Abstract

Scaling devices that can shrink or enlarge an object are designed using transformation optics. The electromagnetic scattering properties of such scaling devices with anisotropic parameters are rigorously analyzed using the eigenmode expansion method. If the radius of the virtual object is smaller than that of the real object, it is a shrinking device with positive material parameters; if the radius of the virtual object is larger than the real one, it is an enlarging device with positive or negative material parameters. Hence, a scaling device can make a dielectric or metallic object look smaller or larger. The rigorous analysis shows that the scattering coefficients of the scaling devices are the same as those of the equivalent virtual objects. When the radius of the virtual object approaches zero, the scaling device will be an invisibility cloak. In such a case, the scattering effect of the scaling device will be sensitive to material parameters of the device.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87–95 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, “Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 264101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the carpet: a new strategy for cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. F. Ma and T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband ground-plane cloak made of metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 1, 21 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Kundtz and D. R. Smith, “Extreme-angle broadband metamaterial lens,” Nat. Mater. 9, 129–132 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, and Q. Cheng, “Illusion media: generating virtual objects using realizable metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121910 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. X. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, T. Han, S. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Creation of ghost illusions using wave dynamics in metamaterials,” Adv. Funct. Mater. doi:10.1002/adfm201203806 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. M. Yang, H. F. Ma, and Q. Cheng, “Shrinking an arbitrary object as one desires using metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 204101 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, and C. T. Chan, “Metamaterial frequency-selective superabsorber,” Opt. Lett. 34, 644–646 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C.-W. Qiu, A. Akbarzadeh, T. Han, and A. J. Danner, “Photorealistic rendering of a graded negative-index metamaterial magnifier,” New J. Phys. 14, 033024 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. Q. Cheng, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Spatial power combination for omnidirectional radiation via anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213903 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  21. X. Huang, Y. Lai, Z. H. Hang, H. Zheng, and C. T. Chan, “Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials,” Nat. Mater. 10, 582–586 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Yan, Z. C. Ruan, and M. Qiu, “Cylindrical invisibility cloak with simplified material parameters is inherently visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 233901 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2012

C.-W. Qiu, A. Akbarzadeh, T. Han, and A. J. Danner, “Photorealistic rendering of a graded negative-index metamaterial magnifier,” New J. Phys. 14, 033024 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Cheng, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Spatial power combination for omnidirectional radiation via anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

X. Huang, Y. Lai, Z. H. Hang, H. Zheng, and C. T. Chan, “Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials,” Nat. Mater. 10, 582–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Cheng, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Multi-beam generations at pre-designed directions based on anisotropic zero-index metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 131913 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. M. Yang, H. F. Ma, and Q. Cheng, “Shrinking an arbitrary object as one desires using metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 204101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

H. F. Ma and T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband and broad-angle transformation-optics lens,” Nat. Commun. 1, 124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, and Q. Cheng, “Illusion media: generating virtual objects using realizable metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121910 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ni, L. Gao, and C.-W. Qiu, “Achieving invisibility of homogeneous cylindrically anisotropic cylinders,” Plasmonics 5, 251–258 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ma and T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband ground-plane cloak made of metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 1, 21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

N. Kundtz and D. R. Smith, “Extreme-angle broadband metamaterial lens,” Nat. Mater. 9, 129–132 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, and C. T. Chan, “Metamaterial frequency-selective superabsorber,” Opt. Lett. 34, 644–646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, “Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 264101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the carpet: a new strategy for cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan, Z. C. Ruan, and M. Qiu, “Cylindrical invisibility cloak with simplified material parameters is inherently visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 233901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312, 1777–1780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Cummer, B. I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Akbarzadeh, A.

C.-W. Qiu, A. Akbarzadeh, T. Han, and A. J. Danner, “Photorealistic rendering of a graded negative-index metamaterial magnifier,” New J. Phys. 14, 033024 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

X. Huang, Y. Lai, Z. H. Hang, H. Zheng, and C. T. Chan, “Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials,” Nat. Mater. 10, 582–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, and C. T. Chan, “Metamaterial frequency-selective superabsorber,” Opt. Lett. 34, 644–646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. Y.

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, and C. T. Chan, “Metamaterial frequency-selective superabsorber,” Opt. Lett. 34, 644–646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Q.

Q. Cheng, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Spatial power combination for omnidirectional radiation via anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. M. Yang, H. F. Ma, and Q. Cheng, “Shrinking an arbitrary object as one desires using metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 204101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Cheng, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Multi-beam generations at pre-designed directions based on anisotropic zero-index metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 131913 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, and Q. Cheng, “Illusion media: generating virtual objects using realizable metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121910 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, “Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 264101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chin, J. Y.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, “Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 264101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cui, T. J.

Q. Cheng, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Spatial power combination for omnidirectional radiation via anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Cheng, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Multi-beam generations at pre-designed directions based on anisotropic zero-index metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 131913 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. M. Yang, H. F. Ma, and Q. Cheng, “Shrinking an arbitrary object as one desires using metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 204101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ma and T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband ground-plane cloak made of metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 1, 21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ma and T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband and broad-angle transformation-optics lens,” Nat. Commun. 1, 124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, “Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 264101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, T. Han, S. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Creation of ghost illusions using wave dynamics in metamaterials,” Adv. Funct. Mater. doi:10.1002/adfm201203806 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cummer, S. A.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Cummer, B. I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Danner, A. J.

C.-W. Qiu, A. Akbarzadeh, T. Han, and A. J. Danner, “Photorealistic rendering of a graded negative-index metamaterial magnifier,” New J. Phys. 14, 033024 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gao, L.

Y. Ni, L. Gao, and C.-W. Qiu, “Achieving invisibility of homogeneous cylindrically anisotropic cylinders,” Plasmonics 5, 251–258 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, D. Z.

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, T.

C.-W. Qiu, A. Akbarzadeh, T. Han, and A. J. Danner, “Photorealistic rendering of a graded negative-index metamaterial magnifier,” New J. Phys. 14, 033024 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, T. Han, S. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Creation of ghost illusions using wave dynamics in metamaterials,” Adv. Funct. Mater. doi:10.1002/adfm201203806 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hang, Z. H.

X. Huang, Y. Lai, Z. H. Hang, H. Zheng, and C. T. Chan, “Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials,” Nat. Mater. 10, 582–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

X. Huang, Y. Lai, Z. H. Hang, H. Zheng, and C. T. Chan, “Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials,” Nat. Mater. 10, 582–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ji, C.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W. X.

Q. Cheng, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Spatial power combination for omnidirectional radiation via anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. M. Yang, H. F. Ma, and Q. Cheng, “Shrinking an arbitrary object as one desires using metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 204101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Cheng, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Multi-beam generations at pre-designed directions based on anisotropic zero-index metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 131913 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, and Q. Cheng, “Illusion media: generating virtual objects using realizable metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121910 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, “Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 264101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, T. Han, S. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Creation of ghost illusions using wave dynamics in metamaterials,” Adv. Funct. Mater. doi:10.1002/adfm201203806 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kundtz, N.

N. Kundtz and D. R. Smith, “Extreme-angle broadband metamaterial lens,” Nat. Mater. 9, 129–132 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lai, Y.

X. Huang, Y. Lai, Z. H. Hang, H. Zheng, and C. T. Chan, “Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials,” Nat. Mater. 10, 582–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leonhardt, U.

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312, 1777–1780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the carpet: a new strategy for cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, “Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 264101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H. F.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. M. Yang, H. F. Ma, and Q. Cheng, “Shrinking an arbitrary object as one desires using metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 204101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ma and T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband and broad-angle transformation-optics lens,” Nat. Commun. 1, 124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, and Q. Cheng, “Illusion media: generating virtual objects using realizable metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121910 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ma and T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband ground-plane cloak made of metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 1, 21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Neff, C. W.

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ng, J.

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, and C. T. Chan, “Metamaterial frequency-selective superabsorber,” Opt. Lett. 34, 644–646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ni, Y.

Y. Ni, L. Gao, and C.-W. Qiu, “Achieving invisibility of homogeneous cylindrically anisotropic cylinders,” Plasmonics 5, 251–258 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J.

S. A. Cummer, B. I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the carpet: a new strategy for cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Popa, B. I.

S. A. Cummer, B. I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, C. W.

W. X. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, T. Han, S. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Creation of ghost illusions using wave dynamics in metamaterials,” Adv. Funct. Mater. doi:10.1002/adfm201203806 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, C.-W.

C.-W. Qiu, A. Akbarzadeh, T. Han, and A. J. Danner, “Photorealistic rendering of a graded negative-index metamaterial magnifier,” New J. Phys. 14, 033024 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ni, L. Gao, and C.-W. Qiu, “Achieving invisibility of homogeneous cylindrically anisotropic cylinders,” Plasmonics 5, 251–258 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, M.

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan, Z. C. Ruan, and M. Qiu, “Cylindrical invisibility cloak with simplified material parameters is inherently visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 233901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rahm, M.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, D. A.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, Z.

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, Z. C.

M. Yan, Z. C. Ruan, and M. Qiu, “Cylindrical invisibility cloak with simplified material parameters is inherently visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 233901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schurig, D.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Cummer, B. I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Kundtz and D. R. Smith, “Extreme-angle broadband metamaterial lens,” Nat. Mater. 9, 129–132 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, “Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 264101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Cummer, B. I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, J. J.

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M.

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan, Z. C. Ruan, and M. Qiu, “Cylindrical invisibility cloak with simplified material parameters is inherently visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 233901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X. M.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. M. Yang, H. F. Ma, and Q. Cheng, “Shrinking an arbitrary object as one desires using metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 204101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, “Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 264101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

W. X. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, T. Han, S. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Creation of ghost illusions using wave dynamics in metamaterials,” Adv. Funct. Mater. doi:10.1002/adfm201203806 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. Q.

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, H.

X. Huang, Y. Lai, Z. H. Hang, H. Zheng, and C. T. Chan, “Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials,” Nat. Mater. 10, 582–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, “Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 264101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, and Q. Cheng, “Illusion media: generating virtual objects using realizable metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121910 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. M. Yang, H. F. Ma, and Q. Cheng, “Shrinking an arbitrary object as one desires using metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 204101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Cheng, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Multi-beam generations at pre-designed directions based on anisotropic zero-index metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 131913 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun.

H. F. Ma and T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband and broad-angle transformation-optics lens,” Nat. Commun. 1, 124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ma and T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband ground-plane cloak made of metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 1, 21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

N. Kundtz and D. R. Smith, “Extreme-angle broadband metamaterial lens,” Nat. Mater. 9, 129–132 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Huang, Y. Lai, Z. H. Hang, H. Zheng, and C. T. Chan, “Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials,” Nat. Mater. 10, 582–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys.

C.-W. Qiu, A. Akbarzadeh, T. Han, and A. J. Danner, “Photorealistic rendering of a graded negative-index metamaterial magnifier,” New J. Phys. 14, 033024 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87–95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

S. A. Cummer, B. I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan, Z. C. Ruan, and M. Qiu, “Cylindrical invisibility cloak with simplified material parameters is inherently visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 233901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Cheng, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Spatial power combination for omnidirectional radiation via anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the carpet: a new strategy for cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lai, J. Ng, H. Y. Chen, D. Z. Han, J. J. Xiao, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. T. Chan, “Illusion optics: the optical transformation of an object into another object,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Plasmonics

Y. Ni, L. Gao, and C.-W. Qiu, “Achieving invisibility of homogeneous cylindrically anisotropic cylinders,” Plasmonics 5, 251–258 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312, 1777–1780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. X. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, T. Han, S. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Creation of ghost illusions using wave dynamics in metamaterials,” Adv. Funct. Mater. doi:10.1002/adfm201203806 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Bare metallic cylinder with radius r=b in free space. (b) A real object is coated by a scaling device with b<rc. (c) A virtual metallic cylinder with radius r=a. If a<b, the real object is shrunk; if a>b, the real object is enlarged or even becomes a superscatter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Field distributions of shrinking device and the virtual metallic cylinder. (a) The scaling device with b=1.1m, c=1.6m. (b) The virtual metallic cylinder with radius a=0.6m.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Electrical field distributions along x=3m. The red box curve represents the electric field of scaling device. The blue cross curve represents the electric field of the virtual metallic cylinder.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Field distributions of scaling device and the virtual metallic cylinder. (a) The scaling device with b=1.1m, c=1.6m. (b) The virtual metallic cylinder with radius a=1.2m.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Field distributions of superscattering device and the virtual metallic conductor. (a) The superscattering device with b=1.1m, c=1.6m. (b) The virtual metallic cylinder with radius a=1.8m.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Case with a approaching zero, b=1.1m, and c=1.6m. The field distribution in this case is almost the same as a perfect invisibility cloak. (a) a=0.1m, (b) a=0.05m, and (c) a=0.01m.

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r=(cb)(ra)/(ca)+b,θ=θ,z=z,
ϵr=μr=m(rb)+amr,ϵθ=μθ=mrm(rb)+a,ϵz=μz=m(m(rb)+a)r,
1ϵzrr(rμθEzr)+1ϵzr2θ(1μrEzθ)+k02Ez=0,
(rb+am)22Ezr2+(rb+am)Ezr+(rb+am)2m2k02Ez+2Ezθ2=0,
(rb+am)22Ψ(r)r2+(rb+am)Ψ(r)r+(m2k02(rb+am)2n2)Ψ(r)=0,
2Φ(θ)θ2+n2Φ(θ)=0,
Ez=Fn(mk0(rb+am))ejnθ,
E1=n=0+(AnjnJn(k0r)+BnjnHn(2)(k0r))ejnθ,
E2=n=0+(CnjnJn(mk0(rb+am))+DnjnHn(2)(mk0(rb+am)))ejnθ,
CnJn(k0a)+DnHn(2)(k0a)=0,
AnJn(k0c)+BnHn(2)(k0c)=CnJn(k0c)+DnHn(2)(k0c),
AnJn(k0c)+BnHn(2)(k0c)=CnJn(k0c)+DnHn(2)(k0c),
Bn=Jn(k0c)unJn(k0c)vnHn(2)(k0c)vnHn(2)(k0c)un,
Bn=Jn(k0a)Hn(2)(k0a).
Nn(x)=1π0πsin(xsinθnθ)dθ1π0(ent+entcosnπ)exsinhtdt.

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