Abstract

A third-order double-slit interference experiment with a pseudothermal light source in the high-intensity limit has been performed by actually recording the intensities in three optical paths. It is shown that not only can the visibility be dramatically enhanced compared to the second-order case as previously theoretically predicted and shown experimentally, but also that the higher visibility is a consequence of the contribution of third-order correlation interaction terms, which is equal to the sum of all contributions from second-order correlation. It is interesting that, when the two reference detectors are scanned in opposite directions, negative values for the third-order correlation term of the intensity fluctuations may appear. The phenomenon can be completely explained by the theory of classical statistical optics and is the first concrete demonstration of the influence of the third-order correlation terms.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  13. G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y. H. Shih, “Can two-photon correlation of chaotic light be considered as correlation of intensity fluctuations?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. Y. Zhou, J. Simon, J. B. Liu, and Y. H. Shih, “Third-order correlation function and ghost imaging of chaotic thermal light in the photon counting regime,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043831 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Y. Zhou, J. B. Liu, J. Simon, and Y. H. Shih, “Resolution enhancement of third-order thermal light ghost imaging in the photon counting regime,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 377–381 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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2012 (1)

2010 (4)

X.-H. Chen, I. N. Agafonov, K.-H. Luo, Q. Liu, R. Xian, M. V. Chekhova, and L.-A. Wu, “High-visibility, high-order lensless ghost imaging with thermal light,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1166–1168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Cao and C.-X. Zhang, “Third-order lensless ghost diffraction with classical fully incoherent light,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2091–2093 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, J. Simon, J. B. Liu, and Y. H. Shih, “Third-order correlation function and ghost imaging of chaotic thermal light in the photon counting regime,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043831 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, K.-H. Luo, X.-H. Chen, and L.-A. Wu, “High-order ghost imaging with N-colour thermal light,” Chin. Phys. B 19, 094211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

Q. Liu, X.-H. Chen, K.-H. Luo, W. Wu, and L.-A. Wu, “Role of multiphoton bunching in high-order ghost imaging with thermal light sources,” Phys. Rev. A. 79, 053844 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X.-H. Chen, Q. Liu, K.-H. Luo, and L.-A. Wu, “Lensless ghost imaging with true thermal light,” Opt. Lett. 34, 695–697 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Clifford Chan, M. N. O’Sullivan, and R. W. Boyd, “High-order thermal ghost imaging,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3343–3345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and L.-A. Wu, “High-visibility intensity interference and ghost imaging with pseudo-thermal light,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 422–431 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Liu and Y. H. Shih, “Nth-order coherence of thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 023819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

H.-G. Li, Y.-T. Zhang, D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, and K.-G. Wang, “Third-order ghost interference with thermal light,” Chin. Phys. B 17, 4510–4515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Shapiro, “Computational ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 061802(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and A. N. Penin, “High-visibility multiphoton interference of Hanbury Brown–Twiss type for classical light,” Phys. Rev. A. 77, 053801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S. H. Zhang, L. F. Lin, L. Gao, and K. G. Wang, “Enhancing visibility and resolution in Nth-order intensity correlation of thermal light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

Y.-H. Zhai, X.-H. Chen, and L.-A. Wu, “Two-photon interference with two independent pseudothermal sources,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 053807 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y. H. Shih, “Can two-photon correlation of chaotic light be considered as correlation of intensity fluctuations?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y. Shih, “Phase-conjugate mirror via two-photon thermal light imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (7)

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Cai and S. Y. Zhu, “Ghost imaging with incoherent and partially coherent light radiation,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 056607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, and K. G. Wang, “Geometrical optics in correlated imaging systems,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 013801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Xiong, D. Z. Cao, F. Huang, H. G. Li, X. J. Sun, and K. G. Wang, “Experimental observation of classical subwavelength interference with a pseudothermal light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. Shih, “Two-photon imaging with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, Y.-H. Zhai, L.-A. Wu, and X.-H. Chen, “Correlated two-photon imaging with true thermal light,” Opt. Lett. 30, 354–356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Zhai, X.-H. Chen, D. Zhang, and L.-A. Wu, “Two-photon interference with true thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 043805 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, “Ghost imaging with thermal light: comparing entanglement and classical correlation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Cheng and S. S. Han, “Incoherent coincidence imaging and its applicability in x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 093903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon “ghost” interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

T. Richter, “Interference and quantum effects in third-order spatial intensity correlations,” Phys. Rev. A. 42, 1817–1820 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, “Correlation between photons in two coherent beams of light,” Nature 177, 27–29 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Agafonov, I. N.

X.-H. Chen, I. N. Agafonov, K.-H. Luo, Q. Liu, R. Xian, M. V. Chekhova, and L.-A. Wu, “High-visibility, high-order lensless ghost imaging with thermal light,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1166–1168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and L.-A. Wu, “High-visibility intensity interference and ghost imaging with pseudo-thermal light,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 422–431 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and A. N. Penin, “High-visibility multiphoton interference of Hanbury Brown–Twiss type for classical light,” Phys. Rev. A. 77, 053801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bache, M.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, “Ghost imaging with thermal light: comparing entanglement and classical correlation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berardi, V.

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y. H. Shih, “Can two-photon correlation of chaotic light be considered as correlation of intensity fluctuations?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y. Shih, “Phase-conjugate mirror via two-photon thermal light imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

Brambilla, E.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, “Ghost imaging with thermal light: comparing entanglement and classical correlation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Y. J.

Y. J. Cai and S. Y. Zhu, “Ghost imaging with incoherent and partially coherent light radiation,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 056607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cao, B.

Cao, D. Z.

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S. H. Zhang, L. F. Lin, L. Gao, and K. G. Wang, “Enhancing visibility and resolution in Nth-order intensity correlation of thermal light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-G. Li, Y.-T. Zhang, D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, and K.-G. Wang, “Third-order ghost interference with thermal light,” Chin. Phys. B 17, 4510–4515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xiong, D. Z. Cao, F. Huang, H. G. Li, X. J. Sun, and K. G. Wang, “Experimental observation of classical subwavelength interference with a pseudothermal light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, and K. G. Wang, “Geometrical optics in correlated imaging systems,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 013801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chekhova, M. V.

X.-H. Chen, I. N. Agafonov, K.-H. Luo, Q. Liu, R. Xian, M. V. Chekhova, and L.-A. Wu, “High-visibility, high-order lensless ghost imaging with thermal light,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1166–1168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and L.-A. Wu, “High-visibility intensity interference and ghost imaging with pseudo-thermal light,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 422–431 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and A. N. Penin, “High-visibility multiphoton interference of Hanbury Brown–Twiss type for classical light,” Phys. Rev. A. 77, 053801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.-H.

Q. Liu, K.-H. Luo, X.-H. Chen, and L.-A. Wu, “High-order ghost imaging with N-colour thermal light,” Chin. Phys. B 19, 094211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X.-H. Chen, I. N. Agafonov, K.-H. Luo, Q. Liu, R. Xian, M. V. Chekhova, and L.-A. Wu, “High-visibility, high-order lensless ghost imaging with thermal light,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1166–1168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X.-H. Chen, Q. Liu, K.-H. Luo, and L.-A. Wu, “Lensless ghost imaging with true thermal light,” Opt. Lett. 34, 695–697 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, X.-H. Chen, K.-H. Luo, W. Wu, and L.-A. Wu, “Role of multiphoton bunching in high-order ghost imaging with thermal light sources,” Phys. Rev. A. 79, 053844 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Zhai, X.-H. Chen, and L.-A. Wu, “Two-photon interference with two independent pseudothermal sources,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 053807 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, Y.-H. Zhai, L.-A. Wu, and X.-H. Chen, “Correlated two-photon imaging with true thermal light,” Opt. Lett. 30, 354–356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Zhai, X.-H. Chen, D. Zhang, and L.-A. Wu, “Two-photon interference with true thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 043805 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

J. Cheng and S. S. Han, “Incoherent coincidence imaging and its applicability in x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 093903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clifford Chan, K. W.

D’Angelo, M.

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. Shih, “Two-photon imaging with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ferri, F.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gao, L.

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S. H. Zhang, L. F. Lin, L. Gao, and K. G. Wang, “Enhancing visibility and resolution in Nth-order intensity correlation of thermal light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gatti, A.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, “Ghost imaging with thermal light: comparing entanglement and classical correlation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, S. S.

J. Cheng and S. S. Han, “Incoherent coincidence imaging and its applicability in x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 093903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hanbury Brown, R.

R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, “Correlation between photons in two coherent beams of light,” Nature 177, 27–29 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F.

J. Xiong, D. Z. Cao, F. Huang, H. G. Li, X. J. Sun, and K. G. Wang, “Experimental observation of classical subwavelength interference with a pseudothermal light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Iskhakov, T. Sh.

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and L.-A. Wu, “High-visibility intensity interference and ghost imaging with pseudo-thermal light,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 422–431 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and A. N. Penin, “High-visibility multiphoton interference of Hanbury Brown–Twiss type for classical light,” Phys. Rev. A. 77, 053801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Klyshko, D. N.

D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon “ghost” interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. G.

J. Xiong, D. Z. Cao, F. Huang, H. G. Li, X. J. Sun, and K. G. Wang, “Experimental observation of classical subwavelength interference with a pseudothermal light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.-G.

H.-G. Li, Y.-T. Zhang, D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, and K.-G. Wang, “Third-order ghost interference with thermal light,” Chin. Phys. B 17, 4510–4515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L. F.

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S. H. Zhang, L. F. Lin, L. Gao, and K. G. Wang, “Enhancing visibility and resolution in Nth-order intensity correlation of thermal light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. B.

Y. Zhou, J. B. Liu, J. Simon, and Y. H. Shih, “Resolution enhancement of third-order thermal light ghost imaging in the photon counting regime,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 377–381 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, J. Simon, J. B. Liu, and Y. H. Shih, “Third-order correlation function and ghost imaging of chaotic thermal light in the photon counting regime,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043831 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Liu and Y. H. Shih, “Nth-order coherence of thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 023819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

X.-H. Chen, I. N. Agafonov, K.-H. Luo, Q. Liu, R. Xian, M. V. Chekhova, and L.-A. Wu, “High-visibility, high-order lensless ghost imaging with thermal light,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1166–1168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, K.-H. Luo, X.-H. Chen, and L.-A. Wu, “High-order ghost imaging with N-colour thermal light,” Chin. Phys. B 19, 094211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, X.-H. Chen, K.-H. Luo, W. Wu, and L.-A. Wu, “Role of multiphoton bunching in high-order ghost imaging with thermal light sources,” Phys. Rev. A. 79, 053844 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X.-H. Chen, Q. Liu, K.-H. Luo, and L.-A. Wu, “Lensless ghost imaging with true thermal light,” Opt. Lett. 34, 695–697 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lugiato, L. A.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, “Ghost imaging with thermal light: comparing entanglement and classical correlation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luo, K.-H.

X.-H. Chen, I. N. Agafonov, K.-H. Luo, Q. Liu, R. Xian, M. V. Chekhova, and L.-A. Wu, “High-visibility, high-order lensless ghost imaging with thermal light,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1166–1168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, K.-H. Luo, X.-H. Chen, and L.-A. Wu, “High-order ghost imaging with N-colour thermal light,” Chin. Phys. B 19, 094211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X.-H. Chen, Q. Liu, K.-H. Luo, and L.-A. Wu, “Lensless ghost imaging with true thermal light,” Opt. Lett. 34, 695–697 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, X.-H. Chen, K.-H. Luo, W. Wu, and L.-A. Wu, “Role of multiphoton bunching in high-order ghost imaging with thermal light sources,” Phys. Rev. A. 79, 053844 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Magatti, D.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mandel, L.

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge University, 1995).

O’Sullivan, M. N.

Penin, A. N.

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and A. N. Penin, “High-visibility multiphoton interference of Hanbury Brown–Twiss type for classical light,” Phys. Rev. A. 77, 053801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richter, T.

T. Richter, “Interference and quantum effects in third-order spatial intensity correlations,” Phys. Rev. A. 42, 1817–1820 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Scarcelli, G.

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y. Shih, “Phase-conjugate mirror via two-photon thermal light imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y. H. Shih, “Can two-photon correlation of chaotic light be considered as correlation of intensity fluctuations?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. Shih, “Two-photon imaging with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sergienko, A. V.

D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon “ghost” interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, J. H.

J. H. Shapiro, “Computational ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 061802(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Y.

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y. Shih, “Phase-conjugate mirror via two-photon thermal light imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. Shih, “Two-photon imaging with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Y. H.

Y. Zhou, J. B. Liu, J. Simon, and Y. H. Shih, “Resolution enhancement of third-order thermal light ghost imaging in the photon counting regime,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 377–381 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, J. Simon, J. B. Liu, and Y. H. Shih, “Third-order correlation function and ghost imaging of chaotic thermal light in the photon counting regime,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043831 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Liu and Y. H. Shih, “Nth-order coherence of thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 023819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y. H. Shih, “Can two-photon correlation of chaotic light be considered as correlation of intensity fluctuations?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon “ghost” interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J.

Y. Zhou, J. B. Liu, J. Simon, and Y. H. Shih, “Resolution enhancement of third-order thermal light ghost imaging in the photon counting regime,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 377–381 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, J. Simon, J. B. Liu, and Y. H. Shih, “Third-order correlation function and ghost imaging of chaotic thermal light in the photon counting regime,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043831 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Strekalov, D. V.

D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon “ghost” interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. J.

J. Xiong, D. Z. Cao, F. Huang, H. G. Li, X. J. Sun, and K. G. Wang, “Experimental observation of classical subwavelength interference with a pseudothermal light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Twiss, R. Q.

R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, “Correlation between photons in two coherent beams of light,” Nature 177, 27–29 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Valencia, A.

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. Shih, “Two-photon imaging with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. G.

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S. H. Zhang, L. F. Lin, L. Gao, and K. G. Wang, “Enhancing visibility and resolution in Nth-order intensity correlation of thermal light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, and K. G. Wang, “Geometrical optics in correlated imaging systems,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 013801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Xiong, D. Z. Cao, F. Huang, H. G. Li, X. J. Sun, and K. G. Wang, “Experimental observation of classical subwavelength interference with a pseudothermal light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.-G.

H.-G. Li, Y.-T. Zhang, D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, and K.-G. Wang, “Third-order ghost interference with thermal light,” Chin. Phys. B 17, 4510–4515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge University, 1995).

Wu, L.-A.

X.-H. Chen, I. N. Agafonov, K.-H. Luo, Q. Liu, R. Xian, M. V. Chekhova, and L.-A. Wu, “High-visibility, high-order lensless ghost imaging with thermal light,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1166–1168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, K.-H. Luo, X.-H. Chen, and L.-A. Wu, “High-order ghost imaging with N-colour thermal light,” Chin. Phys. B 19, 094211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and L.-A. Wu, “High-visibility intensity interference and ghost imaging with pseudo-thermal light,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 422–431 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, X.-H. Chen, K.-H. Luo, W. Wu, and L.-A. Wu, “Role of multiphoton bunching in high-order ghost imaging with thermal light sources,” Phys. Rev. A. 79, 053844 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X.-H. Chen, Q. Liu, K.-H. Luo, and L.-A. Wu, “Lensless ghost imaging with true thermal light,” Opt. Lett. 34, 695–697 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Zhai, X.-H. Chen, and L.-A. Wu, “Two-photon interference with two independent pseudothermal sources,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 053807 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, Y.-H. Zhai, L.-A. Wu, and X.-H. Chen, “Correlated two-photon imaging with true thermal light,” Opt. Lett. 30, 354–356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Zhai, X.-H. Chen, D. Zhang, and L.-A. Wu, “Two-photon interference with true thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 043805 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W.

Q. Liu, X.-H. Chen, K.-H. Luo, W. Wu, and L.-A. Wu, “Role of multiphoton bunching in high-order ghost imaging with thermal light sources,” Phys. Rev. A. 79, 053844 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xian, R.

Xiong, J.

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S. H. Zhang, L. F. Lin, L. Gao, and K. G. Wang, “Enhancing visibility and resolution in Nth-order intensity correlation of thermal light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-G. Li, Y.-T. Zhang, D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, and K.-G. Wang, “Third-order ghost interference with thermal light,” Chin. Phys. B 17, 4510–4515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xiong, D. Z. Cao, F. Huang, H. G. Li, X. J. Sun, and K. G. Wang, “Experimental observation of classical subwavelength interference with a pseudothermal light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, and K. G. Wang, “Geometrical optics in correlated imaging systems,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 013801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Zhai, X.-H. Chen, and L.-A. Wu, “Two-photon interference with two independent pseudothermal sources,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 053807 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, Y.-H. Zhai, L.-A. Wu, and X.-H. Chen, “Correlated two-photon imaging with true thermal light,” Opt. Lett. 30, 354–356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Zhai, X.-H. Chen, D. Zhang, and L.-A. Wu, “Two-photon interference with true thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 043805 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.-X.

Zhang, D.

Y.-H. Zhai, X.-H. Chen, D. Zhang, and L.-A. Wu, “Two-photon interference with true thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 043805 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, Y.-H. Zhai, L.-A. Wu, and X.-H. Chen, “Correlated two-photon imaging with true thermal light,” Opt. Lett. 30, 354–356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. H.

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S. H. Zhang, L. F. Lin, L. Gao, and K. G. Wang, “Enhancing visibility and resolution in Nth-order intensity correlation of thermal light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.-T.

H.-G. Li, Y.-T. Zhang, D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, and K.-G. Wang, “Third-order ghost interference with thermal light,” Chin. Phys. B 17, 4510–4515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, J. B. Liu, J. Simon, and Y. H. Shih, “Resolution enhancement of third-order thermal light ghost imaging in the photon counting regime,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 377–381 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, J. Simon, J. B. Liu, and Y. H. Shih, “Third-order correlation function and ghost imaging of chaotic thermal light in the photon counting regime,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043831 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S. Y.

Y. J. Cai and S. Y. Zhu, “Ghost imaging with incoherent and partially coherent light radiation,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 056607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y. Shih, “Phase-conjugate mirror via two-photon thermal light imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S. H. Zhang, L. F. Lin, L. Gao, and K. G. Wang, “Enhancing visibility and resolution in Nth-order intensity correlation of thermal light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. B (2)

Q. Liu, K.-H. Luo, X.-H. Chen, and L.-A. Wu, “High-order ghost imaging with N-colour thermal light,” Chin. Phys. B 19, 094211 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-G. Li, Y.-T. Zhang, D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, and K.-G. Wang, “Third-order ghost interference with thermal light,” Chin. Phys. B 17, 4510–4515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and L.-A. Wu, “High-visibility intensity interference and ghost imaging with pseudo-thermal light,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 422–431 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, “Correlation between photons in two coherent beams of light,” Nature 177, 27–29 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. A (6)

J. B. Liu and Y. H. Shih, “Nth-order coherence of thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 023819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, J. Simon, J. B. Liu, and Y. H. Shih, “Third-order correlation function and ghost imaging of chaotic thermal light in the photon counting regime,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043831 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Zhai, X.-H. Chen, D. Zhang, and L.-A. Wu, “Two-photon interference with true thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 043805 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Zhai, X.-H. Chen, and L.-A. Wu, “Two-photon interference with two independent pseudothermal sources,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 053807 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Shapiro, “Computational ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 061802(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, and K. G. Wang, “Geometrical optics in correlated imaging systems,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 013801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A. (3)

Q. Liu, X.-H. Chen, K.-H. Luo, W. Wu, and L.-A. Wu, “Role of multiphoton bunching in high-order ghost imaging with thermal light sources,” Phys. Rev. A. 79, 053844 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Agafonov, M. V. Chekhova, T. Sh. Iskhakov, and A. N. Penin, “High-visibility multiphoton interference of Hanbury Brown–Twiss type for classical light,” Phys. Rev. A. 77, 053801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Richter, “Interference and quantum effects in third-order spatial intensity correlations,” Phys. Rev. A. 42, 1817–1820 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

Y. J. Cai and S. Y. Zhu, “Ghost imaging with incoherent and partially coherent light radiation,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 056607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

J. Xiong, D. Z. Cao, F. Huang, H. G. Li, X. J. Sun, and K. G. Wang, “Experimental observation of classical subwavelength interference with a pseudothermal light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. Shih, “Two-photon imaging with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y. H. Shih, “Can two-photon correlation of chaotic light be considered as correlation of intensity fluctuations?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon “ghost” interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, “Ghost imaging with thermal light: comparing entanglement and classical correlation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Cheng and S. S. Han, “Incoherent coincidence imaging and its applicability in x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 093903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge University, 1995).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for third-order double-slit interference with a pseudothermal light source. G, rotating ground glass plate; BS, beam splitter; CCDi (i=1,2,3), CCD camera.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Interference fringes of second- and third-order correlation functions. Blue (overlapping) asterisks, second order; black (overlapping) triangles, second-order subwavelength fringes; green (overlapping) vertical crosses, third order; red diagonal crosses, third order, obtained by scanning the two reference detectors in opposite directions x3=x2 with fixed x1=0.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental results of third-order double-slit interference: (a) and (c) obtained according to Eq. (2), (b) and (d) according to Eq. (4), (a) and (b) obtained when keeping x2=x3 with x1=0, and (c) and (d) keeping x2=x3.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison of Δg12(2)(x2)+Δg13(2)(x2), Δg123(3)(x2), and Δg123(3)(x2,x2).

Equations (6)

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g(2)(x1,x2)=I1(x1)I2(x2)I1(x1)I2(x2),
g(3)(x1,x2,x3)=I1(x1)I2(x2)I3(x3)I1(x1)I2(x2)I3(x3),
g(2)(x1,x2)=1+Δg12(2)(x1,x2),
g(3)(x1,x2,x3)=1+Δg12(2)(x1,x2)+Δg23(2)(x2,x3)+Δg13(2)(x1,x3)+Δg123(3)(x1,x2,x3),
Δg123(3)(x1,x2,x3)=ΔI1(x1)ΔI2(x2)ΔI3(x3)I1(x1)I2(x2)I3(x3),
Δgij(2)(xi,xj)=ΔIi(xi)ΔIj(xj)Ii(xj)Ii(xj)(ij,i=1,2andj=2,3),

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