Abstract

We report here the experimental realization of a fiber-optic transverse-stress sensor devised by a dual-mode optical-fiber segment in a standard Sagnac interferometer loop. The intermodal interference of the LP01 and LP02 modes of the dual-mode fiber (DMF) configuration is analyzed theoretically in the platform of polarization transmittance of the Sagnac loop in implementing the theoretical model. Several experimental measurements for various conditions of applied birefringence are studied at length and the results are compared with those estimated theoretically toward configuring a stress-measuring device. The study provides an understanding of the underlying physics of the working of DMF interference in a Sagnac configuration.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  6. T. A. Eftimov, “LP01–LP11 intermodal interference in highly birefringent two-mode fibres with differential LP11 polarization-mode attenuation,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 541–564 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Spajer, B. Carquille, and H. Maillotte, “Application of intermodal interference to fiber sensors,” Opt. Commun. 60, 261–264 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. A. Eftimov and W. J. Bock, “Polarization analysis of LP01 and LP11 intermodal interference in highly birefringent bow-tie optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1925–1936 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. M. Estudillo-Ayalaa, J. Ruiz-Pinalesa, R. Rojas-Lagunaa, J. A. Andrade-Lucioa, O. G. Ibarra-Manzanoa, E. Alvarado-Mendeza, M. Torres-Cisnerosa, B. Ibarra-Escamillab, and E. A. Kuzinb, “Analysis of a Sagnac interferometer with low-birefringence twisted fiber,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 39, 635–643 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2027–2029 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 1511–1513 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Y. Fu, H. Y. Tam, L.-Y. Shao, X. Dong, P. K. A. Wai, C. Lu, and S. K. Khijwania, “Pressure sensor realized with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2835–2839 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C.-S. Kim, Y.-G. Han, R. M. Sova, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Optical fiber modal birefringence measurement based on Lyot–Sagnac interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 269–271 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Culshaw, “The optical fibre Sagnac interferometer: an overview of its principles and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R1–R16 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. K. S. Lim, C. H. Pua, and N. A. Awang, “Fiber loop mirror filter with two stage high birefringence fibers,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. C 9, 101–108 (2009).
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  21. D. B. Mortimore, “Fiber loop reflectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1217–1224 (1988).
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  22. K. Morishita, “Wavelength selective fiber loop mirrors and their wavelength tunability by twisting,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2276–2281 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. A. Eftimov, “Resultant mode pattern and polarization in a LP01, LP02 two-mode linearly birefringent optical fibre,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 23, 1143–1160 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. A. Eftimov, and W. J. Bock, “Sensing with a LP01–LP02 intermodal interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2150–2156 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Kumar, R. K. Varshney, A. C. Siny, and P. Sharma, “Transmission characteristics of SMS fiber optic sensor structures,” Opt. Commun. 219, 215–219 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Y. Zhao, Y. Jin, and H. Liang, “Investigation on single-mode-multimode-single-mode fiber structure,” Photonics and Optoelectronics (SOPO) Symposium, Wuhan, China, 16–18 May2011, pp. 1–4.
  27. J. Gan, L. Shen, Q. Ye, Z. Pan, H. Cai, and R. Qu, “Orientation-free pressure sensor based on π-shifted single-mode-fiber Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 49, 5043–5048 (2010).
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  28. G. B. Hocker, “Fiber-optic sensing of pressure and temperature,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1445–1448 (1979).
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  29. T. B. Woliñski, “Stress effects in twisted highly birefringent fibers,” Proc. SPIE 2070, 392–403 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, G. Badenes, and V. Pruneri, “Highly sensitive sensors based on photonic crystal fiber modal interferometers,” J. Sens. 2009, 747803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Fávero, S. M. M. Quintero, V. V. Silva, C. Martelli, A. M. B. Braga, I. C. S. Carvalho, and R. W. A. Llerena, “Photonic crystal fiber pressure sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7503. 750364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Lim, C. H. Pua, and N. A. Awang, “Fiber loop mirror filter with two stage high birefringence fibers,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. C 9, 101–108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

G. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2027–2029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 1511–1513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazao, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Recent advances in high-birefringence fiber loop mirror sensors,” Sensors 7, 2970–2983 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

2003 (3)

A. Kumar, R. K. Varshney, A. C. Siny, and P. Sharma, “Transmission characteristics of SMS fiber optic sensor structures,” Opt. Commun. 219, 215–219 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Estudillo-Ayalaa, J. Ruiz-Pinalesa, R. Rojas-Lagunaa, J. A. Andrade-Lucioa, O. G. Ibarra-Manzanoa, E. Alvarado-Mendeza, M. Torres-Cisnerosa, B. Ibarra-Escamillab, and E. A. Kuzinb, “Analysis of a Sagnac interferometer with low-birefringence twisted fiber,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 39, 635–643 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Kim, Y.-G. Han, R. M. Sova, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Optical fiber modal birefringence measurement based on Lyot–Sagnac interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 269–271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1995 (3)

T. A. Eftimov, “LP01–LP11 intermodal interference in highly birefringent two-mode fibres with differential LP11 polarization-mode attenuation,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 541–564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Fang and R. O. Claus, “Polarisation-independent all fiber wavelength division multiplexer based on a Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2146–2148 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Morishita, “Wavelength selective fiber loop mirrors and their wavelength tunability by twisting,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2276–2281 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

T. A. Eftimov, and W. J. Bock, “Sensing with a LP01–LP02 intermodal interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2150–2156 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Woliñski, “Stress effects in twisted highly birefringent fibers,” Proc. SPIE 2070, 392–403 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Eftimov and W. J. Bock, “Polarization analysis of LP01 and LP11 intermodal interference in highly birefringent bow-tie optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1925–1936 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

T. A. Eftimov, “Resultant mode pattern and polarization in a LP01, LP02 two-mode linearly birefringent optical fibre,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 23, 1143–1160 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

1986 (1)

M. Spajer, B. Carquille, and H. Maillotte, “Application of intermodal interference to fiber sensors,” Opt. Commun. 60, 261–264 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

Ahn, T.-J.

Alvarado-Mendeza, E.

J. M. Estudillo-Ayalaa, J. Ruiz-Pinalesa, R. Rojas-Lagunaa, J. A. Andrade-Lucioa, O. G. Ibarra-Manzanoa, E. Alvarado-Mendeza, M. Torres-Cisnerosa, B. Ibarra-Escamillab, and E. A. Kuzinb, “Analysis of a Sagnac interferometer with low-birefringence twisted fiber,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 39, 635–643 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andrade-Lucioa, J. A.

J. M. Estudillo-Ayalaa, J. Ruiz-Pinalesa, R. Rojas-Lagunaa, J. A. Andrade-Lucioa, O. G. Ibarra-Manzanoa, E. Alvarado-Mendeza, M. Torres-Cisnerosa, B. Ibarra-Escamillab, and E. A. Kuzinb, “Analysis of a Sagnac interferometer with low-birefringence twisted fiber,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 39, 635–643 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Awang, N. A.

K. S. Lim, C. H. Pua, and N. A. Awang, “Fiber loop mirror filter with two stage high birefringence fibers,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. C 9, 101–108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Badenes, G.

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, G. Badenes, and V. Pruneri, “Highly sensitive sensors based on photonic crystal fiber modal interferometers,” J. Sens. 2009, 747803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baptista, J. M.

O. Frazao, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Recent advances in high-birefringence fiber loop mirror sensors,” Sensors 7, 2970–2983 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Bock, W. J.

T. A. Eftimov and W. J. Bock, “Polarization analysis of LP01 and LP11 intermodal interference in highly birefringent bow-tie optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1925–1936 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Eftimov, and W. J. Bock, “Sensing with a LP01–LP02 intermodal interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2150–2156 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Braga, A. M. B.

F. C. Fávero, S. M. M. Quintero, V. V. Silva, C. Martelli, A. M. B. Braga, I. C. S. Carvalho, and R. W. A. Llerena, “Photonic crystal fiber pressure sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7503. 750364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cai, H.

Carquille, B.

M. Spajer, B. Carquille, and H. Maillotte, “Application of intermodal interference to fiber sensors,” Opt. Commun. 60, 261–264 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Carvalho, I. C. S.

F. C. Fávero, S. M. M. Quintero, V. V. Silva, C. Martelli, A. M. B. Braga, I. C. S. Carvalho, and R. W. A. Llerena, “Photonic crystal fiber pressure sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7503. 750364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.

G. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2027–2029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Kim, Y.-G. Han, R. M. Sova, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Optical fiber modal birefringence measurement based on Lyot–Sagnac interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 269–271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Claus, R. O.

Culshaw, B.

B. Culshaw, “The optical fibre Sagnac interferometer: an overview of its principles and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R1–R16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

Eftimov, T. A.

T. A. Eftimov, “LP01–LP11 intermodal interference in highly birefringent two-mode fibres with differential LP11 polarization-mode attenuation,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 541–564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Eftimov and W. J. Bock, “Polarization analysis of LP01 and LP11 intermodal interference in highly birefringent bow-tie optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1925–1936 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Eftimov, and W. J. Bock, “Sensing with a LP01–LP02 intermodal interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2150–2156 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Eftimov, “Resultant mode pattern and polarization in a LP01, LP02 two-mode linearly birefringent optical fibre,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 23, 1143–1160 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Estudillo-Ayalaa, J. M.

J. M. Estudillo-Ayalaa, J. Ruiz-Pinalesa, R. Rojas-Lagunaa, J. A. Andrade-Lucioa, O. G. Ibarra-Manzanoa, E. Alvarado-Mendeza, M. Torres-Cisnerosa, B. Ibarra-Escamillab, and E. A. Kuzinb, “Analysis of a Sagnac interferometer with low-birefringence twisted fiber,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 39, 635–643 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fang, X.

Fang, Z.

Fávero, F. C.

F. C. Fávero, S. M. M. Quintero, V. V. Silva, C. Martelli, A. M. B. Braga, I. C. S. Carvalho, and R. W. A. Llerena, “Photonic crystal fiber pressure sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7503. 750364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

Feng, Z.

Finazzi, V.

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, G. Badenes, and V. Pruneri, “Highly sensitive sensors based on photonic crystal fiber modal interferometers,” J. Sens. 2009, 747803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frazao, O.

O. Frazao, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Recent advances in high-birefringence fiber loop mirror sensors,” Sensors 7, 2970–2983 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fu, H. Y.

Gan, J.

Geng, J.

Ghatak, A. K.

A. K. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Optical Electronics(Cambridge University, 1989).

Guo, T.

Han, W.-T.

Han, Y.-G.

C.-S. Kim, Y.-G. Han, R. M. Sova, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Optical fiber modal birefringence measurement based on Lyot–Sagnac interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 269–271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hocker, G. B.

Hu, M.

Ibarra-Escamillab, B.

J. M. Estudillo-Ayalaa, J. Ruiz-Pinalesa, R. Rojas-Lagunaa, J. A. Andrade-Lucioa, O. G. Ibarra-Manzanoa, E. Alvarado-Mendeza, M. Torres-Cisnerosa, B. Ibarra-Escamillab, and E. A. Kuzinb, “Analysis of a Sagnac interferometer with low-birefringence twisted fiber,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 39, 635–643 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ibarra-Manzanoa, O. G.

J. M. Estudillo-Ayalaa, J. Ruiz-Pinalesa, R. Rojas-Lagunaa, J. A. Andrade-Lucioa, O. G. Ibarra-Manzanoa, E. Alvarado-Mendeza, M. Torres-Cisnerosa, B. Ibarra-Escamillab, and E. A. Kuzinb, “Analysis of a Sagnac interferometer with low-birefringence twisted fiber,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 39, 635–643 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

Y. Zhao, Y. Jin, and H. Liang, “Investigation on single-mode-multimode-single-mode fiber structure,” Photonics and Optoelectronics (SOPO) Symposium, Wuhan, China, 16–18 May2011, pp. 1–4.

Kai, G.

Khijwania, S. K.

Kim, C.-S.

C.-S. Kim, Y.-G. Han, R. M. Sova, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Optical fiber modal birefringence measurement based on Lyot–Sagnac interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 269–271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

Kim, Y. H.

Kumar, A.

A. Kumar, R. K. Varshney, A. C. Siny, and P. Sharma, “Transmission characteristics of SMS fiber optic sensor structures,” Opt. Commun. 219, 215–219 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuzinb, E. A.

J. M. Estudillo-Ayalaa, J. Ruiz-Pinalesa, R. Rojas-Lagunaa, J. A. Andrade-Lucioa, O. G. Ibarra-Manzanoa, E. Alvarado-Mendeza, M. Torres-Cisnerosa, B. Ibarra-Escamillab, and E. A. Kuzinb, “Analysis of a Sagnac interferometer with low-birefringence twisted fiber,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 39, 635–643 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

Y. Zhao, Y. Jin, and H. Liang, “Investigation on single-mode-multimode-single-mode fiber structure,” Photonics and Optoelectronics (SOPO) Symposium, Wuhan, China, 16–18 May2011, pp. 1–4.

Lim, K. S.

K. S. Lim, C. H. Pua, and N. A. Awang, “Fiber loop mirror filter with two stage high birefringence fibers,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. C 9, 101–108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

Liu, F.

Liu, Y.

Llerena, R. W. A.

F. C. Fávero, S. M. M. Quintero, V. V. Silva, C. Martelli, A. M. B. Braga, I. C. S. Carvalho, and R. W. A. Llerena, “Photonic crystal fiber pressure sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7503. 750364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

Ma, Y.

Maillotte, H.

M. Spajer, B. Carquille, and H. Maillotte, “Application of intermodal interference to fiber sensors,” Opt. Commun. 60, 261–264 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Martelli, C.

F. C. Fávero, S. M. M. Quintero, V. V. Silva, C. Martelli, A. M. B. Braga, I. C. S. Carvalho, and R. W. A. Llerena, “Photonic crystal fiber pressure sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7503. 750364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moon, D. S.

G. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2027–2029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morishita, K.

K. Morishita, “Wavelength selective fiber loop mirrors and their wavelength tunability by twisting,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2276–2281 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morkel, P.

Mortimore, D. B.

D. B. Mortimore, “Fiber loop reflectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1217–1224 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Paek, U.-C.

C.-S. Kim, Y.-G. Han, R. M. Sova, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Optical fiber modal birefringence measurement based on Lyot–Sagnac interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 269–271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, T.-J. Ahn, Y. H. Kim, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and D. Y. Kim, “Measurement method for profiling the residual stress and the strain-optic coefficient of an optical fiber,” Appl. Opt. 41, 21–26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Z.

Pang, F.

Park, Y.

Pruneri, V.

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, G. Badenes, and V. Pruneri, “Highly sensitive sensors based on photonic crystal fiber modal interferometers,” J. Sens. 2009, 747803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pua, C. H.

K. S. Lim, C. H. Pua, and N. A. Awang, “Fiber loop mirror filter with two stage high birefringence fibers,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. C 9, 101–108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, X.

Qu, R.

Quintero, S. M. M.

F. C. Fávero, S. M. M. Quintero, V. V. Silva, C. Martelli, A. M. B. Braga, I. C. S. Carvalho, and R. W. A. Llerena, “Photonic crystal fiber pressure sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7503. 750364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rojas-Lagunaa, R.

J. M. Estudillo-Ayalaa, J. Ruiz-Pinalesa, R. Rojas-Lagunaa, J. A. Andrade-Lucioa, O. G. Ibarra-Manzanoa, E. Alvarado-Mendeza, M. Torres-Cisnerosa, B. Ibarra-Escamillab, and E. A. Kuzinb, “Analysis of a Sagnac interferometer with low-birefringence twisted fiber,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 39, 635–643 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rong, Q.

Ruiz-Pinalesa, J.

J. M. Estudillo-Ayalaa, J. Ruiz-Pinalesa, R. Rojas-Lagunaa, J. A. Andrade-Lucioa, O. G. Ibarra-Manzanoa, E. Alvarado-Mendeza, M. Torres-Cisnerosa, B. Ibarra-Escamillab, and E. A. Kuzinb, “Analysis of a Sagnac interferometer with low-birefringence twisted fiber,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 39, 635–643 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. L.

O. Frazao, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Recent advances in high-birefringence fiber loop mirror sensors,” Sensors 7, 2970–2983 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shao, L.-Y.

Sharma, P.

A. Kumar, R. K. Varshney, A. C. Siny, and P. Sharma, “Transmission characteristics of SMS fiber optic sensor structures,” Opt. Commun. 219, 215–219 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shen, L.

Shum, P.

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 1511–1513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Silva, V. V.

F. C. Fávero, S. M. M. Quintero, V. V. Silva, C. Martelli, A. M. B. Braga, I. C. S. Carvalho, and R. W. A. Llerena, “Photonic crystal fiber pressure sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7503. 750364 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Siny, A. C.

A. Kumar, R. K. Varshney, A. C. Siny, and P. Sharma, “Transmission characteristics of SMS fiber optic sensor structures,” Opt. Commun. 219, 215–219 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sova, R. M.

C.-S. Kim, Y.-G. Han, R. M. Sova, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Optical fiber modal birefringence measurement based on Lyot–Sagnac interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 269–271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spajer, M.

M. Spajer, B. Carquille, and H. Maillotte, “Application of intermodal interference to fiber sensors,” Opt. Commun. 60, 261–264 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sun, G.

G. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2027–2029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

H. Y. Fu, H. Y. Tam, L.-Y. Shao, X. Dong, P. K. A. Wai, C. Lu, and S. K. Khijwania, “Pressure sensor realized with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2835–2839 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 1511–1513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thyagarajan, K.

A. K. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Optical Electronics(Cambridge University, 1989).

Torres-Cisnerosa, M.

J. M. Estudillo-Ayalaa, J. Ruiz-Pinalesa, R. Rojas-Lagunaa, J. A. Andrade-Lucioa, O. G. Ibarra-Manzanoa, E. Alvarado-Mendeza, M. Torres-Cisnerosa, B. Ibarra-Escamillab, and E. A. Kuzinb, “Analysis of a Sagnac interferometer with low-birefringence twisted fiber,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 39, 635–643 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Varshney, R. K.

A. Kumar, R. K. Varshney, A. C. Siny, and P. Sharma, “Transmission characteristics of SMS fiber optic sensor structures,” Opt. Commun. 219, 215–219 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Villatoro, J.

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, G. Badenes, and V. Pruneri, “Highly sensitive sensors based on photonic crystal fiber modal interferometers,” J. Sens. 2009, 747803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wai, P. K. A.

Wang, R.

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T. B. Woliñski, “Stress effects in twisted highly birefringent fibers,” Proc. SPIE 2070, 392–403 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Yuan, S.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, W.

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, Y. Jin, and H. Liang, “Investigation on single-mode-multimode-single-mode fiber structure,” Photonics and Optoelectronics (SOPO) Symposium, Wuhan, China, 16–18 May2011, pp. 1–4.

Zhou, G.

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 1511–1513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

C.-S. Kim, Y.-G. Han, R. M. Sova, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Optical fiber modal birefringence measurement based on Lyot–Sagnac interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 269–271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2027–2029 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

T. A. Eftimov and W. J. Bock, “Polarization analysis of LP01 and LP11 intermodal interference in highly birefringent bow-tie optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1925–1936 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, X. Qiao, T. Guo, Y. Weng, R. Wang, Y. Ma, Q. Rong, M. Hu, and Z. Feng, “Highly sensitive temperature sensor using PANDA fiber Sagnac interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 3640–3644 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Eftimov, and W. J. Bock, “Sensing with a LP01–LP02 intermodal interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2150–2156 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Mortimore, “Fiber loop reflectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1217–1224 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Morishita, “Wavelength selective fiber loop mirrors and their wavelength tunability by twisting,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2276–2281 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

T. A. Eftimov, “LP01–LP11 intermodal interference in highly birefringent two-mode fibres with differential LP11 polarization-mode attenuation,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 541–564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Sens. (1)

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, G. Badenes, and V. Pruneri, “Highly sensitive sensors based on photonic crystal fiber modal interferometers,” J. Sens. 2009, 747803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

B. Culshaw, “The optical fibre Sagnac interferometer: an overview of its principles and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R1–R16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

M. Spajer, B. Carquille, and H. Maillotte, “Application of intermodal interference to fiber sensors,” Opt. Commun. 60, 261–264 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, R. K. Varshney, A. C. Siny, and P. Sharma, “Transmission characteristics of SMS fiber optic sensor structures,” Opt. Commun. 219, 215–219 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

J. M. Estudillo-Ayalaa, J. Ruiz-Pinalesa, R. Rojas-Lagunaa, J. A. Andrade-Lucioa, O. G. Ibarra-Manzanoa, E. Alvarado-Mendeza, M. Torres-Cisnerosa, B. Ibarra-Escamillab, and E. A. Kuzinb, “Analysis of a Sagnac interferometer with low-birefringence twisted fiber,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 39, 635–643 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. A. Eftimov, “Resultant mode pattern and polarization in a LP01, LP02 two-mode linearly birefringent optical fibre,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 23, 1143–1160 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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T. B. Woliñski, “Stress effects in twisted highly birefringent fibers,” Proc. SPIE 2070, 392–403 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Other (2)

A. K. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Optical Electronics(Cambridge University, 1989).

Y. Zhao, Y. Jin, and H. Liang, “Investigation on single-mode-multimode-single-mode fiber structure,” Photonics and Optoelectronics (SOPO) Symposium, Wuhan, China, 16–18 May2011, pp. 1–4.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of a single-mode Sagnac interferometer for transverse stress applied over a short length.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of a dual-mode Sagnac interferometer for transverse stress applied over the whole length.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic depiction of the four polarization modes in a LP01, LP02 dual-mode optical fiber and the corresponding field distribution patterns.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic of a DMF segment with transverse stress applied over a short length.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Photograph of the experimental setup for the transverse-stress DMF Sagnac interferometer.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Normalized transmission plotted as a function of calibrated transverse stress for the single-mode Sagnac interferometer.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Polarization characteristics of the 3 dB biconical tapered fiber coupler at the operating wavelength (633 nm). (a) Input polarizer angle=22°. (b) Input polarizer angle=90°.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Normalized transmission plotted as a function of calibrated transverse stress with SMF and DMF in the loop of the Sagnac interferometer.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Transverse-stress measurement at distinct positions in the Sagnac loop. (a) Experimental observation. (b) Theoretical estimation.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Comparison of the theoretical and experimental transmission characteristics of a Sagnac interferometer with a DMF in the loop.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Transmission characteristics of the Sagnac interferometer with DMF in the loop for various input polarizations and with the analyzer fixed at 176°.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Ideal Values of the Parameters Utilized in Theoretical Estimation

Equations (25)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E1=[E1xE1y].
E3=kTE1,E4=1kCE1,
T=[1001],C=[eiπ200eiπ2].
E3IBin=kInR1TE1,E4IBin=1kR21CE1.
Ri=[cosθisinθisinθicosθi],i=1or2.
H=[eiβx00eiβy],
E3IBout=kHInR1TE1,E4IBout=1kHR21CE1.
E3out=kR2HInR1TE1,E4out=1kR11InHR21CE1.
E2cw=kTR2HInR1TE1E2acw=(1k)CR11InHR21CE1}.
E2=E2cw+E2acw=KtE1,
Kt=kTR2HInR1T+(1k)CR11InHR21C,
I2=(E2*)T(E2)=(Kt*E1*)T(KtE1).
TSM=(Kt*E1*)T(KtE1)(E1*)T(E1).
TSM=sin2(δβ2)sin2(θ1+θ2),
EDin=[ExDinEyDin]=[Ex01inEy01in]+[Ex02inEy02in]=η1[ExDinEyDin]+η2[ExDinEyDin].
[Ex0jfEy0jf]=HDj[Ex0jinEy0jin]withHDj=[eiβjxL00eiβjyL]forj=1,2.
[ExDfEyDf]=η1[eiβ1xL00eiβ1yL][ExDinEyDin]+η2[eiβ2xL00eiβ2yL][ExDinEyDin]=η1eiβ1xL[1+ηei(β1xβ2x)L00ei(β1xβ1y)L+ηe(i[(β2xβ2y)+(β1xβ2x)]L)][ExDinEyDin].
HD,L=η1eiβ1xL[1+ηeiΔβL00eiδβ1L+ηe(i[δβ2+Δβ]L)].
TDM,L=12[η12+η22+η1η2cos(ΔβL)cos(δβ1L)η1η2cos((Δβ+δβ2)L)η1η2cos((Δβδβ1)L)η22cos(δβ2L)+η1η2cos((Δβδβ1+δβ2)L)]sin2(θ1+θ2).
TDM,L=[η12+η22+2η1η2cos(ΔβL)]sin2(δβL2)sin2(θ1+θ2).
HDj=η1eiβ1xLj[1+ηeiΔβLj001+ηeiΔβLj],j=1,2.
E2=[kDR2HD2HD,HD1InR1D+(1k)CR11InHD2HD,HD1R21C]E1=KtDE1.
TDM,=[η12+η22+2η1η2cos(ΔβL1)][η12+η22+2η1η2cos(ΔβL2)][η12+η22+2η1η2cos(Δβ)]sin2(δβ2)sin2(θ1+θ2).
Δϕ=4η32REλ(p12p11)(1+μ)LP,
V=Vcλcλ4.9.

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