Abstract

An analytic model for an injection-locked dual-loop optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) is proposed and verified by experiments in this paper. Based on this theoretical model, the effect of injection power on the single-sideband phase noise of the OEO is analyzed, and results suggest that moderate injection is one key factor for a balance between phase noise and spur for OEO. In order to measure superlow phase noise of OEOs, a cross-correlation measurement system based on the fiber delay line is built, in which high linear photodetector and low-phase-noise amplifier are used to improve systematic sensitivity. The cross-correlation measurement system is validated by experiments, and its noise floor for the X band is about 130dBc/Hz at 1 kHz and 168dBc/Hz at 10 kHz after a cross correlation of 200 times.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic microwave oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1725–1735 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. M. Zhou and G. Blasche, “Injection-locked dual opto-electronic oscillator with ultra-low phase noise and ultra-low spurious level,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 53, 929–933 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Levy, M. Horowitz, O. Okusaga, C. Menyuk, G. Carter, and W. M. Zhou, “Study of dual-loop optoelectronic oscillators,” in Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 505–507.
  4. C. R. Menyuk, E. C. Levy, O. Okusaga, M. Horowitz, G. M. Carter, and W. M. Zhou, “An analytical model of the dual-injection-locked opto-electronic oscillator (DIL-OEO),” in Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 870–874.
  5. J. Hong, C. Yang, X. H. Li, Y. H. Chong, and H. D. Xu, “The impact of the photodiode on the nonlinearity of microwave photonic links,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 53, 2325–2327 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Hong and C. Yang, “Effects of the biasing voltage of modulator on the phase noise of opto-electronic oscillator,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 54, 689–692 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Hong and C. Yang, “Oscillation power of opto-electronic oscillator limited by nonlinearities of Mach–Zehnder modulator and microwave amplifier,” in IEEE International Topic Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2011), pp. 77–80.
  8. G. J. Dick and D. Santiago, “Microwave frequency discriminator with a cryogenic sapphire resonator for ultra-low phase noise,” in IEEE Symposium on Frequency Control Proceedings (IEEE, 1992), pp. 176–182.
  9. X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Multiloop optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 79–84 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Eliyahu and L. Maleki, “Low phase noise and spurious level in multi-loop opto-electronic oscillators,” in Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2003), pp. 405–410.
  11. A. L. Lance, D. S. Wendell, and F. Labaar, “Phase noise and AM noise measurements in the frequency domain,” Infrared and Millimeter Waves (Academic, 1984), Vol. 11, pp. 239–289.
  12. E. Rubiola, E. Salik, S. Huang, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “The photonic delay technique for phase noise measurement of microwave oscillators,” in IEEE International Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Conference, Montreal, Canada, Session FC1H-5 (2004).
  13. E. Rubiola, Phase Noise and Frequency Stability in Oscillator (Cambridge University, 2009).
  14. K. H. Lee, J. Y. Kim, and W. Y. Choi, “Injection-locked hybrid optoelectronic oscillators for single-mode oscillation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1645–1647 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. O. Okusaga, W. M. Zhou, and E. Levy, “Experimental and simulation study of dual injection-locked OEOs,” in Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 875–879.
  16. H. K. Sung, E. K. Lau, X. X. Zhao, D. Parekh, and J. Connie, “Optically injection-locked optoelectronic oscillators with low RF threshold gain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (OSA, 2007), paper CWI5.
  17. J. Mukherjee, P. Roblin, and S. Akhtar, “An analytic circuit-based model for white and flicker phase noise in LC oscillators,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I 54, 1584–1598 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Z. F. Zhang and J. Lau, “Experimental study on MOSFET’s flicker noise under switching conditions and modelling in RF applications,” in IEEE Conference on Custom Integrated Circuits (IEEE, 2001), pp. 393–396.
  19. Agilent, http://www.home.agilent.com/ .

2012 (1)

J. Hong and C. Yang, “Effects of the biasing voltage of modulator on the phase noise of opto-electronic oscillator,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 54, 689–692 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

J. Hong, C. Yang, X. H. Li, Y. H. Chong, and H. D. Xu, “The impact of the photodiode on the nonlinearity of microwave photonic links,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 53, 2325–2327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

K. H. Lee, J. Y. Kim, and W. Y. Choi, “Injection-locked hybrid optoelectronic oscillators for single-mode oscillation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1645–1647 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Mukherjee, P. Roblin, and S. Akhtar, “An analytic circuit-based model for white and flicker phase noise in LC oscillators,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I 54, 1584–1598 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

W. M. Zhou and G. Blasche, “Injection-locked dual opto-electronic oscillator with ultra-low phase noise and ultra-low spurious level,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 53, 929–933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Multiloop optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 79–84 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Akhtar, S.

J. Mukherjee, P. Roblin, and S. Akhtar, “An analytic circuit-based model for white and flicker phase noise in LC oscillators,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I 54, 1584–1598 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blasche, G.

W. M. Zhou and G. Blasche, “Injection-locked dual opto-electronic oscillator with ultra-low phase noise and ultra-low spurious level,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 53, 929–933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carter, G.

E. Levy, M. Horowitz, O. Okusaga, C. Menyuk, G. Carter, and W. M. Zhou, “Study of dual-loop optoelectronic oscillators,” in Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 505–507.

Carter, G. M.

C. R. Menyuk, E. C. Levy, O. Okusaga, M. Horowitz, G. M. Carter, and W. M. Zhou, “An analytical model of the dual-injection-locked opto-electronic oscillator (DIL-OEO),” in Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 870–874.

Choi, W. Y.

K. H. Lee, J. Y. Kim, and W. Y. Choi, “Injection-locked hybrid optoelectronic oscillators for single-mode oscillation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1645–1647 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chong, Y. H.

J. Hong, C. Yang, X. H. Li, Y. H. Chong, and H. D. Xu, “The impact of the photodiode on the nonlinearity of microwave photonic links,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 53, 2325–2327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Connie, J.

H. K. Sung, E. K. Lau, X. X. Zhao, D. Parekh, and J. Connie, “Optically injection-locked optoelectronic oscillators with low RF threshold gain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (OSA, 2007), paper CWI5.

Dick, G. J.

G. J. Dick and D. Santiago, “Microwave frequency discriminator with a cryogenic sapphire resonator for ultra-low phase noise,” in IEEE Symposium on Frequency Control Proceedings (IEEE, 1992), pp. 176–182.

Eliyahu, D.

D. Eliyahu and L. Maleki, “Low phase noise and spurious level in multi-loop opto-electronic oscillators,” in Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2003), pp. 405–410.

Hong, J.

J. Hong and C. Yang, “Effects of the biasing voltage of modulator on the phase noise of opto-electronic oscillator,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 54, 689–692 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Hong, C. Yang, X. H. Li, Y. H. Chong, and H. D. Xu, “The impact of the photodiode on the nonlinearity of microwave photonic links,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 53, 2325–2327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hong and C. Yang, “Oscillation power of opto-electronic oscillator limited by nonlinearities of Mach–Zehnder modulator and microwave amplifier,” in IEEE International Topic Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2011), pp. 77–80.

Horowitz, M.

C. R. Menyuk, E. C. Levy, O. Okusaga, M. Horowitz, G. M. Carter, and W. M. Zhou, “An analytical model of the dual-injection-locked opto-electronic oscillator (DIL-OEO),” in Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 870–874.

E. Levy, M. Horowitz, O. Okusaga, C. Menyuk, G. Carter, and W. M. Zhou, “Study of dual-loop optoelectronic oscillators,” in Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 505–507.

Huang, S.

E. Rubiola, E. Salik, S. Huang, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “The photonic delay technique for phase noise measurement of microwave oscillators,” in IEEE International Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Conference, Montreal, Canada, Session FC1H-5 (2004).

Kim, J. Y.

K. H. Lee, J. Y. Kim, and W. Y. Choi, “Injection-locked hybrid optoelectronic oscillators for single-mode oscillation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1645–1647 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Labaar, F.

A. L. Lance, D. S. Wendell, and F. Labaar, “Phase noise and AM noise measurements in the frequency domain,” Infrared and Millimeter Waves (Academic, 1984), Vol. 11, pp. 239–289.

Lance, A. L.

A. L. Lance, D. S. Wendell, and F. Labaar, “Phase noise and AM noise measurements in the frequency domain,” Infrared and Millimeter Waves (Academic, 1984), Vol. 11, pp. 239–289.

Lau, E. K.

H. K. Sung, E. K. Lau, X. X. Zhao, D. Parekh, and J. Connie, “Optically injection-locked optoelectronic oscillators with low RF threshold gain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (OSA, 2007), paper CWI5.

Lau, J.

Z. F. Zhang and J. Lau, “Experimental study on MOSFET’s flicker noise under switching conditions and modelling in RF applications,” in IEEE Conference on Custom Integrated Circuits (IEEE, 2001), pp. 393–396.

Lee, K. H.

K. H. Lee, J. Y. Kim, and W. Y. Choi, “Injection-locked hybrid optoelectronic oscillators for single-mode oscillation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1645–1647 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Levy, E.

O. Okusaga, W. M. Zhou, and E. Levy, “Experimental and simulation study of dual injection-locked OEOs,” in Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 875–879.

E. Levy, M. Horowitz, O. Okusaga, C. Menyuk, G. Carter, and W. M. Zhou, “Study of dual-loop optoelectronic oscillators,” in Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 505–507.

Levy, E. C.

C. R. Menyuk, E. C. Levy, O. Okusaga, M. Horowitz, G. M. Carter, and W. M. Zhou, “An analytical model of the dual-injection-locked opto-electronic oscillator (DIL-OEO),” in Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 870–874.

Li, X. H.

J. Hong, C. Yang, X. H. Li, Y. H. Chong, and H. D. Xu, “The impact of the photodiode on the nonlinearity of microwave photonic links,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 53, 2325–2327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Multiloop optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 79–84 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic microwave oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1725–1735 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Rubiola, E. Salik, S. Huang, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “The photonic delay technique for phase noise measurement of microwave oscillators,” in IEEE International Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Conference, Montreal, Canada, Session FC1H-5 (2004).

D. Eliyahu and L. Maleki, “Low phase noise and spurious level in multi-loop opto-electronic oscillators,” in Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2003), pp. 405–410.

Menyuk, C.

E. Levy, M. Horowitz, O. Okusaga, C. Menyuk, G. Carter, and W. M. Zhou, “Study of dual-loop optoelectronic oscillators,” in Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 505–507.

Menyuk, C. R.

C. R. Menyuk, E. C. Levy, O. Okusaga, M. Horowitz, G. M. Carter, and W. M. Zhou, “An analytical model of the dual-injection-locked opto-electronic oscillator (DIL-OEO),” in Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 870–874.

Mukherjee, J.

J. Mukherjee, P. Roblin, and S. Akhtar, “An analytic circuit-based model for white and flicker phase noise in LC oscillators,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I 54, 1584–1598 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Okusaga, O.

O. Okusaga, W. M. Zhou, and E. Levy, “Experimental and simulation study of dual injection-locked OEOs,” in Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 875–879.

C. R. Menyuk, E. C. Levy, O. Okusaga, M. Horowitz, G. M. Carter, and W. M. Zhou, “An analytical model of the dual-injection-locked opto-electronic oscillator (DIL-OEO),” in Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 870–874.

E. Levy, M. Horowitz, O. Okusaga, C. Menyuk, G. Carter, and W. M. Zhou, “Study of dual-loop optoelectronic oscillators,” in Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 505–507.

Parekh, D.

H. K. Sung, E. K. Lau, X. X. Zhao, D. Parekh, and J. Connie, “Optically injection-locked optoelectronic oscillators with low RF threshold gain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (OSA, 2007), paper CWI5.

Roblin, P.

J. Mukherjee, P. Roblin, and S. Akhtar, “An analytic circuit-based model for white and flicker phase noise in LC oscillators,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I 54, 1584–1598 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rubiola, E.

E. Rubiola, Phase Noise and Frequency Stability in Oscillator (Cambridge University, 2009).

E. Rubiola, E. Salik, S. Huang, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “The photonic delay technique for phase noise measurement of microwave oscillators,” in IEEE International Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Conference, Montreal, Canada, Session FC1H-5 (2004).

Salik, E.

E. Rubiola, E. Salik, S. Huang, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “The photonic delay technique for phase noise measurement of microwave oscillators,” in IEEE International Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Conference, Montreal, Canada, Session FC1H-5 (2004).

Santiago, D.

G. J. Dick and D. Santiago, “Microwave frequency discriminator with a cryogenic sapphire resonator for ultra-low phase noise,” in IEEE Symposium on Frequency Control Proceedings (IEEE, 1992), pp. 176–182.

Sung, H. K.

H. K. Sung, E. K. Lau, X. X. Zhao, D. Parekh, and J. Connie, “Optically injection-locked optoelectronic oscillators with low RF threshold gain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (OSA, 2007), paper CWI5.

Wendell, D. S.

A. L. Lance, D. S. Wendell, and F. Labaar, “Phase noise and AM noise measurements in the frequency domain,” Infrared and Millimeter Waves (Academic, 1984), Vol. 11, pp. 239–289.

Xu, H. D.

J. Hong, C. Yang, X. H. Li, Y. H. Chong, and H. D. Xu, “The impact of the photodiode on the nonlinearity of microwave photonic links,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 53, 2325–2327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

J. Hong and C. Yang, “Effects of the biasing voltage of modulator on the phase noise of opto-electronic oscillator,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 54, 689–692 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Hong, C. Yang, X. H. Li, Y. H. Chong, and H. D. Xu, “The impact of the photodiode on the nonlinearity of microwave photonic links,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 53, 2325–2327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hong and C. Yang, “Oscillation power of opto-electronic oscillator limited by nonlinearities of Mach–Zehnder modulator and microwave amplifier,” in IEEE International Topic Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2011), pp. 77–80.

Yao, X. S.

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Multiloop optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 79–84 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic microwave oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1725–1735 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N.

E. Rubiola, E. Salik, S. Huang, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “The photonic delay technique for phase noise measurement of microwave oscillators,” in IEEE International Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Conference, Montreal, Canada, Session FC1H-5 (2004).

Zhang, Z. F.

Z. F. Zhang and J. Lau, “Experimental study on MOSFET’s flicker noise under switching conditions and modelling in RF applications,” in IEEE Conference on Custom Integrated Circuits (IEEE, 2001), pp. 393–396.

Zhao, X. X.

H. K. Sung, E. K. Lau, X. X. Zhao, D. Parekh, and J. Connie, “Optically injection-locked optoelectronic oscillators with low RF threshold gain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (OSA, 2007), paper CWI5.

Zhou, W. M.

W. M. Zhou and G. Blasche, “Injection-locked dual opto-electronic oscillator with ultra-low phase noise and ultra-low spurious level,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 53, 929–933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Levy, M. Horowitz, O. Okusaga, C. Menyuk, G. Carter, and W. M. Zhou, “Study of dual-loop optoelectronic oscillators,” in Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 505–507.

C. R. Menyuk, E. C. Levy, O. Okusaga, M. Horowitz, G. M. Carter, and W. M. Zhou, “An analytical model of the dual-injection-locked opto-electronic oscillator (DIL-OEO),” in Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 870–874.

O. Okusaga, W. M. Zhou, and E. Levy, “Experimental and simulation study of dual injection-locked OEOs,” in Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 875–879.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Multiloop optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 79–84 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. H. Lee, J. Y. Kim, and W. Y. Choi, “Injection-locked hybrid optoelectronic oscillators for single-mode oscillation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1645–1647 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I (1)

J. Mukherjee, P. Roblin, and S. Akhtar, “An analytic circuit-based model for white and flicker phase noise in LC oscillators,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I 54, 1584–1598 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

W. M. Zhou and G. Blasche, “Injection-locked dual opto-electronic oscillator with ultra-low phase noise and ultra-low spurious level,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 53, 929–933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. Hong, C. Yang, X. H. Li, Y. H. Chong, and H. D. Xu, “The impact of the photodiode on the nonlinearity of microwave photonic links,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 53, 2325–2327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hong and C. Yang, “Effects of the biasing voltage of modulator on the phase noise of opto-electronic oscillator,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 54, 689–692 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

J. Hong and C. Yang, “Oscillation power of opto-electronic oscillator limited by nonlinearities of Mach–Zehnder modulator and microwave amplifier,” in IEEE International Topic Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2011), pp. 77–80.

G. J. Dick and D. Santiago, “Microwave frequency discriminator with a cryogenic sapphire resonator for ultra-low phase noise,” in IEEE Symposium on Frequency Control Proceedings (IEEE, 1992), pp. 176–182.

D. Eliyahu and L. Maleki, “Low phase noise and spurious level in multi-loop opto-electronic oscillators,” in Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2003), pp. 405–410.

A. L. Lance, D. S. Wendell, and F. Labaar, “Phase noise and AM noise measurements in the frequency domain,” Infrared and Millimeter Waves (Academic, 1984), Vol. 11, pp. 239–289.

E. Rubiola, E. Salik, S. Huang, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “The photonic delay technique for phase noise measurement of microwave oscillators,” in IEEE International Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Conference, Montreal, Canada, Session FC1H-5 (2004).

E. Rubiola, Phase Noise and Frequency Stability in Oscillator (Cambridge University, 2009).

Z. F. Zhang and J. Lau, “Experimental study on MOSFET’s flicker noise under switching conditions and modelling in RF applications,” in IEEE Conference on Custom Integrated Circuits (IEEE, 2001), pp. 393–396.

Agilent, http://www.home.agilent.com/ .

E. Levy, M. Horowitz, O. Okusaga, C. Menyuk, G. Carter, and W. M. Zhou, “Study of dual-loop optoelectronic oscillators,” in Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 505–507.

C. R. Menyuk, E. C. Levy, O. Okusaga, M. Horowitz, G. M. Carter, and W. M. Zhou, “An analytical model of the dual-injection-locked opto-electronic oscillator (DIL-OEO),” in Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 870–874.

O. Okusaga, W. M. Zhou, and E. Levy, “Experimental and simulation study of dual injection-locked OEOs,” in Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2009), pp. 875–879.

H. K. Sung, E. K. Lau, X. X. Zhao, D. Parekh, and J. Connie, “Optically injection-locked optoelectronic oscillators with low RF threshold gain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (OSA, 2007), paper CWI5.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Basic configuration of shorter loop injection locking longer loop OEO.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Theoretical and measured data of 2 GHz ILD-OEO.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Theoretical phase noise data of OEO in different-level injections.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured phase noise data of OEO in different-level injection.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Schematic for measurement device’s phase noise.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Low-phase-noise amplifier’s SSB phase noise at different input power.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Experimental data of SSB phase noise of high-linear and traditional PD.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Schematic of dual-channel cross-correlation photonic-delay homodyne measurement system.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Measured SSB phase noises by Agilent 5052B and our system.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Measured data of systematic noise floor at X band and phase noise of ILD-OEO at 9.5 GHz.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Vm,out=kGmV0ei2πft1g0ei2πfτm,
Vs,out=Gs(Vm,out+Vinei2πft)1ei2πfτs,
Vs,out=kGmGsV0ei2πft+GsV0ei2πftGsV0ei2πf(tτm)(1ei2πfτs)(1ei2πfτm).
Ps,out=|Vs,out|2/2RL=Vs,outVs,out*/2RL,
Ps,out=GsV02(α2+12αcos2πfτm)/2RL4(1cos2πfτm)(1cos2πfτs),
Ps,osc=4Vπ2π2RL(11|Go|),
L(f)=Ps,outPs,osc=(α2+12αcos2πfτm)δs4(1cos2πfτm)(1cos2πfτs).
b0=FkT0P0,
b0,t=(F1+F21A12+F31A22A12+)kT0P0.
Sφ(f)=b0+b11f,
b1,t=i=1nb1,i.
Sφ,t(f)=(F1+F21A12+F31A22A12+)kT0P0+i=1nb1,i1f.

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