Abstract

A light-emitting diode (LED) projection system is proposed, composed of an LED chip and a variable-focus-parabolic (VFP) reflector, in which the focal length varies as a function of the vertical displacement of the incidence point relative to the horizontal centerline of the LED chip. The light-ray paths within the projection system are analyzed using an exact analytical model and a skew-ray tracing approach. The profile of the proposed VFP reflector and the position of the LED chip are then optimized in such a way as to enhance the uniformity of the illuminance distribution on the target region of the image plane. The validity of the optimized design is demonstrated by means of ZEMAX simulations. It is shown that the optimized VFP projector system yields a significant improvement in illuminance uniformity compared to conventional spherical and parabolic projectors and therefore minimizes the glare effect.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

C. C. Sun, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Tsai, X. H. Lee, and W. T. Chien, “Anti-glare LED projection lamp based on an optical design with a confocal double-reflector,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4207–4210 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Sun, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Tsai, X. H. Lee, and W. T. Chien, “Anti-glare LED projection lamp based on an optical design with a confocal double-reflector,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4207–4210 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. H. P. Wu, Y. P. Lee, and S. H. Chang, “Fast measurement of automotive headlamps based on high dynamic range imaging,” Appl. Opt. 51, 6870–6880 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

J. Johannes, “On the cause of disability glare and its dependence on glare angle, age and ocular pigmentation,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 86, 363–370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

R. Leutz, A. Suzuki, A. Akisawa, and T. Kashiwagi, “Design of a nonimaging fresnel lens for solar concentrators,” Sol. Energy 65, 379–387 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

1983 (1)

W. B. Elmer, “The optics of reflectors for illumination,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. IA-19, 776–788 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Akisawa, A.

R. Leutz, A. Suzuki, A. Akisawa, and T. Kashiwagi, “Design of a nonimaging fresnel lens for solar concentrators,” Sol. Energy 65, 379–387 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Benítez, P.

Bhat, J. C.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bortz, J.

Chang, S. H.

Chaves, J.

Chen, F.

Chien, W. T.

C. C. Sun, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Tsai, X. H. Lee, and W. T. Chien, “Anti-glare LED projection lamp based on an optical design with a confocal double-reflector,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4207–4210 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Sun, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Tsai, X. H. Lee, and W. T. Chien, “Anti-glare LED projection lamp based on an optical design with a confocal double-reflector,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4207–4210 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Chien, C. C. Sun, and I. Moreno, “Precise optical model of multi-chip white LEDs,” Opt. Express 15, 7572–7577 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Collins, D.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cvetkovic, A.

Ding, Y.

Dross, O.

Elmer, W. B.

W. B. Elmer, “The optics of reflectors for illumination,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. IA-19, 776–788 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Z.

Fletcher, R. M.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Foo, O. F.

O. F. Foo, “Reflector cup and led lamp comprising the same,” U.S. patent 0,134,644 (June9, 2011).

Fournier, F.

Gordon, J. M.

Gu, P. F.

Han, Y.

Holcomb, M. O.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. M.

Johannes, J.

J. Johannes, “On the cause of disability glare and its dependence on glare angle, age and ocular pigmentation,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 86, 363–370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kashin, P.

Kashiwagi, T.

R. Leutz, A. Suzuki, A. Akisawa, and T. Kashiwagi, “Design of a nonimaging fresnel lens for solar concentrators,” Sol. Energy 65, 379–387 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koester, G. H.

G. H. Koester, “LED reflector lamp,” U.S. patent 7,824,076(November2, 2010).

Kribus, A.

Lee, T. X.

Lee, X. H.

C. C. Sun, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Tsai, X. H. Lee, and W. T. Chien, “Anti-glare LED projection lamp based on an optical design with a confocal double-reflector,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4207–4210 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Sun, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Tsai, X. H. Lee, and W. T. Chien, “Anti-glare LED projection lamp based on an optical design with a confocal double-reflector,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4207–4210 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. L.

Lee, Y. P.

Lerner, S. A.

Leutz, R.

R. Leutz, A. Suzuki, A. Akisawa, and T. Kashiwagi, “Design of a nonimaging fresnel lens for solar concentrators,” Sol. Energy 65, 379–387 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Lin, P. D.

Liu, S.

Liu, X.

Lo, Y. C.

C. C. Sun, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Tsai, X. H. Lee, and W. T. Chien, “Anti-glare LED projection lamp based on an optical design with a confocal double-reflector,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4207–4210 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Sun, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Tsai, X. H. Lee, and W. T. Chien, “Anti-glare LED projection lamp based on an optical design with a confocal double-reflector,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4207–4210 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C. H.

Ludowise, M. J.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

Luo, Y.

Ma, S. H.

Martin, P. S.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miñano, J. C.

Mohedano, R.

Moreno, I.

Paul, R. P.

R. P. Paul, Robot Manipulators: Mathematics, Programming and Control (MIT, 1982).

Qin, Z.

Rabi, A.

Rabl, A.

Rao, S. S.

S. S. Rao, Engineering Optimization: Theory and Practice, 3rd ed. (Wiley Eastern, 1996).

Ries, H.

Rolland, J.

Rudaz, S. L.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sasian, J. M.

Shatz, N.

Smith, T.

Smith, T. J.

T. J. Smith, “Integrated LED warning and vehicle lamp” U.S. patent 7,158,019 (January2, 2007).

Spirkl, W.

Steigerwald, D. A.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. C.

C. C. Sun, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Tsai, X. H. Lee, and W. T. Chien, “Anti-glare LED projection lamp based on an optical design with a confocal double-reflector,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4207–4210 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Sun, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Tsai, X. H. Lee, and W. T. Chien, “Anti-glare LED projection lamp based on an optical design with a confocal double-reflector,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4207–4210 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Chien, C. C. Sun, and I. Moreno, “Precise optical model of multi-chip white LEDs,” Opt. Express 15, 7572–7577 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, S. H. Ma, Y. L. Lee, and S. M. Huang, “Precise optical modeling for LED lighting verified by cross correlation in the midfield region,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2193–2195 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, A.

R. Leutz, A. Suzuki, A. Akisawa, and T. Kashiwagi, “Design of a nonimaging fresnel lens for solar concentrators,” Sol. Energy 65, 379–387 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Timinger, A.

Tsai, C. C.

C. C. Sun, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Tsai, X. H. Lee, and W. T. Chien, “Anti-glare LED projection lamp based on an optical design with a confocal double-reflector,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4207–4210 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Sun, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Tsai, X. H. Lee, and W. T. Chien, “Anti-glare LED projection lamp based on an optical design with a confocal double-reflector,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4207–4210 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Walther, M.

Wang, K.

Wu, D.

Wu, H. H. P.

Zheng, Z. R.

Appl. Opt. (6)

Clin. Exp. Optom. (1)

J. Johannes, “On the cause of disability glare and its dependence on glare angle, age and ocular pigmentation,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 86, 363–370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. (1)

W. B. Elmer, “The optics of reflectors for illumination,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. IA-19, 776–788 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Commun. (2)

C. C. Sun, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Tsai, X. H. Lee, and W. T. Chien, “Anti-glare LED projection lamp based on an optical design with a confocal double-reflector,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4207–4210 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Sun, Y. C. Lo, C. C. Tsai, X. H. Lee, and W. T. Chien, “Anti-glare LED projection lamp based on an optical design with a confocal double-reflector,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4207–4210 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sol. Energy (1)

R. Leutz, A. Suzuki, A. Akisawa, and T. Kashiwagi, “Design of a nonimaging fresnel lens for solar concentrators,” Sol. Energy 65, 379–387 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

T. J. Smith, “Integrated LED warning and vehicle lamp” U.S. patent 7,158,019 (January2, 2007).

G. H. Koester, “LED reflector lamp,” U.S. patent 7,824,076(November2, 2010).

O. F. Foo, “Reflector cup and led lamp comprising the same,” U.S. patent 0,134,644 (June9, 2011).

S. S. Rao, Engineering Optimization: Theory and Practice, 3rd ed. (Wiley Eastern, 1996).

R. P. Paul, Robot Manipulators: Mathematics, Programming and Control (MIT, 1982).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Skew-ray tracing at boundary surface.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Skew-ray tracing in LED projection system.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Flow chart showing design and optimization procedure for VFP projector system.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Cross-sectional 3D model of optimized VFP reflector.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Illuminance distribution on target region as calculated by skew-ray tracing: (a) illuminance distribution map and (b) illuminance distribution along A–A cross section.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Illumination distribution on target region as calculated by ZEMAX simulations: (a) illuminance distribution map and (b) illuminance distribution along A–A cross section.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

ZEMAX simulation results for ray path distribution on target region of image plane given use of (a) spherical reflector, (b) SP reflector, and (c) optimized VFP reflector.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

ZEMAX simulation results for illuminance distribution on target region of image plane given use of (a) spherical reflector, (b) SP reflector, and (c) optimized VFP reflector.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

ZEMAX simulation results for illuminance distribution along A–A cross section of target region of image plane given use of spherical, SP, and VFP reflectors: (a) illuminance display range 02×105W/mm2 and (b) illuminance display range 02×106W/mm2.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Variation of veiling luminance with viewing angle for ideal, spherical, SP, and VFP reflectors.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. ZEMAX Simulation Results for Optical Performance of Spherical, SP, and VFP Projection Systems

Equations (23)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

rii=Rot(y,αi)Sii=[x(βi)Cαiy(βi)x(βi)Sαi1]T,
Rot(y,αi)=[Cαi0Sαi00100Sαi0Cαi00001].
Sii=[βi(βici)24[ai+bi(βici)]01]T.
Sii=[βi001]T.
rii=[βiCαi(βici)24[ai+bi(βici)]βiSαi1]T
rii=[βiCαi0βiSαi1]T.
nii=si[(ai+Fi)(βici)βiCαiFi2Hi4βiHi(ai+Fi)(βici)βiSαiFi2Hi0]T
nii=si[0100]T,
Fi=ai+bi(βici),Hi=βiFi216Fi4+(ai2Fi2bi)2.
ni=[nxnynz0]T=Ai0nii=[A0i]1nii,
A0i=[IixJixKixtixIiyJiyKiytiyIizJizKiztiz0001].
Pi=[PixPiyPiz1]T=[Pi1x+i1xλiPi1y+i1yλiPi1z+i1zλi1]T,
ei4λi4+ei3λi3+ei2λi2+ei1λi+ei0=0,
λi=(IiyPi1x+JiyPi1y+KiyPi1z+tiy)Iiyi1x+Jiyi1y+Kiyi1z.
Cθi=i1·ni.
i=[ixiyiz0]=[i1x+2nixCθii1y+2niyCθii1z+2nizCθi0],
A01=[1000010t1y00100001],
A02=[1000010t2y00100001].
Uideal=WLEDπDimage2/4.
F=1npixelτ=1npixel(UτUideal)2Uideal,
Lv={10θv3+(5θv2+0.1pvθv)[1+(Age62.5)4]+0.0025pv}U,
ei4=ξi3(16bi2μiy2+ξi3),ei3=32bi2μiy[μiyξi1ξi3ξi6]4ξi3(ξi12μiyξi4),ei2=64bi2μiyξi1ξi64ξi1232bi2diηiyξi3+2ξi3(ci2ξi2)128ξi3ξi4ξi6{bi2[ξi2μiy2+ξi3(di2+ηiy2)]+μiy(ξi1ξi4μyξi52)},ei1=+32{bi2ξi1(di2+ηiy2)+μiyξi6[ai2+bi2(ci2ξi2)]}+4ξi1(ci2ξi2)64bi[aiciμiyξi6+bidiηiyξi1]16ξi1ξi4ξi6+8μiy(ξi2ξi4+ci2ξi5),ei0=ξi22+2ξi2(ci2+8bi2ξi624ξi4ξi6)(ci2+4ξi5ξi6)2,
ξi1=ηixμix+ηizμiz,ξi2=ηix2+ηiz2,ξi3=μix2+μiz2,ξi4=ai+bici,ξi5=aibici,ξi6=diηiy,ηix=IixPi1x+JixPi1y+KixPi1z+tix,ηiy=IiyPi1x+JiyPi1y+KiyPi1z+tiy,ηiz=IizPi1x+JizPi1y+KizPi1z+tiz,μix=Iixi1x+Jixi1y+Kixi1z,μiy=Iiyi1x+Jiyi1y+Kiyi1z,μiz=Iizi1x+Jizi1y+Kizi1z.

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