Abstract

Retroreflective free-space optical communication is important because of advantages such as small volume, low weight, and low power consumption. Link failure caused by bad weather conditions will occur because of the attenuated retroreflective signal and the increased scattering of the transmitted light. The scattering effect can be reduced because the physical properties (including polarization, wavefront, and phase) of the scattering signal are different from those of the retroreflective signal. The physical properties of the scattering signal are obtained using a polarization-sensitive Monte Carlo model, and the heterodyning scattering signal is obtained using heterodyning theory. Results show that, with optical heterodyning, the scattering effect is efficiently reduced, and advantages such as better adaptability to bad weather conditions, longer communication range, more compact transceiver design, larger covering area of the optical receiver, and easier target acquisition for the retromodulator than before can also be obtained.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

H. W. Yin, S. L. Chang, H. H. Jia, J. K. Yang, and J. C. Yang, “Non-line-of-sight multiscatter propagation model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 2466–2469 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Scott, K. D. Ridley, D. C. Jones, M. E. McNie, G. W. Smith, K. M. Brunson, A. Lewin, and K. L. Lewis, “Retro-reflective communications over a kilometre range using a MEMS-based optical tag,” Proc. SPIE 7480, 74800L (2009).

H. P. Ding, G. Chen, A. K. Majumdar, B. M. Sadler, and Z. Y. Xu, “Modeling of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet scattering channels for communication,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1535–1544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, P. G. Goetz, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, and M. Ferraro, “45  Mbps cat’s eye modulating retro-reflector link over 7  Km,” Proc. SPIE 6304, 63040Q (2007).

D. Nicolae, C. Talianu, C. Radu, and S. Stefan, “Combining OPAC and lidar,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500H (2007).

S. Arnon, “Network of sensors: acquisition probability,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 2758–2765 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, and C. I. Moore, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Kedar and S. Arnon, “Backscattering-induced crosstalk in WDM optical wireless communication,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2023–2030 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

G. C. Gilbreath and W. S. Rabinovich, “Research in free space optical data transfer at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 5160, 225 (2004).

1998 (1)

M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Abreu, L. W.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, and A. Berk, “The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and LOWTRAN 7 MODEL” (Ontar Corporation, 1996).

Allard, L.

L. Sjöqvist, E. Hällstig, J. Öhgren, and L. Allard, Retrocommunication—Final Report (Swedish Defence Research Agency, 2004).

Anderson, G. P.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, and A. Berk, “The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and LOWTRAN 7 MODEL” (Ontar Corporation, 1996).

Arnon, S.

Berk, A.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, and A. Berk, “The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and LOWTRAN 7 MODEL” (Ontar Corporation, 1996).

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Brunson, K. M.

A. M. Scott, K. D. Ridley, D. C. Jones, M. E. McNie, G. W. Smith, K. M. Brunson, A. Lewin, and K. L. Lewis, “Retro-reflective communications over a kilometre range using a MEMS-based optical tag,” Proc. SPIE 7480, 74800L (2009).

Burris, H. R.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, and C. I. Moore, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. L.

Chen, G.

H. P. Ding, G. Chen, A. K. Majumdar, B. M. Sadler, and Z. Y. Xu, “Modeling of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet scattering channels for communication,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1535–1544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chetwynd, J. H.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, and A. Berk, “The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and LOWTRAN 7 MODEL” (Ontar Corporation, 1996).

Comeron, A.

Demma, N. A.

Ding, H. P.

H. P. Ding, G. Chen, A. K. Majumdar, B. M. Sadler, and Z. Y. Xu, “Modeling of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet scattering channels for communication,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1535–1544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, M.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, P. G. Goetz, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, and M. Ferraro, “45  Mbps cat’s eye modulating retro-reflector link over 7  Km,” Proc. SPIE 6304, 63040Q (2007).

Ferraro, M. S.

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, J. L. Murphy, and M. S. Ferraro, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems at the Naval Research Laboratory,” in The 2010 Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1601–1606.

Gilbreath, G. C.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, and C. I. Moore, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Gilbreath and W. S. Rabinovich, “Research in free space optical data transfer at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 5160, 225 (2004).

Goetz, P. G.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, P. G. Goetz, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, and M. Ferraro, “45  Mbps cat’s eye modulating retro-reflector link over 7  Km,” Proc. SPIE 6304, 63040Q (2007).

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, and C. I. Moore, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, J. L. Murphy, and M. S. Ferraro, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems at the Naval Research Laboratory,” in The 2010 Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1601–1606.

Hällstig, E.

L. Sjöqvist, E. Hällstig, J. Öhgren, and L. Allard, Retrocommunication—Final Report (Swedish Defence Research Agency, 2004).

Hård, S.

L. Sjöqvist, S. Hård, S. Junique, B. Noharet, and P. Rudquist, Retroreflective Free-space Optical Communication: System Analysis and Performance (Swedish Defence Research Agency, 2001).

Hess, M.

M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Hulst, H. C. v. d.

H. C. v. d. Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover Publications, 1981).

Jia, H. H.

Jones, D. C.

A. M. Scott, K. D. Ridley, D. C. Jones, M. E. McNie, G. W. Smith, K. M. Brunson, A. Lewin, and K. L. Lewis, “Retro-reflective communications over a kilometre range using a MEMS-based optical tag,” Proc. SPIE 7480, 74800L (2009).

Junique, S.

L. Sjöqvist, S. Hård, S. Junique, B. Noharet, and P. Rudquist, Retroreflective Free-space Optical Communication: System Analysis and Performance (Swedish Defence Research Agency, 2001).

Kedar, D.

Kneizys, F. X.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, and A. Berk, “The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and LOWTRAN 7 MODEL” (Ontar Corporation, 1996).

Koepke, P.

M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lan, T. P.

Lewin, A.

A. M. Scott, K. D. Ridley, D. C. Jones, M. E. McNie, G. W. Smith, K. M. Brunson, A. Lewin, and K. L. Lewis, “Retro-reflective communications over a kilometre range using a MEMS-based optical tag,” Proc. SPIE 7480, 74800L (2009).

Lewis, K. L.

A. M. Scott, K. D. Ridley, D. C. Jones, M. E. McNie, G. W. Smith, K. M. Brunson, A. Lewin, and K. L. Lewis, “Retro-reflective communications over a kilometre range using a MEMS-based optical tag,” Proc. SPIE 7480, 74800L (2009).

Mahon, R.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, P. G. Goetz, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, and M. Ferraro, “45  Mbps cat’s eye modulating retro-reflector link over 7  Km,” Proc. SPIE 6304, 63040Q (2007).

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, and C. I. Moore, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, J. L. Murphy, and M. S. Ferraro, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems at the Naval Research Laboratory,” in The 2010 Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1601–1606.

Majumdar, A. K.

H. P. Ding, G. Chen, A. K. Majumdar, B. M. Sadler, and Z. Y. Xu, “Modeling of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet scattering channels for communication,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1535–1544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McNie, M. E.

A. M. Scott, K. D. Ridley, D. C. Jones, M. E. McNie, G. W. Smith, K. M. Brunson, A. Lewin, and K. L. Lewis, “Retro-reflective communications over a kilometre range using a MEMS-based optical tag,” Proc. SPIE 7480, 74800L (2009).

Mocker, H. W.

Moore, C. I.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, and C. I. Moore, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, J.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, P. G. Goetz, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, and M. Ferraro, “45  Mbps cat’s eye modulating retro-reflector link over 7  Km,” Proc. SPIE 6304, 63040Q (2007).

Murphy, J. L.

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, J. L. Murphy, and M. S. Ferraro, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems at the Naval Research Laboratory,” in The 2010 Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1601–1606.

Nicolae, D.

D. Nicolae, C. Talianu, C. Radu, and S. Stefan, “Combining OPAC and lidar,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500H (2007).

Noharet, B.

L. Sjöqvist, S. Hård, S. Junique, B. Noharet, and P. Rudquist, Retroreflective Free-space Optical Communication: System Analysis and Performance (Swedish Defence Research Agency, 2001).

Öhgren, J.

L. Sjöqvist, E. Hällstig, J. Öhgren, and L. Allard, Retrocommunication—Final Report (Swedish Defence Research Agency, 2004).

Olson, G. J.

Protopopov, V. V.

V. V. Protopopov, Laser Heterodyning, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2009).

Rabinovich, W. S.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, P. G. Goetz, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, and M. Ferraro, “45  Mbps cat’s eye modulating retro-reflector link over 7  Km,” Proc. SPIE 6304, 63040Q (2007).

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, and C. I. Moore, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Gilbreath and W. S. Rabinovich, “Research in free space optical data transfer at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 5160, 225 (2004).

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, J. L. Murphy, and M. S. Ferraro, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems at the Naval Research Laboratory,” in The 2010 Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1601–1606.

Radu, C.

D. Nicolae, C. Talianu, C. Radu, and S. Stefan, “Combining OPAC and lidar,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500H (2007).

Reba, M. N. M.

Ridley, K. D.

A. M. Scott, K. D. Ridley, D. C. Jones, M. E. McNie, G. W. Smith, K. M. Brunson, A. Lewin, and K. L. Lewis, “Retro-reflective communications over a kilometre range using a MEMS-based optical tag,” Proc. SPIE 7480, 74800L (2009).

Rocadenbosch, F.

Ross, J. B.

Rudquist, P.

L. Sjöqvist, S. Hård, S. Junique, B. Noharet, and P. Rudquist, Retroreflective Free-space Optical Communication: System Analysis and Performance (Swedish Defence Research Agency, 2001).

Sadler, B. M.

H. P. Ding, G. Chen, A. K. Majumdar, B. M. Sadler, and Z. Y. Xu, “Modeling of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet scattering channels for communication,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1535–1544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schult, I.

M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scott, A. M.

A. M. Scott, K. D. Ridley, D. C. Jones, M. E. McNie, G. W. Smith, K. M. Brunson, A. Lewin, and K. L. Lewis, “Retro-reflective communications over a kilometre range using a MEMS-based optical tag,” Proc. SPIE 7480, 74800L (2009).

Shettle, E. P.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, and A. Berk, “The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and LOWTRAN 7 MODEL” (Ontar Corporation, 1996).

Sicard, M.

Sjöqvist, L.

L. Sjöqvist, E. Hällstig, J. Öhgren, and L. Allard, Retrocommunication—Final Report (Swedish Defence Research Agency, 2004).

L. Sjöqvist, S. Hård, S. Junique, B. Noharet, and P. Rudquist, Retroreflective Free-space Optical Communication: System Analysis and Performance (Swedish Defence Research Agency, 2001).

Smith, G. W.

A. M. Scott, K. D. Ridley, D. C. Jones, M. E. McNie, G. W. Smith, K. M. Brunson, A. Lewin, and K. L. Lewis, “Retro-reflective communications over a kilometre range using a MEMS-based optical tag,” Proc. SPIE 7480, 74800L (2009).

Stefan, S.

D. Nicolae, C. Talianu, C. Radu, and S. Stefan, “Combining OPAC and lidar,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500H (2007).

Swingen, L.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, P. G. Goetz, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, and M. Ferraro, “45  Mbps cat’s eye modulating retro-reflector link over 7  Km,” Proc. SPIE 6304, 63040Q (2007).

Talianu, C.

D. Nicolae, C. Talianu, C. Radu, and S. Stefan, “Combining OPAC and lidar,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500H (2007).

Wang, X. F.

Xu, Z. Y.

H. P. Ding, G. Chen, A. K. Majumdar, B. M. Sadler, and Z. Y. Xu, “Modeling of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet scattering channels for communication,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1535–1544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. C.

Yang, J. K.

Yin, H. W.

Zhang, H. L.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

H. P. Ding, G. Chen, A. K. Majumdar, B. M. Sadler, and Z. Y. Xu, “Modeling of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet scattering channels for communication,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1535–1544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Opt. Eng. (1)

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, and C. I. Moore, “Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment,” Opt. Eng. 44, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (4)

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, P. G. Goetz, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, and M. Ferraro, “45  Mbps cat’s eye modulating retro-reflector link over 7  Km,” Proc. SPIE 6304, 63040Q (2007).

A. M. Scott, K. D. Ridley, D. C. Jones, M. E. McNie, G. W. Smith, K. M. Brunson, A. Lewin, and K. L. Lewis, “Retro-reflective communications over a kilometre range using a MEMS-based optical tag,” Proc. SPIE 7480, 74800L (2009).

G. C. Gilbreath and W. S. Rabinovich, “Research in free space optical data transfer at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory,” Proc. SPIE 5160, 225 (2004).

D. Nicolae, C. Talianu, C. Radu, and S. Stefan, “Combining OPAC and lidar,” Proc. SPIE 6750, 67500H (2007).

Other (7)

L. Sjöqvist, S. Hård, S. Junique, B. Noharet, and P. Rudquist, Retroreflective Free-space Optical Communication: System Analysis and Performance (Swedish Defence Research Agency, 2001).

L. Sjöqvist, E. Hällstig, J. Öhgren, and L. Allard, Retrocommunication—Final Report (Swedish Defence Research Agency, 2004).

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, J. L. Murphy, and M. S. Ferraro, “Modulating retro-reflector lasercom systems at the Naval Research Laboratory,” in The 2010 Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1601–1606.

V. V. Protopopov, Laser Heterodyning, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2009).

H. C. v. d. Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover Publications, 1981).

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, and A. Berk, “The MODTRAN 2/3 Report and LOWTRAN 7 MODEL” (Ontar Corporation, 1996).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Retroreflective free-space optical communication link with optical heterodyning.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Atmospheric coefficient as a function of the meteorological range.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Parameter of the scattering matrix as a function of the scattering angle (the meteorological range is 10 km).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Power as a function of the meteorological range.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Power as a function of the communication range.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Power as a function of the range between the laser and the detector.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Power as a function of the field-of-view of the lens.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Power as a function of the beam divergence of the laser.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters of the Retroreflective Communication Link with Optical Heterodyning

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Es(r,t)=Asexp[i(ksr+ωst+ϕs)],
El(r,t)=Alexp[i(klr+ωlt+ϕl)],
P=σ|Es(r,t)+El(r,t)|2dσ=σ(|Es|2+|El|2+|EsEl*|+|Es*El|)dσ=|As|2σ+|Al|2σ+2(AsAl)σσcos[(kskl)r+(ωsωl)t+(ϕsϕl)]dσσ=Ps+Pl+2(PsPl)1/2cosϑsl[2J1(adksinθsl)adksinθsl]cos(ϕsl)cos(ωslt)=Ps+Pl+Ps,Hcos(ωslt),
Pr=Ptexp(2keL)AretroArL4ΩtΩretro,
Pr,H=2(PrPl)1/2cosϑrl[2J1(adksinθrl)adksinθrl]cos(ϕrl),
Mair(θs)=(3/4(1+cos2θs)3/4sin2θs003/4sin2θs3/4(1+cos2θs)00003/2cosθs00003/2cosθs),
M(θs)=1ks[ksairMair(θs)+ksaerMaer(θs)]=(S11(θs)S12(θs)00S12(θs)S22(θs)0000S33(θs)S34(θs)00S34(θs)S44(θs)),

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