Abstract

We describe the angular sensing and control (ASC) of 4 km detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). Enhanced LIGO, the culmination of the first generation LIGO detectors, operated between 2009 and 2010 with about 40 kW of laser power in the arm cavities. In this regime, radiation-pressure effects are significant and induce instabilities in the angular opto-mechanical transfer functions. Here we present and motivate the ASC design in this extreme case and present the results of its implementation in Enhanced LIGO. Highlights of the ASC performance are successful control of opto-mechanical torsional modes, relative mirror motions of ≤ 1×10−7  rad rms, and limited impact on in-band strain sensitivity.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012

T. Fricke, N. Smith-Lefebvre, R. Abbott, R. Adhikari, K. Dooley, M. Evans, P. Fritschel, V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, J. Kissel, B. Slagmolen, and S. Waldman, “DC readout experiment in Enhanced LIGO,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 065005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Dooley, M. A. Arain, D. Feldbaum, V. V. Frolov, M. Heintze, D. Hoak, E. A. Khazanov, A. Lucianetti, R. M. Martin, G. Mueller, O. Palashov, V. Quetschke, D. H. Reitze, R. L. Savage, D. B. Tanner, L. F. Williams, and W. Wu, “Thermal effects in the input optics of the Enhanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory interferometers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010

G. M. Harry, and the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, “Advanced LIGO: the next generation of gravitational wave detectors,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 084006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Barsotti, M. Evans, and P. Fritschel, “Alignment sensing and control in advanced LIGO,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 084026 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Hirose, K. Kawabe, D. Sigg, R. Adhikari, and P. R. Saulson, “Angular instability due to radiation pressure in the LIGO gravitational-wave detector,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3474–3484 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

Y. Fan, L. Merrill, C. Zhao, L. Ju, D. Blair, B. Slagmolen, D. Hosken, A. Brooks, P. Veitch, D. Mudge, and J. Munch, “Observation of optical torsional stiffness in a high optical power cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Abbott, et al. “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72, 076901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

J. Sidles and D. Sigg, “Optical torques in suspended Fabry–Perot interferometers,” Phys. Lett. A 354, 167–172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

1994

1991

S. Solimeno, F. Barone, C. de Lisio, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, and G. Russo, “Fabry–Pérot resonators with oscillating mirrors,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 6227–6240 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

1984

Abbott, B. P.

B. P. Abbott, et al. “LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72, 076901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, R.

T. Fricke, N. Smith-Lefebvre, R. Abbott, R. Adhikari, K. Dooley, M. Evans, P. Fritschel, V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, J. Kissel, B. Slagmolen, and S. Waldman, “DC readout experiment in Enhanced LIGO,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 065005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adhikari, R.

T. Fricke, N. Smith-Lefebvre, R. Abbott, R. Adhikari, K. Dooley, M. Evans, P. Fritschel, V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, J. Kissel, B. Slagmolen, and S. Waldman, “DC readout experiment in Enhanced LIGO,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 065005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Hirose, K. Kawabe, D. Sigg, R. Adhikari, and P. R. Saulson, “Angular instability due to radiation pressure in the LIGO gravitational-wave detector,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3474–3484 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Adhikari, P. Fritschel, and S. Waldman, “Enhanced LIGO,” (LIGO Laboratory, 2006).

Anderson, D. Z.

Arain, M. A.

K. L. Dooley, M. A. Arain, D. Feldbaum, V. V. Frolov, M. Heintze, D. Hoak, E. A. Khazanov, A. Lucianetti, R. M. Martin, G. Mueller, O. Palashov, V. Quetschke, D. H. Reitze, R. L. Savage, D. B. Tanner, L. F. Williams, and W. Wu, “Thermal effects in the input optics of the Enhanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory interferometers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Barone, F.

S. Solimeno, F. Barone, C. de Lisio, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, and G. Russo, “Fabry–Pérot resonators with oscillating mirrors,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 6227–6240 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Barsotti, L.

L. Barsotti, M. Evans, and P. Fritschel, “Alignment sensing and control in advanced LIGO,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 084026 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Barsotti and M. Evans, “Modeling of alignment sensing and control for Enhanced LIGO,” (LIGO Laboratory, 2009).

Blair, D.

Y. Fan, L. Merrill, C. Zhao, L. Ju, D. Blair, B. Slagmolen, D. Hosken, A. Brooks, P. Veitch, D. Mudge, and J. Munch, “Observation of optical torsional stiffness in a high optical power cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, A.

Y. Fan, L. Merrill, C. Zhao, L. Ju, D. Blair, B. Slagmolen, D. Hosken, A. Brooks, P. Veitch, D. Mudge, and J. Munch, “Observation of optical torsional stiffness in a high optical power cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Lisio, C.

S. Solimeno, F. Barone, C. de Lisio, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, and G. Russo, “Fabry–Pérot resonators with oscillating mirrors,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 6227–6240 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Di Fiore, L.

S. Solimeno, F. Barone, C. de Lisio, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, and G. Russo, “Fabry–Pérot resonators with oscillating mirrors,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 6227–6240 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dooley, K.

T. Fricke, N. Smith-Lefebvre, R. Abbott, R. Adhikari, K. Dooley, M. Evans, P. Fritschel, V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, J. Kissel, B. Slagmolen, and S. Waldman, “DC readout experiment in Enhanced LIGO,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 065005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dooley, K. L.

K. L. Dooley, M. A. Arain, D. Feldbaum, V. V. Frolov, M. Heintze, D. Hoak, E. A. Khazanov, A. Lucianetti, R. M. Martin, G. Mueller, O. Palashov, V. Quetschke, D. H. Reitze, R. L. Savage, D. B. Tanner, L. F. Williams, and W. Wu, “Thermal effects in the input optics of the Enhanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory interferometers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Driggers, J.

J. Driggers, “Optomechanical alignment instability in LIGO mode cleaners,” (LIGO Laboratory, 2006).

Evans, M.

T. Fricke, N. Smith-Lefebvre, R. Abbott, R. Adhikari, K. Dooley, M. Evans, P. Fritschel, V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, J. Kissel, B. Slagmolen, and S. Waldman, “DC readout experiment in Enhanced LIGO,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 065005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Barsotti, M. Evans, and P. Fritschel, “Alignment sensing and control in advanced LIGO,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 084026 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Barsotti and M. Evans, “Modeling of alignment sensing and control for Enhanced LIGO,” (LIGO Laboratory, 2009).

Fan, Y.

Y. Fan, L. Merrill, C. Zhao, L. Ju, D. Blair, B. Slagmolen, D. Hosken, A. Brooks, P. Veitch, D. Mudge, and J. Munch, “Observation of optical torsional stiffness in a high optical power cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feldbaum, D.

K. L. Dooley, M. A. Arain, D. Feldbaum, V. V. Frolov, M. Heintze, D. Hoak, E. A. Khazanov, A. Lucianetti, R. M. Martin, G. Mueller, O. Palashov, V. Quetschke, D. H. Reitze, R. L. Savage, D. B. Tanner, L. F. Williams, and W. Wu, “Thermal effects in the input optics of the Enhanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory interferometers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Frede, M.

Fricke, T.

T. Fricke, N. Smith-Lefebvre, R. Abbott, R. Adhikari, K. Dooley, M. Evans, P. Fritschel, V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, J. Kissel, B. Slagmolen, and S. Waldman, “DC readout experiment in Enhanced LIGO,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 065005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fritschel, P.

T. Fricke, N. Smith-Lefebvre, R. Abbott, R. Adhikari, K. Dooley, M. Evans, P. Fritschel, V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, J. Kissel, B. Slagmolen, and S. Waldman, “DC readout experiment in Enhanced LIGO,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 065005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Barsotti, M. Evans, and P. Fritschel, “Alignment sensing and control in advanced LIGO,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 084026 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Fritschel, N. Mavalvala, D. Shoemaker, D. Sigg, M. Zucker, and G. González, “Alignment of an interferometric gravitational wave detector,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6734–6747 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Adhikari, P. Fritschel, and S. Waldman, “Enhanced LIGO,” (LIGO Laboratory, 2006).

P. Fritschel and D. Shoemaker, “Alignment sensing/control design requirements document,” (LIGO Laboratory, 1997).

Frolov, V.

T. Fricke, N. Smith-Lefebvre, R. Abbott, R. Adhikari, K. Dooley, M. Evans, P. Fritschel, V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, J. Kissel, B. Slagmolen, and S. Waldman, “DC readout experiment in Enhanced LIGO,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 065005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Frolov, V. V.

K. L. Dooley, M. A. Arain, D. Feldbaum, V. V. Frolov, M. Heintze, D. Hoak, E. A. Khazanov, A. Lucianetti, R. M. Martin, G. Mueller, O. Palashov, V. Quetschke, D. H. Reitze, R. L. Savage, D. B. Tanner, L. F. Williams, and W. Wu, “Thermal effects in the input optics of the Enhanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory interferometers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

González, G.

Harry, G. M.

G. M. Harry, and the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, “Advanced LIGO: the next generation of gravitational wave detectors,” Class. Quantum Grav. 27, 084006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hefetz, Y.

Heintze, M.

K. L. Dooley, M. A. Arain, D. Feldbaum, V. V. Frolov, M. Heintze, D. Hoak, E. A. Khazanov, A. Lucianetti, R. M. Martin, G. Mueller, O. Palashov, V. Quetschke, D. H. Reitze, R. L. Savage, D. B. Tanner, L. F. Williams, and W. Wu, “Thermal effects in the input optics of the Enhanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory interferometers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hirose, E.

Hoak, D.

K. L. Dooley, M. A. Arain, D. Feldbaum, V. V. Frolov, M. Heintze, D. Hoak, E. A. Khazanov, A. Lucianetti, R. M. Martin, G. Mueller, O. Palashov, V. Quetschke, D. H. Reitze, R. L. Savage, D. B. Tanner, L. F. Williams, and W. Wu, “Thermal effects in the input optics of the Enhanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory interferometers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hosken, D.

Y. Fan, L. Merrill, C. Zhao, L. Ju, D. Blair, B. Slagmolen, D. Hosken, A. Brooks, P. Veitch, D. Mudge, and J. Munch, “Observation of optical torsional stiffness in a high optical power cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ju, L.

Y. Fan, L. Merrill, C. Zhao, L. Ju, D. Blair, B. Slagmolen, D. Hosken, A. Brooks, P. Veitch, D. Mudge, and J. Munch, “Observation of optical torsional stiffness in a high optical power cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kawabe, K.

T. Fricke, N. Smith-Lefebvre, R. Abbott, R. Adhikari, K. Dooley, M. Evans, P. Fritschel, V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, J. Kissel, B. Slagmolen, and S. Waldman, “DC readout experiment in Enhanced LIGO,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 065005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Hirose, K. Kawabe, D. Sigg, R. Adhikari, and P. R. Saulson, “Angular instability due to radiation pressure in the LIGO gravitational-wave detector,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3474–3484 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Khazanov, E. A.

K. L. Dooley, M. A. Arain, D. Feldbaum, V. V. Frolov, M. Heintze, D. Hoak, E. A. Khazanov, A. Lucianetti, R. M. Martin, G. Mueller, O. Palashov, V. Quetschke, D. H. Reitze, R. L. Savage, D. B. Tanner, L. F. Williams, and W. Wu, “Thermal effects in the input optics of the Enhanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory interferometers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kissel, J.

T. Fricke, N. Smith-Lefebvre, R. Abbott, R. Adhikari, K. Dooley, M. Evans, P. Fritschel, V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, J. Kissel, B. Slagmolen, and S. Waldman, “DC readout experiment in Enhanced LIGO,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 065005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kracht, D.

Kwee, P.

Lucianetti, A.

K. L. Dooley, M. A. Arain, D. Feldbaum, V. V. Frolov, M. Heintze, D. Hoak, E. A. Khazanov, A. Lucianetti, R. M. Martin, G. Mueller, O. Palashov, V. Quetschke, D. H. Reitze, R. L. Savage, D. B. Tanner, L. F. Williams, and W. Wu, “Thermal effects in the input optics of the Enhanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory interferometers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. M.

K. L. Dooley, M. A. Arain, D. Feldbaum, V. V. Frolov, M. Heintze, D. Hoak, E. A. Khazanov, A. Lucianetti, R. M. Martin, G. Mueller, O. Palashov, V. Quetschke, D. H. Reitze, R. L. Savage, D. B. Tanner, L. F. Williams, and W. Wu, “Thermal effects in the input optics of the Enhanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory interferometers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mavalvala, N.

Meers, B. J.

Merrill, L.

Y. Fan, L. Merrill, C. Zhao, L. Ju, D. Blair, B. Slagmolen, D. Hosken, A. Brooks, P. Veitch, D. Mudge, and J. Munch, “Observation of optical torsional stiffness in a high optical power cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Milano, L.

S. Solimeno, F. Barone, C. de Lisio, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, and G. Russo, “Fabry–Pérot resonators with oscillating mirrors,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 6227–6240 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, E.

Mudge, D.

Y. Fan, L. Merrill, C. Zhao, L. Ju, D. Blair, B. Slagmolen, D. Hosken, A. Brooks, P. Veitch, D. Mudge, and J. Munch, “Observation of optical torsional stiffness in a high optical power cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G.

K. L. Dooley, M. A. Arain, D. Feldbaum, V. V. Frolov, M. Heintze, D. Hoak, E. A. Khazanov, A. Lucianetti, R. M. Martin, G. Mueller, O. Palashov, V. Quetschke, D. H. Reitze, R. L. Savage, D. B. Tanner, L. F. Williams, and W. Wu, “Thermal effects in the input optics of the Enhanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory interferometers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Munch, J.

Y. Fan, L. Merrill, C. Zhao, L. Ju, D. Blair, B. Slagmolen, D. Hosken, A. Brooks, P. Veitch, D. Mudge, and J. Munch, “Observation of optical torsional stiffness in a high optical power cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Palashov, O.

K. L. Dooley, M. A. Arain, D. Feldbaum, V. V. Frolov, M. Heintze, D. Hoak, E. A. Khazanov, A. Lucianetti, R. M. Martin, G. Mueller, O. Palashov, V. Quetschke, D. H. Reitze, R. L. Savage, D. B. Tanner, L. F. Williams, and W. Wu, “Thermal effects in the input optics of the Enhanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory interferometers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Quetschke, V.

K. L. Dooley, M. A. Arain, D. Feldbaum, V. V. Frolov, M. Heintze, D. Hoak, E. A. Khazanov, A. Lucianetti, R. M. Martin, G. Mueller, O. Palashov, V. Quetschke, D. H. Reitze, R. L. Savage, D. B. Tanner, L. F. Williams, and W. Wu, “Thermal effects in the input optics of the Enhanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory interferometers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Reitze, D. H.

K. L. Dooley, M. A. Arain, D. Feldbaum, V. V. Frolov, M. Heintze, D. Hoak, E. A. Khazanov, A. Lucianetti, R. M. Martin, G. Mueller, O. Palashov, V. Quetschke, D. H. Reitze, R. L. Savage, D. B. Tanner, L. F. Williams, and W. Wu, “Thermal effects in the input optics of the Enhanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory interferometers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, D. I.

Russo, G.

S. Solimeno, F. Barone, C. de Lisio, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, and G. Russo, “Fabry–Pérot resonators with oscillating mirrors,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 6227–6240 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sampas, N. M.

Saulson, P. R.

Savage, R. L.

K. L. Dooley, M. A. Arain, D. Feldbaum, V. V. Frolov, M. Heintze, D. Hoak, E. A. Khazanov, A. Lucianetti, R. M. Martin, G. Mueller, O. Palashov, V. Quetschke, D. H. Reitze, R. L. Savage, D. B. Tanner, L. F. Williams, and W. Wu, “Thermal effects in the input optics of the Enhanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory interferometers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, B.

Seifert, F.

Shoemaker, D.

Sidles, J.

J. Sidles and D. Sigg, “Optical torques in suspended Fabry–Perot interferometers,” Phys. Lett. A 354, 167–172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sidles, J. A.

J. A. Sidles and D. Sigg, “Optical torques in suspended Fabry-Perot interferometers,” (LIGO Laboratory, 2003).

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers, 1st ed. (University Science Books, 1986).

Sigg, D.

Slagmolen, B.

T. Fricke, N. Smith-Lefebvre, R. Abbott, R. Adhikari, K. Dooley, M. Evans, P. Fritschel, V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, J. Kissel, B. Slagmolen, and S. Waldman, “DC readout experiment in Enhanced LIGO,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 065005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fan, L. Merrill, C. Zhao, L. Ju, D. Blair, B. Slagmolen, D. Hosken, A. Brooks, P. Veitch, D. Mudge, and J. Munch, “Observation of optical torsional stiffness in a high optical power cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith-Lefebvre, N.

T. Fricke, N. Smith-Lefebvre, R. Abbott, R. Adhikari, K. Dooley, M. Evans, P. Fritschel, V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, J. Kissel, B. Slagmolen, and S. Waldman, “DC readout experiment in Enhanced LIGO,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 065005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Solimeno, S.

S. Solimeno, F. Barone, C. de Lisio, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, and G. Russo, “Fabry–Pérot resonators with oscillating mirrors,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 6227–6240 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tanner, D. B.

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Y. Fan, L. Merrill, C. Zhao, L. Ju, D. Blair, B. Slagmolen, D. Hosken, A. Brooks, P. Veitch, D. Mudge, and J. Munch, “Observation of optical torsional stiffness in a high optical power cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081105 (2009).
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K. L. Dooley, M. A. Arain, D. Feldbaum, V. V. Frolov, M. Heintze, D. Hoak, E. A. Khazanov, A. Lucianetti, R. M. Martin, G. Mueller, O. Palashov, V. Quetschke, D. H. Reitze, R. L. Savage, D. B. Tanner, L. F. Williams, and W. Wu, “Thermal effects in the input optics of the Enhanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory interferometers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Willke, B.

Wu, W.

K. L. Dooley, M. A. Arain, D. Feldbaum, V. V. Frolov, M. Heintze, D. Hoak, E. A. Khazanov, A. Lucianetti, R. M. Martin, G. Mueller, O. Palashov, V. Quetschke, D. H. Reitze, R. L. Savage, D. B. Tanner, L. F. Williams, and W. Wu, “Thermal effects in the input optics of the Enhanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory interferometers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C.

Y. Fan, L. Merrill, C. Zhao, L. Ju, D. Blair, B. Slagmolen, D. Hosken, A. Brooks, P. Veitch, D. Mudge, and J. Munch, “Observation of optical torsional stiffness in a high optical power cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Appl. Opt.

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Y. Fan, L. Merrill, C. Zhao, L. Ju, D. Blair, B. Slagmolen, D. Hosken, A. Brooks, P. Veitch, D. Mudge, and J. Munch, “Observation of optical torsional stiffness in a high optical power cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 081105 (2009).
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T. Fricke, N. Smith-Lefebvre, R. Abbott, R. Adhikari, K. Dooley, M. Evans, P. Fritschel, V. Frolov, K. Kawabe, J. Kissel, B. Slagmolen, and S. Waldman, “DC readout experiment in Enhanced LIGO,” Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 065005 (2012).
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[CrossRef]

Other

J. A. Sidles and D. Sigg, “Optical torques in suspended Fabry-Perot interferometers,” (LIGO Laboratory, 2003).

R. Adhikari, P. Fritschel, and S. Waldman, “Enhanced LIGO,” (LIGO Laboratory, 2006).

L. Barsotti and M. Evans, “Modeling of alignment sensing and control for Enhanced LIGO,” (LIGO Laboratory, 2009).

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Two signals are derived from WFS2.

J. Driggers, “Optomechanical alignment instability in LIGO mode cleaners,” (LIGO Laboratory, 2006).

R. X. Adhikari, “Gravitational radiation detection with laser interferometry,” 2013, http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.5188 .

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