Abstract

Suitability of the average mutual information (AMI) as a quality criterion in digital printing reproduction is analyzed. The sensitivity of the AMI to variation in the basic bandwidth measures of quality is discussed on the basis of expressions derived. By defining the AMI as a function of the spatial frequency, comparisons with other quality criteria such as the modulation transfer function (or the coherent transfer function) and signal-to-noise ratio are made. Computed results for digital halftoning and impact printing confirm the applicability of the AMI.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Saarelma, P. Oittinen, “Control strategies of digital reproduction with a view to print quality,” TAGA Proceedings 1983 (Technical Association of the Graphic Arts, Rochester, N.Y., 1983), pp. 642–667.
  2. J. C. Dainty, R. Shaw, Image Science (Academic, London, 1974), p. 402.
  3. H. Saarelma, “Image formation in halftone photography,” Graphic Arts Finland 8, 3–29 (1979).
  4. C. E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 379–423, 623–656 (1948).
    [Crossref]
  5. T. Berger, Rate Distortion Theory (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1979), p. 311.

1979 (1)

H. Saarelma, “Image formation in halftone photography,” Graphic Arts Finland 8, 3–29 (1979).

1948 (1)

C. E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 379–423, 623–656 (1948).
[Crossref]

Berger, T.

T. Berger, Rate Distortion Theory (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1979), p. 311.

Dainty, J. C.

J. C. Dainty, R. Shaw, Image Science (Academic, London, 1974), p. 402.

Oittinen, P.

H. Saarelma, P. Oittinen, “Control strategies of digital reproduction with a view to print quality,” TAGA Proceedings 1983 (Technical Association of the Graphic Arts, Rochester, N.Y., 1983), pp. 642–667.

Saarelma, H.

H. Saarelma, “Image formation in halftone photography,” Graphic Arts Finland 8, 3–29 (1979).

H. Saarelma, P. Oittinen, “Control strategies of digital reproduction with a view to print quality,” TAGA Proceedings 1983 (Technical Association of the Graphic Arts, Rochester, N.Y., 1983), pp. 642–667.

Shannon, C. E.

C. E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 379–423, 623–656 (1948).
[Crossref]

Shaw, R.

J. C. Dainty, R. Shaw, Image Science (Academic, London, 1974), p. 402.

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

C. E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 379–423, 623–656 (1948).
[Crossref]

Graphic Arts Finland (1)

H. Saarelma, “Image formation in halftone photography,” Graphic Arts Finland 8, 3–29 (1979).

Other (3)

T. Berger, Rate Distortion Theory (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1979), p. 311.

H. Saarelma, P. Oittinen, “Control strategies of digital reproduction with a view to print quality,” TAGA Proceedings 1983 (Technical Association of the Graphic Arts, Rochester, N.Y., 1983), pp. 642–667.

J. C. Dainty, R. Shaw, Image Science (Academic, London, 1974), p. 402.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Bandwidth in screening (left) and in impact printing (right).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The effect of bandwidth measures on APD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The effect of bandwidth measures on AMI.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

MTF and AMI in font screening. Spatial frequency normalized to halftone-screen cycle width.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The relationship between APD and AMI or SNR in font screening.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The effect of the halftoning method on AMI.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

CTF, SNR, and AMI in impact printing (newspaper offset).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The relationship between APD and AMI, CTF, or SNR in impact screening.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Relationships between the Bandwidth Measures of Quality and the Derived AMI, Assuming Evenly Distributed Input and Output Signal Statisticsa

Equations (5)

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APD = [ g f p f , g ( g f ) 2 ] 1 / 2 .
H f = f p f log 2 p f .
AMI = g f p f p g | f log 2 ( p g | f / p g ) ,
AMI ( u ) = g f p f ( u ) p g ( u ) | f ( u ) log 2 [ p g ( u ) | f ( u ) / p g ( u ) ] .
p g = p f d f d g ; if p f = 1 / f m , then p g = 1 / g m ,

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