Abstract

Novel conical reflection of light by a thick three-layered metal-clad optical waveguide is observed. A symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide is used, which exhibits extraordinary conical reflection during free-space coupling of light to the waveguide. The phenomenon is attributed to the leakage of excited ultrahigh-order guided modes and their inter- and intramode coupling interaction.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Lu, Z. Cao, H. Li, and Q. Shen, “Study of ultrahigh-order modes in a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4579–4581 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Yuan, C. Yin, H. Li, P. Xiao, and Z. Cao, “Wideband slow light assisted by ultrahigh-order modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 968–971 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Zheng, W. Yuan, X. Chen, and Z. Cao, “Wideband slow-light modes for time delay of ultrashort pulses in symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide,” Opt. Express 20, 9409–9414 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Wang, Z. Cao, T. Yu, H. Li, and Q. Shen, “Enhancement of the superprism effect based on the strong dispersion effect of ultrahigh-order modes,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1276–1278 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Chen, Z. Cao, J. Gu, and Q. Shen, “Oscillating wave sensors based on ultrahigh-order modes in symmetric metal-clad optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081120 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Chen, Z. Cao, Q. Shen, X. Deng, B. Duan, W. Yuan, M. Sang, and S. Wang, “Picometer displacement sensing using the ultrahigh-order modes in a submillimeter scale optical waveguide,” Opt. Express 13, 10061–10065 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Chen, Z. Cao, F. Ou, H. Li, Q. Shen, and H. Qiao, “Observation of large positive and negative lateral shifts of a reflected beam from symmetrical metal-cladding waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1432–1434 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Hao, H. Li, C. Yin, and Z. Cao, “1.5 mm light beam shift arising from 14 pm variation of wavelength,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1305–1308 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Li, Z. Cao, H. Lu, and Q. Shen, “Free-space coupling of a light beam into a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2757–2759 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. M. Weiner, Ultrafast Optics (Wiley, 2008), pp. 147–197.
  11. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic, 1991).
  12. F. Zhou, Z. Cao, Y. Jiang, and Q. Shen, “Method to identify mode order in double metal-cladding waveguide,” Acta Opt. Sin. 22, 665–669 (2002).
  13. A. Yariv and M. Nakamura, “Periodic structures for integrated optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 233–253 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Elsevier, 2006), pp. 159–178.

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

G. Chen, Z. Cao, J. Gu, and Q. Shen, “Oscillating wave sensors based on ultrahigh-order modes in symmetric metal-clad optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

H. Lu, Z. Cao, H. Li, and Q. Shen, “Study of ultrahigh-order modes in a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4579–4581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H. Li, Z. Cao, H. Lu, and Q. Shen, “Free-space coupling of a light beam into a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2757–2759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

F. Zhou, Z. Cao, Y. Jiang, and Q. Shen, “Method to identify mode order in double metal-cladding waveguide,” Acta Opt. Sin. 22, 665–669 (2002).

1977 (1)

A. Yariv and M. Nakamura, “Periodic structures for integrated optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 233–253 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Z.

Y. Zheng, W. Yuan, X. Chen, and Z. Cao, “Wideband slow-light modes for time delay of ultrashort pulses in symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide,” Opt. Express 20, 9409–9414 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Yuan, C. Yin, H. Li, P. Xiao, and Z. Cao, “Wideband slow light assisted by ultrahigh-order modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 968–971 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hao, H. Li, C. Yin, and Z. Cao, “1.5 mm light beam shift arising from 14 pm variation of wavelength,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1305–1308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, Z. Cao, T. Yu, H. Li, and Q. Shen, “Enhancement of the superprism effect based on the strong dispersion effect of ultrahigh-order modes,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1276–1278 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, Z. Cao, F. Ou, H. Li, Q. Shen, and H. Qiao, “Observation of large positive and negative lateral shifts of a reflected beam from symmetrical metal-cladding waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1432–1434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Chen, Z. Cao, J. Gu, and Q. Shen, “Oscillating wave sensors based on ultrahigh-order modes in symmetric metal-clad optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, Z. Cao, Q. Shen, X. Deng, B. Duan, W. Yuan, M. Sang, and S. Wang, “Picometer displacement sensing using the ultrahigh-order modes in a submillimeter scale optical waveguide,” Opt. Express 13, 10061–10065 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, Z. Cao, H. Li, and Q. Shen, “Study of ultrahigh-order modes in a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4579–4581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, Z. Cao, H. Lu, and Q. Shen, “Free-space coupling of a light beam into a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2757–2759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhou, Z. Cao, Y. Jiang, and Q. Shen, “Method to identify mode order in double metal-cladding waveguide,” Acta Opt. Sin. 22, 665–669 (2002).

Chen, F.

Chen, G.

G. Chen, Z. Cao, J. Gu, and Q. Shen, “Oscillating wave sensors based on ultrahigh-order modes in symmetric metal-clad optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chen, X.

Deng, X.

Duan, B.

Gu, J.

G. Chen, Z. Cao, J. Gu, and Q. Shen, “Oscillating wave sensors based on ultrahigh-order modes in symmetric metal-clad optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hao, J.

Jiang, Y.

F. Zhou, Z. Cao, Y. Jiang, and Q. Shen, “Method to identify mode order in double metal-cladding waveguide,” Acta Opt. Sin. 22, 665–669 (2002).

Li, H.

Lu, H.

H. Lu, Z. Cao, H. Li, and Q. Shen, “Study of ultrahigh-order modes in a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4579–4581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, Z. Cao, H. Lu, and Q. Shen, “Free-space coupling of a light beam into a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2757–2759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, M.

A. Yariv and M. Nakamura, “Periodic structures for integrated optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 233–253 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Elsevier, 2006), pp. 159–178.

Ou, F.

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic, 1991).

Qiao, H.

Sang, M.

Shen, Q.

Y. Wang, Z. Cao, T. Yu, H. Li, and Q. Shen, “Enhancement of the superprism effect based on the strong dispersion effect of ultrahigh-order modes,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1276–1278 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, Z. Cao, F. Ou, H. Li, Q. Shen, and H. Qiao, “Observation of large positive and negative lateral shifts of a reflected beam from symmetrical metal-cladding waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1432–1434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Chen, Z. Cao, J. Gu, and Q. Shen, “Oscillating wave sensors based on ultrahigh-order modes in symmetric metal-clad optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, Z. Cao, Q. Shen, X. Deng, B. Duan, W. Yuan, M. Sang, and S. Wang, “Picometer displacement sensing using the ultrahigh-order modes in a submillimeter scale optical waveguide,” Opt. Express 13, 10061–10065 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, Z. Cao, H. Li, and Q. Shen, “Study of ultrahigh-order modes in a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4579–4581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, Z. Cao, H. Lu, and Q. Shen, “Free-space coupling of a light beam into a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2757–2759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhou, Z. Cao, Y. Jiang, and Q. Shen, “Method to identify mode order in double metal-cladding waveguide,” Acta Opt. Sin. 22, 665–669 (2002).

Wang, S.

Wang, Y.

Weiner, A. M.

A. M. Weiner, Ultrafast Optics (Wiley, 2008), pp. 147–197.

Xiao, P.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv and M. Nakamura, “Periodic structures for integrated optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 233–253 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Yin, C.

Yu, T.

Yuan, W.

Zheng, Y.

Zhou, F.

F. Zhou, Z. Cao, Y. Jiang, and Q. Shen, “Method to identify mode order in double metal-cladding waveguide,” Acta Opt. Sin. 22, 665–669 (2002).

Acta Opt. Sin. (1)

F. Zhou, Z. Cao, Y. Jiang, and Q. Shen, “Method to identify mode order in double metal-cladding waveguide,” Acta Opt. Sin. 22, 665–669 (2002).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

G. Chen, Z. Cao, J. Gu, and Q. Shen, “Oscillating wave sensors based on ultrahigh-order modes in symmetric metal-clad optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, Z. Cao, H. Lu, and Q. Shen, “Free-space coupling of a light beam into a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2757–2759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, Z. Cao, H. Li, and Q. Shen, “Study of ultrahigh-order modes in a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4579–4581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Yariv and M. Nakamura, “Periodic structures for integrated optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 233–253 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

A. M. Weiner, Ultrafast Optics (Wiley, 2008), pp. 147–197.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic, 1991).

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Elsevier, 2006), pp. 159–178.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Light reflected by a SMCOW exhibits extraordinary conical reflection at critical angles, which is the outleakage of omnidirectional guided modes.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup for the observation of extraordinary conical reflection by SMCOW. (a) Top view of the setup. (b) Normal reflection away from the mode coupling condition. (c) The observed extraordinary conical reflection pattern.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Normalized angular intensity distribution of the conical reflection. (b) The experimental and simulation ATR spectrum of the SMCOW sample (ϵAg=15.8+1.06i at 632.8 nm [11]).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Excitation of the m line in an all-dielectric waveguide and SMCOW. (a) Prism coupling of light into a thin dielectric optical waveguide. (b) A multiple short m line occurs when there is coupling among different guided modes due to light scattering. (c) Light coupling into SMCOW by means of the free-space coupling technique. (d) The conical reflection pattern of SMCOW, which is actually closed m-line circles.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k0hn2N2=mπ,
κc=κ2β2Λωeff|f(x)ei2Δβxdx|,
κc=κ2β2Λωeff|Rδ(r⃗)ei2Δβr⃗dr⃗|=κ2Rβ2Λωeff,

Metrics