and U. Demirci, “Smart interface materials integrated with microfluidics for on-demand local capture and release of cells,” Adv. Healthcare Mat. 1, 661–668 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Seon Joo, L. Hai Ting, L. Zheng, S. Süsstrunk, S. Lin, and M. S. Brown, “A new in-camera imaging model for color computer vision and its application,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 34, 2289–2302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

T. W. Pike, “Using digital cameras to investigate animal colouration: estimating sensor sensitivity functions,” Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 65, 849–858 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

S. E. Arnold, S. Faruq, V. Savolainen, P. W. McOwan, and L. Chittka, “FReD: the floral reflectance database, A web portal for analyses of flower colour,” PloS one 5, e14287 (2010).

2009 (1)

G. Winters, R. Holzman, A. Blekhman, S. Beer, and Y. Loya, “Photographic assessment of coral chlorophyll contents: implications for ecophysiological studies and coral monitoring,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 380, 25–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. Alsam and G. Finlayson, “Integer programming for optimal reduction of calibration targets,” Color Res. Appl. 33, 212–220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. Stevens, C. A. Parraga, I. C. Cuthill, J. C. Partridge, and T. S. Troscianko, “Using digital photography to study animal coloration,” Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 90, 211–237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. G. Wee, D. T. Lindsey, S. Kuo, and W. M. Johnston, “Color accuracy of commercial digital cameras for use in dentistry,” Dent. Mater. 22, 553–559 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Siebeck, N. Marshall, A. Klüter, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg, “Monitoring coral bleaching using a colour reference card,” Coral Reefs 25, 453–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

N. Levin, E. Ben-Dor, and A. Singer, “A digital camera as a tool to measure colour indices and related properties of sandy soils in semi-arid environments,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 5475–5492 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Cheung, S. Westland, C. Li, J. Hardeberg, and D. Connah, “Characterization of trichromatic color cameras by using a new multispectral imaging technique,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1231–1240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

R. Ramanath, W. E. Snyder, G. L. Bilbro, and W. A. Sander, “Demosaicking methods for Bayer color arrays,” J. Electron. Imaging 11, 306–315 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Barnard and B. Funt, “Camera characterization for color research,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 152–163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Hong, M. R. Luo, and P. A. Rhodes, “A study of digital camera colorimetric characterisation based on polynomial modelling,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 76–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. Stavenga, R. Smits, and B. Hoenders, “Simple exponential functions describing the absorbance bands of visual pigment spectra,” Vis. Res. 33, 1011–1017 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Åhlén, J.

J. Åhlén, Colour Correction of Underwater Images Using Spectral Data (Uppsala University, 2005).

Akkaynak, D.

D. Akkaynak, J. Allen, L. Mäthger, C.-C. Chiao, and R. Hanlon, “Quantification of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) camouflage: a study of color and luminance using in situ spectrometry,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 199, 211–225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Gurkan, S. Tasoglu, D. Akkaynak, O. Avci, S. Unluisler, S. Canikyan, N. MacCallum, and U. Demirci, “Smart interface materials integrated with microfluidics for on-demand local capture and release of cells,” Adv. Healthcare Mat. 1, 661–668 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Akkaynak, E. Chan, J. J. Allen, and R. T. Hanlon, “Using spectrometry and photography to study color underwater,” in OCEANS (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–8.

Akyüz, A.

E. Reinhard, E. Khan, A. Akyüz, and G. Johnson, Color Imaging: Fundamentals and Applications (A K Peters, 2008).

Allen, J.

D. Akkaynak, J. Allen, L. Mäthger, C.-C. Chiao, and R. Hanlon, “Quantification of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) camouflage: a study of color and luminance using in situ spectrometry,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 199, 211–225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Allen, J. J.

D. Akkaynak, E. Chan, J. J. Allen, and R. T. Hanlon, “Using spectrometry and photography to study color underwater,” in OCEANS (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–8.

Alsam, A.

A. Alsam and G. Finlayson, “Integer programming for optimal reduction of calibration targets,” Color Res. Appl. 33, 212–220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, S. E.

S. E. Arnold, S. Faruq, V. Savolainen, P. W. McOwan, and L. Chittka, “FReD: the floral reflectance database, A web portal for analyses of flower colour,” PloS one 5, e14287 (2010).

Avci, O.

U. A. Gurkan, S. Tasoglu, D. Akkaynak, O. Avci, S. Unluisler, S. Canikyan, N. MacCallum, and U. Demirci, “Smart interface materials integrated with microfluidics for on-demand local capture and release of cells,” Adv. Healthcare Mat. 1, 661–668 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, K.

K. Barnard and B. Funt, “Camera characterization for color research,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 152–163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beer, S.

G. Winters, R. Holzman, A. Blekhman, S. Beer, and Y. Loya, “Photographic assessment of coral chlorophyll contents: implications for ecophysiological studies and coral monitoring,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 380, 25–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ben-Dor, E.

N. Levin, E. Ben-Dor, and A. Singer, “A digital camera as a tool to measure colour indices and related properties of sandy soils in semi-arid environments,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 5475–5492 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bilbro, G. L.

R. Ramanath, W. E. Snyder, G. L. Bilbro, and W. A. Sander, “Demosaicking methods for Bayer color arrays,” J. Electron. Imaging 11, 306–315 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blekhman, A.

G. Winters, R. Holzman, A. Blekhman, S. Beer, and Y. Loya, “Photographic assessment of coral chlorophyll contents: implications for ecophysiological studies and coral monitoring,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 380, 25–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, M. S.

K. Seon Joo, L. Hai Ting, L. Zheng, S. Süsstrunk, S. Lin, and M. S. Brown, “A new in-camera imaging model for color computer vision and its application,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 34, 2289–2302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Canikyan, S.

U. A. Gurkan, S. Tasoglu, D. Akkaynak, O. Avci, S. Unluisler, S. Canikyan, N. MacCallum, and U. Demirci, “Smart interface materials integrated with microfluidics for on-demand local capture and release of cells,” Adv. Healthcare Mat. 1, 661–668 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chakrabarti, A.

A. Chakrabarti, D. Scharstein, and T. Zickler, “An empirical camera model for internet color vision,” in Proceedings of British Machine Vision Conference (2009), p. 51.1.

Chan, E.

D. Akkaynak, E. Chan, J. J. Allen, and R. T. Hanlon, “Using spectrometry and photography to study color underwater,” in OCEANS (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–8.

Cheung, V.

Chiao, C.-C.

D. Akkaynak, J. Allen, L. Mäthger, C.-C. Chiao, and R. Hanlon, “Quantification of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) camouflage: a study of color and luminance using in situ spectrometry,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 199, 211–225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chittka, L.

S. E. Arnold, S. Faruq, V. Savolainen, P. W. McOwan, and L. Chittka, “FReD: the floral reflectance database, A web portal for analyses of flower colour,” PloS one 5, e14287 (2010).

Connah, D.

Cui, G.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cuthill, I. C.

M. Stevens, C. A. Parraga, I. C. Cuthill, J. C. Partridge, and T. S. Troscianko, “Using digital photography to study animal coloration,” Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 90, 211–237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

De La Barrera, E.

E. De La Barrera and W. K. Smith, Perspectives in Biophysical Plant Ecophysiology: A Tribute to Park S. Nobel (Unam, 2009).

Demirci, U.

U. A. Gurkan, S. Tasoglu, D. Akkaynak, O. Avci, S. Unluisler, S. Canikyan, N. MacCallum, and U. Demirci, “Smart interface materials integrated with microfluidics for on-demand local capture and release of cells,” Adv. Healthcare Mat. 1, 661–668 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Drew, M. S.

G. D. Finlayson and M. S. Drew, “White-point preserving color correction,” in Color and Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 1997), pp. 258–261.

Farnand, S. P.

F. S. Frey and S. P. Farnand, “Benchmarking art image interchange cycles,” Tech. Rep. (Rochester Institute of Technology, 2011).

Faruq, S.

S. E. Arnold, S. Faruq, V. Savolainen, P. W. McOwan, and L. Chittka, “FReD: the floral reflectance database, A web portal for analyses of flower colour,” PloS one 5, e14287 (2010).

Finlayson, G.

A. Alsam and G. Finlayson, “Integer programming for optimal reduction of calibration targets,” Color Res. Appl. 33, 212–220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Finlayson, S. Hordley, and P. M. Hubel, “Recovering device sensitivities with quadratic programming,” in IS&T/SID Sixth Color Imaging Conference: Color Science, Systems and Applications (1998).

Finlayson, G. D.

G. D. Finlayson and M. S. Drew, “White-point preserving color correction,” in Color and Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 1997), pp. 258–261.

S. E. Süsstrunk, J. M. Holm, and G. D. Finlayson, “Chromatic adaptation performance of different RGB sensors,” in Photonics West 2001-Electronic Imaging (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2000), pp. 172–183.

Frey, F. S.

M. R. Rosen and F. S. Frey, “RIT American museums survey on digital imaging for direct capture of artwork,” in Society for Imaging Science and Technology Archiving Conference (2005).

F. S. Frey and S. P. Farnand, “Benchmarking art image interchange cycles,” Tech. Rep. (Rochester Institute of Technology, 2011).

Funt, B.

K. Barnard and B. Funt, “Camera characterization for color research,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 152–163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gu, J.

J. Jiang, D. Liu, J. Gu, and S. Süsstrunk, “What is the space of spectral sensitivity functions for digital color cameras?” in IEEE Workshop on the Applications of Computer Vision (IEEE, 2013), pp. 168–179.

Gurkan, U. A.

U. A. Gurkan, S. Tasoglu, D. Akkaynak, O. Avci, S. Unluisler, S. Canikyan, N. MacCallum, and U. Demirci, “Smart interface materials integrated with microfluidics for on-demand local capture and release of cells,” Adv. Healthcare Mat. 1, 661–668 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hai Ting, L.

K. Seon Joo, L. Hai Ting, L. Zheng, S. Süsstrunk, S. Lin, and M. S. Brown, “A new in-camera imaging model for color computer vision and its application,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 34, 2289–2302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hanlon, R.

D. Akkaynak, J. Allen, L. Mäthger, C.-C. Chiao, and R. Hanlon, “Quantification of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) camouflage: a study of color and luminance using in situ spectrometry,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 199, 211–225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hanlon, R. T.

D. Akkaynak, E. Chan, J. J. Allen, and R. T. Hanlon, “Using spectrometry and photography to study color underwater,” in OCEANS (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–8.

Hardeberg, J.

Hoegh-Guldberg, O.

U. Siebeck, N. Marshall, A. Klüter, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg, “Monitoring coral bleaching using a colour reference card,” Coral Reefs 25, 453–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hoenders, B.

D. Stavenga, R. Smits, and B. Hoenders, “Simple exponential functions describing the absorbance bands of visual pigment spectra,” Vis. Res. 33, 1011–1017 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Holm, J. M.

S. E. Süsstrunk, J. M. Holm, and G. D. Finlayson, “Chromatic adaptation performance of different RGB sensors,” in Photonics West 2001-Electronic Imaging (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2000), pp. 172–183.

Holzman, R.

G. Winters, R. Holzman, A. Blekhman, S. Beer, and Y. Loya, “Photographic assessment of coral chlorophyll contents: implications for ecophysiological studies and coral monitoring,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 380, 25–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hong, G.

G. Hong, M. R. Luo, and P. A. Rhodes, “A study of digital camera colorimetric characterisation based on polynomial modelling,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 76–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hordley, S.

G. Finlayson, S. Hordley, and P. M. Hubel, “Recovering device sensitivities with quadratic programming,” in IS&T/SID Sixth Color Imaging Conference: Color Science, Systems and Applications (1998).

Hubel, P. M.

G. Finlayson, S. Hordley, and P. M. Hubel, “Recovering device sensitivities with quadratic programming,” in IS&T/SID Sixth Color Imaging Conference: Color Science, Systems and Applications (1998).

Jiang, J.

J. Jiang, D. Liu, J. Gu, and S. Süsstrunk, “What is the space of spectral sensitivity functions for digital color cameras?” in IEEE Workshop on the Applications of Computer Vision (IEEE, 2013), pp. 168–179.

Johnson, G.

E. Reinhard, E. Khan, A. Akyüz, and G. Johnson, Color Imaging: Fundamentals and Applications (A K Peters, 2008).

Johnston, W. M.

A. G. Wee, D. T. Lindsey, S. Kuo, and W. M. Johnston, “Color accuracy of commercial digital cameras for use in dentistry,” Dent. Mater. 22, 553–559 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khan, E.

E. Reinhard, E. Khan, A. Akyüz, and G. Johnson, Color Imaging: Fundamentals and Applications (A K Peters, 2008).

Klüter, A.

U. Siebeck, N. Marshall, A. Klüter, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg, “Monitoring coral bleaching using a colour reference card,” Coral Reefs 25, 453–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, S.

A. G. Wee, D. T. Lindsey, S. Kuo, and W. M. Johnston, “Color accuracy of commercial digital cameras for use in dentistry,” Dent. Mater. 22, 553–559 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Levin, N.

N. Levin, E. Ben-Dor, and A. Singer, “A digital camera as a tool to measure colour indices and related properties of sandy soils in semi-arid environments,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 5475–5492 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

Lin, S.

K. Seon Joo, L. Hai Ting, L. Zheng, S. Süsstrunk, S. Lin, and M. S. Brown, “A new in-camera imaging model for color computer vision and its application,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 34, 2289–2302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lindsey, D. T.

A. G. Wee, D. T. Lindsey, S. Kuo, and W. M. Johnston, “Color accuracy of commercial digital cameras for use in dentistry,” Dent. Mater. 22, 553–559 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

J. Jiang, D. Liu, J. Gu, and S. Süsstrunk, “What is the space of spectral sensitivity functions for digital color cameras?” in IEEE Workshop on the Applications of Computer Vision (IEEE, 2013), pp. 168–179.

Loya, Y.

G. Winters, R. Holzman, A. Blekhman, S. Beer, and Y. Loya, “Photographic assessment of coral chlorophyll contents: implications for ecophysiological studies and coral monitoring,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 380, 25–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, M. R.

G. Hong, M. R. Luo, and P. A. Rhodes, “A study of digital camera colorimetric characterisation based on polynomial modelling,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 76–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

MacCallum, N.

U. A. Gurkan, S. Tasoglu, D. Akkaynak, O. Avci, S. Unluisler, S. Canikyan, N. MacCallum, and U. Demirci, “Smart interface materials integrated with microfluidics for on-demand local capture and release of cells,” Adv. Healthcare Mat. 1, 661–668 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, N.

U. Siebeck, N. Marshall, A. Klüter, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg, “Monitoring coral bleaching using a colour reference card,” Coral Reefs 25, 453–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mäthger, L.

D. Akkaynak, J. Allen, L. Mäthger, C.-C. Chiao, and R. Hanlon, “Quantification of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) camouflage: a study of color and luminance using in situ spectrometry,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 199, 211–225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mauer, C.

C. Mauer and D. Wueller, “Measuring the spectral response with a set of interference filters,” in IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2009), paper 72500S.

McKay, B. D.

B. D. McKay, “The use of digital photography in systematics,” Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 110, 1–13 (2013).
[CrossRef]

McOwan, P. W.

S. E. Arnold, S. Faruq, V. Savolainen, P. W. McOwan, and L. Chittka, “FReD: the floral reflectance database, A web portal for analyses of flower colour,” PloS one 5, e14287 (2010).

Nakamura, J.

J. Nakamura, Image Sensors and Signal Processing for Digital Still Cameras (Taylor & Francis, 2005).

Parraga, C. A.

M. Stevens, C. A. Parraga, I. C. Cuthill, J. C. Partridge, and T. S. Troscianko, “Using digital photography to study animal coloration,” Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 90, 211–237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Partridge, J. C.

M. Stevens, C. A. Parraga, I. C. Cuthill, J. C. Partridge, and T. S. Troscianko, “Using digital photography to study animal coloration,” Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 90, 211–237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pike, T. W.

T. W. Pike, “Using digital cameras to investigate animal colouration: estimating sensor sensitivity functions,” Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 65, 849–858 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ramanath, R.

R. Ramanath, W. E. Snyder, G. L. Bilbro, and W. A. Sander, “Demosaicking methods for Bayer color arrays,” J. Electron. Imaging 11, 306–315 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reinhard, E.

E. Reinhard, E. Khan, A. Akyüz, and G. Johnson, Color Imaging: Fundamentals and Applications (A K Peters, 2008).

Rhodes, P. A.

G. Hong, M. R. Luo, and P. A. Rhodes, “A study of digital camera colorimetric characterisation based on polynomial modelling,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 76–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rigg, B.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ripamonti, C.

S. Westland and C. Ripamonti, Computational Colour Science Using MATLAB (Wiley, 2004).

Rosen, M. R.

M. R. Rosen and F. S. Frey, “RIT American museums survey on digital imaging for direct capture of artwork,” in Society for Imaging Science and Technology Archiving Conference (2005).

Sander, W. A.

R. Ramanath, W. E. Snyder, G. L. Bilbro, and W. A. Sander, “Demosaicking methods for Bayer color arrays,” J. Electron. Imaging 11, 306–315 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Savolainen, V.

S. E. Arnold, S. Faruq, V. Savolainen, P. W. McOwan, and L. Chittka, “FReD: the floral reflectance database, A web portal for analyses of flower colour,” PloS one 5, e14287 (2010).

Scharstein, D.

A. Chakrabarti, D. Scharstein, and T. Zickler, “An empirical camera model for internet color vision,” in Proceedings of British Machine Vision Conference (2009), p. 51.1.

Seon Joo, K.

K. Seon Joo, L. Hai Ting, L. Zheng, S. Süsstrunk, S. Lin, and M. S. Brown, “A new in-camera imaging model for color computer vision and its application,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 34, 2289–2302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Siebeck, U.

U. Siebeck, N. Marshall, A. Klüter, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg, “Monitoring coral bleaching using a colour reference card,” Coral Reefs 25, 453–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Singer, A.

N. Levin, E. Ben-Dor, and A. Singer, “A digital camera as a tool to measure colour indices and related properties of sandy soils in semi-arid environments,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 5475–5492 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. K.

E. De La Barrera and W. K. Smith, Perspectives in Biophysical Plant Ecophysiology: A Tribute to Park S. Nobel (Unam, 2009).

Smits, R.

D. Stavenga, R. Smits, and B. Hoenders, “Simple exponential functions describing the absorbance bands of visual pigment spectra,” Vis. Res. 33, 1011–1017 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, W. E.

R. Ramanath, W. E. Snyder, G. L. Bilbro, and W. A. Sander, “Demosaicking methods for Bayer color arrays,” J. Electron. Imaging 11, 306–315 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stavenga, D.

D. Stavenga, R. Smits, and B. Hoenders, “Simple exponential functions describing the absorbance bands of visual pigment spectra,” Vis. Res. 33, 1011–1017 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, M.

M. Stevens, C. A. Parraga, I. C. Cuthill, J. C. Partridge, and T. S. Troscianko, “Using digital photography to study animal coloration,” Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 90, 211–237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data, and Formulae, 2nd illustrated ed. (Wiley, 2000).

Su¨sstrunk, S.

K. Seon Joo, L. Hai Ting, L. Zheng, S. Süsstrunk, S. Lin, and M. S. Brown, “A new in-camera imaging model for color computer vision and its application,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 34, 2289–2302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Süsstrunk, S.

J. Jiang, D. Liu, J. Gu, and S. Süsstrunk, “What is the space of spectral sensitivity functions for digital color cameras?” in IEEE Workshop on the Applications of Computer Vision (IEEE, 2013), pp. 168–179.

Süsstrunk, S. E.

S. E. Süsstrunk, J. M. Holm, and G. D. Finlayson, “Chromatic adaptation performance of different RGB sensors,” in Photonics West 2001-Electronic Imaging (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2000), pp. 172–183.

Szeliski, R.

R. Szeliski, Computer Vision: Algorithms and Applications (Springer, 2010).

Tasoglu, S.

U. A. Gurkan, S. Tasoglu, D. Akkaynak, O. Avci, S. Unluisler, S. Canikyan, N. MacCallum, and U. Demirci, “Smart interface materials integrated with microfluidics for on-demand local capture and release of cells,” Adv. Healthcare Mat. 1, 661–668 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Troscianko, T. S.

M. Stevens, C. A. Parraga, I. C. Cuthill, J. C. Partridge, and T. S. Troscianko, “Using digital photography to study animal coloration,” Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 90, 211–237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Unluisler, S.

U. A. Gurkan, S. Tasoglu, D. Akkaynak, O. Avci, S. Unluisler, S. Canikyan, N. MacCallum, and U. Demirci, “Smart interface materials integrated with microfluidics for on-demand local capture and release of cells,” Adv. Healthcare Mat. 1, 661–668 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wee, A. G.

A. G. Wee, D. T. Lindsey, S. Kuo, and W. M. Johnston, “Color accuracy of commercial digital cameras for use in dentistry,” Dent. Mater. 22, 553–559 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Westland, S.

Winters, G.

G. Winters, R. Holzman, A. Blekhman, S. Beer, and Y. Loya, “Photographic assessment of coral chlorophyll contents: implications for ecophysiological studies and coral monitoring,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 380, 25–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wueller, D.

C. Mauer and D. Wueller, “Measuring the spectral response with a set of interference filters,” in IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2009), paper 72500S.

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data, and Formulae, 2nd illustrated ed. (Wiley, 2000).

Zheng, L.

K. Seon Joo, L. Hai Ting, L. Zheng, S. Süsstrunk, S. Lin, and M. S. Brown, “A new in-camera imaging model for color computer vision and its application,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 34, 2289–2302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zickler, T.

A. Chakrabarti, D. Scharstein, and T. Zickler, “An empirical camera model for internet color vision,” in Proceedings of British Machine Vision Conference (2009), p. 51.1.

Adv. Healthcare Mat. (1)

U. A. Gurkan, S. Tasoglu, D. Akkaynak, O. Avci, S. Unluisler, S. Canikyan, N. MacCallum, and U. Demirci, “Smart interface materials integrated with microfluidics for on-demand local capture and release of cells,” Adv. Healthcare Mat. 1, 661–668 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (1)

T. W. Pike, “Using digital cameras to investigate animal colouration: estimating sensor sensitivity functions,” Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 65, 849–858 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Biol. J. Linn. Soc. (2)

B. D. McKay, “The use of digital photography in systematics,” Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 110, 1–13 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Stevens, C. A. Parraga, I. C. Cuthill, J. C. Partridge, and T. S. Troscianko, “Using digital photography to study animal coloration,” Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 90, 211–237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Color Res. Appl. (4)

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Alsam and G. Finlayson, “Integer programming for optimal reduction of calibration targets,” Color Res. Appl. 33, 212–220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Hong, M. R. Luo, and P. A. Rhodes, “A study of digital camera colorimetric characterisation based on polynomial modelling,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 76–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Barnard and B. Funt, “Camera characterization for color research,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 152–163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Coral Reefs (1)

U. Siebeck, N. Marshall, A. Klüter, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg, “Monitoring coral bleaching using a colour reference card,” Coral Reefs 25, 453–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dent. Mater. (1)

A. G. Wee, D. T. Lindsey, S. Kuo, and W. M. Johnston, “Color accuracy of commercial digital cameras for use in dentistry,” Dent. Mater. 22, 553–559 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

K. Seon Joo, L. Hai Ting, L. Zheng, S. Süsstrunk, S. Lin, and M. S. Brown, “A new in-camera imaging model for color computer vision and its application,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 34, 2289–2302 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

N. Levin, E. Ben-Dor, and A. Singer, “A digital camera as a tool to measure colour indices and related properties of sandy soils in semi-arid environments,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 5475–5492 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Comp. Physiol. A (1)

D. Akkaynak, J. Allen, L. Mäthger, C.-C. Chiao, and R. Hanlon, “Quantification of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) camouflage: a study of color and luminance using in situ spectrometry,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 199, 211–225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Imaging (1)

R. Ramanath, W. E. Snyder, G. L. Bilbro, and W. A. Sander, “Demosaicking methods for Bayer color arrays,” J. Electron. Imaging 11, 306–315 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. (1)

G. Winters, R. Holzman, A. Blekhman, S. Beer, and Y. Loya, “Photographic assessment of coral chlorophyll contents: implications for ecophysiological studies and coral monitoring,” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 380, 25–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

PloS one (1)

S. E. Arnold, S. Faruq, V. Savolainen, P. W. McOwan, and L. Chittka, “FReD: the floral reflectance database, A web portal for analyses of flower colour,” PloS one 5, e14287 (2010).

Vis. Res. (1)

D. Stavenga, R. Smits, and B. Hoenders, “Simple exponential functions describing the absorbance bands of visual pigment spectra,” Vis. Res. 33, 1011–1017 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (17)

M. R. Rosen and F. S. Frey, “RIT American museums survey on digital imaging for direct capture of artwork,” in Society for Imaging Science and Technology Archiving Conference (2005).

F. S. Frey and S. P. Farnand, “Benchmarking art image interchange cycles,” Tech. Rep. (Rochester Institute of Technology, 2011).

A. Chakrabarti, D. Scharstein, and T. Zickler, “An empirical camera model for internet color vision,” in Proceedings of British Machine Vision Conference (2009), p. 51.1.

J. Jiang, D. Liu, J. Gu, and S. Süsstrunk, “What is the space of spectral sensitivity functions for digital color cameras?” in IEEE Workshop on the Applications of Computer Vision (IEEE, 2013), pp. 168–179.

J. Nakamura, Image Sensors and Signal Processing for Digital Still Cameras (Taylor & Francis, 2005).

C. Mauer and D. Wueller, “Measuring the spectral response with a set of interference filters,” in IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2009), paper 72500S.

G. Finlayson, S. Hordley, and P. M. Hubel, “Recovering device sensitivities with quadratic programming,” in IS&T/SID Sixth Color Imaging Conference: Color Science, Systems and Applications (1998).

G. D. Finlayson and M. S. Drew, “White-point preserving color correction,” in Color and Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 1997), pp. 258–261.

S. E. Süsstrunk, J. M. Holm, and G. D. Finlayson, “Chromatic adaptation performance of different RGB sensors,” in Photonics West 2001-Electronic Imaging (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2000), pp. 172–183.

S. Westland and C. Ripamonti, Computational Colour Science Using MATLAB (Wiley, 2004).

E. De La Barrera and W. K. Smith, Perspectives in Biophysical Plant Ecophysiology: A Tribute to Park S. Nobel (Unam, 2009).

H. Farid, “That looks fake!” (2011), retrieved http://www.fourandsix.com/blog/2011/6/29/that-looks-fake.html .

J. Åhlén, Colour Correction of Underwater Images Using Spectral Data (Uppsala University, 2005).

D. Akkaynak, E. Chan, J. J. Allen, and R. T. Hanlon, “Using spectrometry and photography to study color underwater,” in OCEANS (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–8.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data, and Formulae, 2nd illustrated ed. (Wiley, 2000).

E. Reinhard, E. Khan, A. Akyüz, and G. Johnson, Color Imaging: Fundamentals and Applications (A K Peters, 2008).

R. Szeliski, Computer Vision: Algorithms and Applications (Springer, 2010).

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