Abstract

Porous Vycor glass with nano-sized pores is transparent in the visible region and is often used in colorimetric chemical sensing, when it is impregnated with selectively reacting reagents. However, it has some disadvantages in its use, since changes in the humidity of ambient air strongly affect the transmission. In this work, we analyzed the transparency change during the drying process to correlate the turbidity of the glass with the amount of water in it. The transparency change in the visible region takes place for the duration of the drying and is found to be dependent on the inverse 4th power of the wavelength (1/λ4), which implies that Rayleigh-type scattering takes place during the drying process. Based on the above observation, it is shown that the transitory white turbidity of nanoporous glasses during the drying process can be interpreted consistently and quantitatively analyzed by a simple Rayleigh scattering mechanism.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Tanaka, T. Ohyama, Y. Y. Maruo, and T. Hayashi, “Coloration reactions between NO2 and organic compounds in porous glass for cumulative gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 47, 65–69 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Tanaka, A. Guilleux, T. Ohyama, Y. Y. Maruo, and T. Hayashi, “A ppb-level NO2 gas sensor using coloration reactions in porous glass,” Sens. Actuators B 56, 247–253 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Y. Maruo, “Measurement of ambient ozone using newly developed porous glass sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 126, 485–491 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. F. Novikov and V. I. Zemskii, “Glassy spectral gas sensors based on the immobilized indicators,” Proc. SPIE 2550, 119–129 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Ohyama, Y. Y. Maruo, T. Tanaka, and T. Hayashi, “A ppb-level NO2 detection system using coloration reactions in porous glass and its humidity dependence,” Sens. Actuators B 64, 142–146 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Dollimore and G. R. Heal, “An improved method for the calculation of pore size distribution from adsorption data,” J. Appl. Chem. 14, 109–114 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. L. Wood and E. M. Rabinovich, “Infrared studies of alkoxide gels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 82, 171–176 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. A. Evstrapov and N. A. Esikova, “Study of porous glasses by the methods of optical spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Technol. 75, 266–270 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, 1969), pp. 31–39.
  10. F. Rouquerol, J. Rouquerol, and K. Sing, Adsorption by Powders & Porous Solids (Academic, 1999).
  11. P. R. Wakeling, “What is Vycor glass?” Appl. Opt. 18, 3208–3210 (1979).
  12. J. H. Page, J. Liu, B. Abeles, H. W. Deckman, and D. A. Weitz, “Pore-space correlations in capillary condensation in Vycor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1216–1219 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. H. Page, J. Liu, B. Abeles, E. Herbolzheimer, H. W. Deckman, and D. A. Weitz, “Adsorption and desorption of a wetting fluid in Vycor studied by acoustic and optical techniques,” Phys. Rev. E 52, 2763–2777 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. W. Scherer, “Theory of drying,” J. Ceram. Am. Soc. 73, 3–14 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. M. Shaw, “Movement of a drying front in a porous material,” in Material Research Society Symposium Proceedings, C. J. Brinker, D. E. Clark, and D. R. Ulrich, ed., Better Ceramics Through Chemistry II (Materials Research Society, 1986), Vol. 73, pp. 215–223.
  16. T. M. Shaw, “Drying as an immiscible displacement process with fluid counterflow,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1671–1674. (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Wilkinson and J. F. Willemsen, “Invasion percolation: a new form of percolation theory,” J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 16, 3365–3376 (1983).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

Y. Y. Maruo, “Measurement of ambient ozone using newly developed porous glass sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 126, 485–491 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

T. Ohyama, Y. Y. Maruo, T. Tanaka, and T. Hayashi, “A ppb-level NO2 detection system using coloration reactions in porous glass and its humidity dependence,” Sens. Actuators B 64, 142–146 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. Tanaka, A. Guilleux, T. Ohyama, Y. Y. Maruo, and T. Hayashi, “A ppb-level NO2 gas sensor using coloration reactions in porous glass,” Sens. Actuators B 56, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. Tanaka, T. Ohyama, Y. Y. Maruo, and T. Hayashi, “Coloration reactions between NO2 and organic compounds in porous glass for cumulative gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 47, 65–69 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

A. F. Novikov and V. I. Zemskii, “Glassy spectral gas sensors based on the immobilized indicators,” Proc. SPIE 2550, 119–129 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Page, J. Liu, B. Abeles, E. Herbolzheimer, H. W. Deckman, and D. A. Weitz, “Adsorption and desorption of a wetting fluid in Vycor studied by acoustic and optical techniques,” Phys. Rev. E 52, 2763–2777 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. H. Page, J. Liu, B. Abeles, H. W. Deckman, and D. A. Weitz, “Pore-space correlations in capillary condensation in Vycor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1216–1219 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

G. W. Scherer, “Theory of drying,” J. Ceram. Am. Soc. 73, 3–14 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

T. M. Shaw, “Drying as an immiscible displacement process with fluid counterflow,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1671–1674. (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

D. L. Wood and E. M. Rabinovich, “Infrared studies of alkoxide gels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 82, 171–176 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

D. Wilkinson and J. F. Willemsen, “Invasion percolation: a new form of percolation theory,” J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 16, 3365–3376 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1964 (1)

D. Dollimore and G. R. Heal, “An improved method for the calculation of pore size distribution from adsorption data,” J. Appl. Chem. 14, 109–114 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Abeles, B.

J. H. Page, J. Liu, B. Abeles, E. Herbolzheimer, H. W. Deckman, and D. A. Weitz, “Adsorption and desorption of a wetting fluid in Vycor studied by acoustic and optical techniques,” Phys. Rev. E 52, 2763–2777 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Page, J. Liu, B. Abeles, H. W. Deckman, and D. A. Weitz, “Pore-space correlations in capillary condensation in Vycor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1216–1219 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Deckman, H. W.

J. H. Page, J. Liu, B. Abeles, E. Herbolzheimer, H. W. Deckman, and D. A. Weitz, “Adsorption and desorption of a wetting fluid in Vycor studied by acoustic and optical techniques,” Phys. Rev. E 52, 2763–2777 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Page, J. Liu, B. Abeles, H. W. Deckman, and D. A. Weitz, “Pore-space correlations in capillary condensation in Vycor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1216–1219 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dollimore, D.

D. Dollimore and G. R. Heal, “An improved method for the calculation of pore size distribution from adsorption data,” J. Appl. Chem. 14, 109–114 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Esikova, N. A.

Evstrapov, A. A.

Guilleux, A.

T. Tanaka, A. Guilleux, T. Ohyama, Y. Y. Maruo, and T. Hayashi, “A ppb-level NO2 gas sensor using coloration reactions in porous glass,” Sens. Actuators B 56, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, T.

T. Ohyama, Y. Y. Maruo, T. Tanaka, and T. Hayashi, “A ppb-level NO2 detection system using coloration reactions in porous glass and its humidity dependence,” Sens. Actuators B 64, 142–146 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, A. Guilleux, T. Ohyama, Y. Y. Maruo, and T. Hayashi, “A ppb-level NO2 gas sensor using coloration reactions in porous glass,” Sens. Actuators B 56, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, T. Ohyama, Y. Y. Maruo, and T. Hayashi, “Coloration reactions between NO2 and organic compounds in porous glass for cumulative gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 47, 65–69 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heal, G. R.

D. Dollimore and G. R. Heal, “An improved method for the calculation of pore size distribution from adsorption data,” J. Appl. Chem. 14, 109–114 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Herbolzheimer, E.

J. H. Page, J. Liu, B. Abeles, E. Herbolzheimer, H. W. Deckman, and D. A. Weitz, “Adsorption and desorption of a wetting fluid in Vycor studied by acoustic and optical techniques,” Phys. Rev. E 52, 2763–2777 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kerker, M.

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, 1969), pp. 31–39.

Liu, J.

J. H. Page, J. Liu, B. Abeles, E. Herbolzheimer, H. W. Deckman, and D. A. Weitz, “Adsorption and desorption of a wetting fluid in Vycor studied by acoustic and optical techniques,” Phys. Rev. E 52, 2763–2777 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Page, J. Liu, B. Abeles, H. W. Deckman, and D. A. Weitz, “Pore-space correlations in capillary condensation in Vycor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1216–1219 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Maruo, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Maruo, “Measurement of ambient ozone using newly developed porous glass sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 126, 485–491 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohyama, Y. Y. Maruo, T. Tanaka, and T. Hayashi, “A ppb-level NO2 detection system using coloration reactions in porous glass and its humidity dependence,” Sens. Actuators B 64, 142–146 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, A. Guilleux, T. Ohyama, Y. Y. Maruo, and T. Hayashi, “A ppb-level NO2 gas sensor using coloration reactions in porous glass,” Sens. Actuators B 56, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, T. Ohyama, Y. Y. Maruo, and T. Hayashi, “Coloration reactions between NO2 and organic compounds in porous glass for cumulative gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 47, 65–69 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Novikov, A. F.

A. F. Novikov and V. I. Zemskii, “Glassy spectral gas sensors based on the immobilized indicators,” Proc. SPIE 2550, 119–129 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ohyama, T.

T. Ohyama, Y. Y. Maruo, T. Tanaka, and T. Hayashi, “A ppb-level NO2 detection system using coloration reactions in porous glass and its humidity dependence,” Sens. Actuators B 64, 142–146 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, A. Guilleux, T. Ohyama, Y. Y. Maruo, and T. Hayashi, “A ppb-level NO2 gas sensor using coloration reactions in porous glass,” Sens. Actuators B 56, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, T. Ohyama, Y. Y. Maruo, and T. Hayashi, “Coloration reactions between NO2 and organic compounds in porous glass for cumulative gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 47, 65–69 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Page, J. H.

J. H. Page, J. Liu, B. Abeles, E. Herbolzheimer, H. W. Deckman, and D. A. Weitz, “Adsorption and desorption of a wetting fluid in Vycor studied by acoustic and optical techniques,” Phys. Rev. E 52, 2763–2777 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Page, J. Liu, B. Abeles, H. W. Deckman, and D. A. Weitz, “Pore-space correlations in capillary condensation in Vycor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1216–1219 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rabinovich, E. M.

D. L. Wood and E. M. Rabinovich, “Infrared studies of alkoxide gels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 82, 171–176 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rouquerol, F.

F. Rouquerol, J. Rouquerol, and K. Sing, Adsorption by Powders & Porous Solids (Academic, 1999).

Rouquerol, J.

F. Rouquerol, J. Rouquerol, and K. Sing, Adsorption by Powders & Porous Solids (Academic, 1999).

Scherer, G. W.

G. W. Scherer, “Theory of drying,” J. Ceram. Am. Soc. 73, 3–14 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, T. M.

T. M. Shaw, “Drying as an immiscible displacement process with fluid counterflow,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1671–1674. (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Shaw, “Movement of a drying front in a porous material,” in Material Research Society Symposium Proceedings, C. J. Brinker, D. E. Clark, and D. R. Ulrich, ed., Better Ceramics Through Chemistry II (Materials Research Society, 1986), Vol. 73, pp. 215–223.

Sing, K.

F. Rouquerol, J. Rouquerol, and K. Sing, Adsorption by Powders & Porous Solids (Academic, 1999).

Tanaka, T.

T. Ohyama, Y. Y. Maruo, T. Tanaka, and T. Hayashi, “A ppb-level NO2 detection system using coloration reactions in porous glass and its humidity dependence,” Sens. Actuators B 64, 142–146 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, A. Guilleux, T. Ohyama, Y. Y. Maruo, and T. Hayashi, “A ppb-level NO2 gas sensor using coloration reactions in porous glass,” Sens. Actuators B 56, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, T. Ohyama, Y. Y. Maruo, and T. Hayashi, “Coloration reactions between NO2 and organic compounds in porous glass for cumulative gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 47, 65–69 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wakeling, P. R.

Weitz, D. A.

J. H. Page, J. Liu, B. Abeles, E. Herbolzheimer, H. W. Deckman, and D. A. Weitz, “Adsorption and desorption of a wetting fluid in Vycor studied by acoustic and optical techniques,” Phys. Rev. E 52, 2763–2777 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Page, J. Liu, B. Abeles, H. W. Deckman, and D. A. Weitz, “Pore-space correlations in capillary condensation in Vycor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1216–1219 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, D.

D. Wilkinson and J. F. Willemsen, “Invasion percolation: a new form of percolation theory,” J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 16, 3365–3376 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Willemsen, J. F.

D. Wilkinson and J. F. Willemsen, “Invasion percolation: a new form of percolation theory,” J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 16, 3365–3376 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wood, D. L.

D. L. Wood and E. M. Rabinovich, “Infrared studies of alkoxide gels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 82, 171–176 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zemskii, V. I.

A. F. Novikov and V. I. Zemskii, “Glassy spectral gas sensors based on the immobilized indicators,” Proc. SPIE 2550, 119–129 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Appl. Chem. (1)

D. Dollimore and G. R. Heal, “An improved method for the calculation of pore size distribution from adsorption data,” J. Appl. Chem. 14, 109–114 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Ceram. Am. Soc. (1)

G. W. Scherer, “Theory of drying,” J. Ceram. Am. Soc. 73, 3–14 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

D. L. Wood and E. M. Rabinovich, “Infrared studies of alkoxide gels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 82, 171–176 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Technol. (1)

J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. (1)

D. Wilkinson and J. F. Willemsen, “Invasion percolation: a new form of percolation theory,” J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 16, 3365–3376 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

J. H. Page, J. Liu, B. Abeles, E. Herbolzheimer, H. W. Deckman, and D. A. Weitz, “Adsorption and desorption of a wetting fluid in Vycor studied by acoustic and optical techniques,” Phys. Rev. E 52, 2763–2777 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

T. M. Shaw, “Drying as an immiscible displacement process with fluid counterflow,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1671–1674. (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Page, J. Liu, B. Abeles, H. W. Deckman, and D. A. Weitz, “Pore-space correlations in capillary condensation in Vycor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1216–1219 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. F. Novikov and V. I. Zemskii, “Glassy spectral gas sensors based on the immobilized indicators,” Proc. SPIE 2550, 119–129 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (4)

T. Ohyama, Y. Y. Maruo, T. Tanaka, and T. Hayashi, “A ppb-level NO2 detection system using coloration reactions in porous glass and its humidity dependence,” Sens. Actuators B 64, 142–146 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, T. Ohyama, Y. Y. Maruo, and T. Hayashi, “Coloration reactions between NO2 and organic compounds in porous glass for cumulative gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 47, 65–69 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, A. Guilleux, T. Ohyama, Y. Y. Maruo, and T. Hayashi, “A ppb-level NO2 gas sensor using coloration reactions in porous glass,” Sens. Actuators B 56, 247–253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Maruo, “Measurement of ambient ozone using newly developed porous glass sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 126, 485–491 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, 1969), pp. 31–39.

F. Rouquerol, J. Rouquerol, and K. Sing, Adsorption by Powders & Porous Solids (Academic, 1999).

T. M. Shaw, “Movement of a drying front in a porous material,” in Material Research Society Symposium Proceedings, C. J. Brinker, D. E. Clark, and D. R. Ulrich, ed., Better Ceramics Through Chemistry II (Materials Research Society, 1986), Vol. 73, pp. 215–223.

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