Abstract

The application of the principle of reciprocity and methods of Fourier optics to imaging in conventional and scanning microscopes is discussed. It is concluded that there is identical even for objects thick enough for multiple scattering to occur, provided that there is no inelastic scattering or birefringence present.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. E. Barnett, “The reciprocity theorem and the equivalence of conventional and scanning transmission microscopes,” Optik 38, 585–588 (1973).
  2. D. Kermisch, “Principle of equivalence between scanning and conventional optical imaging systems,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1357–1360 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Zeitler, M. G. R. Thomson, “Scanning transmission electron microscopy,” Optik 31, 258–280, 359–366 (1970).
  4. A. Engel, “The principle of reciprocity and its application to conventional and scanning dark field electron microscopy,” Optik 41, 117–126 (1974).
  5. K. Yamomoto, Y. Ichioka, T. Suzuki, “Influence of light coherence at the exit pupil of the condenser on the image formation,” Opt. Acta 23, 987–996 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. J. R. Sheppard, A. Choudhury, “Image formation in the scanning microscope,” Opt. Acta 24, 1051–1073 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, “Image formation in scanning microscopes with partially coherent source and detector.” Opt. Acta 25, 315–325 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Wilson, C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).
  9. C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, “The theory of the direct-view confocal microscope,” J. Microsc. 124, 107–117 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. T. Welford, “On the relationship between the modes of image formation in scanning microscopy and conventional microscopy,” J. Microsc. 96, 105–107 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. Nyyssonen, “Laser micrometrology for integrated circuits,” in Proceedings of the Inspection Measurement and Control Symposium ICALEO ’82 (Laser Institute of America, Toledo, Oh., 1982), pp. 24–30.
  12. R. E. Collin, Foundations of Microwave Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966).

1981 (1)

C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, “The theory of the direct-view confocal microscope,” J. Microsc. 124, 107–117 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, “Image formation in scanning microscopes with partially coherent source and detector.” Opt. Acta 25, 315–325 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

C. J. R. Sheppard, A. Choudhury, “Image formation in the scanning microscope,” Opt. Acta 24, 1051–1073 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. Kermisch, “Principle of equivalence between scanning and conventional optical imaging systems,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1357–1360 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

K. Yamomoto, Y. Ichioka, T. Suzuki, “Influence of light coherence at the exit pupil of the condenser on the image formation,” Opt. Acta 23, 987–996 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

A. Engel, “The principle of reciprocity and its application to conventional and scanning dark field electron microscopy,” Optik 41, 117–126 (1974).

1973 (1)

M. E. Barnett, “The reciprocity theorem and the equivalence of conventional and scanning transmission microscopes,” Optik 38, 585–588 (1973).

1972 (1)

W. T. Welford, “On the relationship between the modes of image formation in scanning microscopy and conventional microscopy,” J. Microsc. 96, 105–107 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

E. Zeitler, M. G. R. Thomson, “Scanning transmission electron microscopy,” Optik 31, 258–280, 359–366 (1970).

Barnett, M. E.

M. E. Barnett, “The reciprocity theorem and the equivalence of conventional and scanning transmission microscopes,” Optik 38, 585–588 (1973).

Choudhury, A.

C. J. R. Sheppard, A. Choudhury, “Image formation in the scanning microscope,” Opt. Acta 24, 1051–1073 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Collin, R. E.

R. E. Collin, Foundations of Microwave Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966).

Engel, A.

A. Engel, “The principle of reciprocity and its application to conventional and scanning dark field electron microscopy,” Optik 41, 117–126 (1974).

Ichioka, Y.

K. Yamomoto, Y. Ichioka, T. Suzuki, “Influence of light coherence at the exit pupil of the condenser on the image formation,” Opt. Acta 23, 987–996 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kermisch, D.

Nyyssonen, D.

D. Nyyssonen, “Laser micrometrology for integrated circuits,” in Proceedings of the Inspection Measurement and Control Symposium ICALEO ’82 (Laser Institute of America, Toledo, Oh., 1982), pp. 24–30.

Sheppard, C. J. R.

C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, “The theory of the direct-view confocal microscope,” J. Microsc. 124, 107–117 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, “Image formation in scanning microscopes with partially coherent source and detector.” Opt. Acta 25, 315–325 (1978).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard, A. Choudhury, “Image formation in the scanning microscope,” Opt. Acta 24, 1051–1073 (1977).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilson, C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

Suzuki, T.

K. Yamomoto, Y. Ichioka, T. Suzuki, “Influence of light coherence at the exit pupil of the condenser on the image formation,” Opt. Acta 23, 987–996 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, M. G. R.

E. Zeitler, M. G. R. Thomson, “Scanning transmission electron microscopy,” Optik 31, 258–280, 359–366 (1970).

Welford, W. T.

W. T. Welford, “On the relationship between the modes of image formation in scanning microscopy and conventional microscopy,” J. Microsc. 96, 105–107 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, T.

C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, “The theory of the direct-view confocal microscope,” J. Microsc. 124, 107–117 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, “Image formation in scanning microscopes with partially coherent source and detector.” Opt. Acta 25, 315–325 (1978).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilson, C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

Yamomoto, K.

K. Yamomoto, Y. Ichioka, T. Suzuki, “Influence of light coherence at the exit pupil of the condenser on the image formation,” Opt. Acta 23, 987–996 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Zeitler, E.

E. Zeitler, M. G. R. Thomson, “Scanning transmission electron microscopy,” Optik 31, 258–280, 359–366 (1970).

J. Microsc. (2)

C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, “The theory of the direct-view confocal microscope,” J. Microsc. 124, 107–117 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Welford, “On the relationship between the modes of image formation in scanning microscopy and conventional microscopy,” J. Microsc. 96, 105–107 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Acta (3)

K. Yamomoto, Y. Ichioka, T. Suzuki, “Influence of light coherence at the exit pupil of the condenser on the image formation,” Opt. Acta 23, 987–996 (1976).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard, A. Choudhury, “Image formation in the scanning microscope,” Opt. Acta 24, 1051–1073 (1977).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, “Image formation in scanning microscopes with partially coherent source and detector.” Opt. Acta 25, 315–325 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Optik (3)

E. Zeitler, M. G. R. Thomson, “Scanning transmission electron microscopy,” Optik 31, 258–280, 359–366 (1970).

A. Engel, “The principle of reciprocity and its application to conventional and scanning dark field electron microscopy,” Optik 41, 117–126 (1974).

M. E. Barnett, “The reciprocity theorem and the equivalence of conventional and scanning transmission microscopes,” Optik 38, 585–588 (1973).

Other (3)

T. Wilson, C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

D. Nyyssonen, “Laser micrometrology for integrated circuits,” in Proceedings of the Inspection Measurement and Control Symposium ICALEO ’82 (Laser Institute of America, Toledo, Oh., 1982), pp. 24–30.

R. E. Collin, Foundations of Microwave Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966).

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