Abstract

We discuss the application of wedge and strip anodes to photon-counting microchannel plate detector systems for the extreme and far ultraviolet. Performance data, obtained as a result of calibration of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) [ Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 279, 176 ( 1981)] satellite detectors (open face) and the FAUST–Spacelab [ Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 21 ( 1979)] far-ultraviolet sensors (sealed tube), are presented. We have achieved CsI quantum detection efficiencies of ~80% at 114 Å and ~40% at 600 and 1300 Å that we believe to be the highest ever obtained. Position sensitivity of <10 μm is demonstrated, and the position resolution, image linearity, background rate, and flat-field characteristics are discussed.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. O. Anger, “Survey of radioisotope cameras,” Instrum. Soc. Am. Trans. 5(4), 311–334 (1966).
  2. C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and strip anodes for centroid-finding position-sensitive photon and particle detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067–1074 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. H. W. Siegmund, S. Clothier, J. Thorton, J. Lemen, R. Harper, I. Mason, J. L. Culhane, “Application of the wedge and strip anode to position sensing with microchannel plates and proportional counters,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 503–507 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “Microchannel plate EUV detectors for the extreme ultraviolet explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. Chalmeton, P. Chevalier, “Pulse height distribution for single electron input,” Acta. Electron. 14, 99–106 (1971).
  6. G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, G. C. Smith, M. Lewis, M. A. Barstow, “The gain characteristics of microchannel plates for x-ray photon counting,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 455–460 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. H. W. Siegmund, K. Coburn, R. F. Malina, “Investigation of large format microchannel plate Z configurations,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-32, 443 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. W. Fraser, M. J. Whiteley, J. F. Pearson, “Developments in microchannel plate detectors for imaging x-ray astronomy,” Preprint, Conference on X-Ray Instrumentation in Astronomy, Cannes, December1985.
  9. O. H. W. Siegmund, M. Lampton, J. Bixler, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Operational characteristics of wedge and strip image readout systems,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-33, 724–727 (1986).
  10. C. Martin, S. Bowyer, “Quantum efficiency of opaque CsI photocathodes with channel electron multiplier arrays in the extreme and far ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4206 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, M. J. Whiteley, A. Wells, “Enhanced soft x-ray detection efficiencies for imaging microchannel plate detectors,” Nature 300, 509 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. C. Taylor, M. C. Hettrick, R. F. Malina, “Maximizing the quantum efficiency of microchannel plate detectors: The collection of photoelectrons from the interchannel web using an electric field,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 171–176 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. G. Timothy, G. H. Mount, R. L. Bybee, “Multi-anode microchannel arrays,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28, 689–697 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. E. McClintock, C. A. Barth, R. E. Steele, G. M. Lawrence, J. G. Timothy, “Rocket-borne instrument with a high-resolution microchannel plate detector for planetary UV spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3071–3079 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. R. Carruthers, C. B. Opal, “Detection efficiencies of far-ultraviolet photon counting detectors,” presented at the 8th Symposium on Photo-Electronic Imaging Devices, Imperial College, London, September 1983.
  16. E. B. Saloman, J. S. Pearlman, B. L. Henke, “Evaluation of high efficiency CsI and CuI photocathodes for soft x-ray diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 19, 749–753 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. B. L. Henke, J. P. Knauer, K. Premaratne, “The charaterisation of x-ray photocathodes in the 0.1–10 keV photon energy region,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1509–1520 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, S. R. Milward, “Imaging microchannel plate detectors for XUV sky survey experiments,” Preprint, Conference on X-Ray Instrumentation in Astronomy, Cannes, December 1985.
  19. O. H. W. Siegmund, M. Lampton, S. Chakrabarti, J. Vallerga, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Application of wedge and strip readout systems to detectors for astronomy,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed. Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627 (to be published).

1986 (1)

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. Lampton, J. Bixler, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Operational characteristics of wedge and strip image readout systems,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-33, 724–727 (1986).

1985 (1)

O. H. W. Siegmund, K. Coburn, R. F. Malina, “Investigation of large format microchannel plate Z configurations,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-32, 443 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “Microchannel plate EUV detectors for the extreme ultraviolet explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (3)

O. H. W. Siegmund, S. Clothier, J. Thorton, J. Lemen, R. Harper, I. Mason, J. L. Culhane, “Application of the wedge and strip anode to position sensing with microchannel plates and proportional counters,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 503–507 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, G. C. Smith, M. Lewis, M. A. Barstow, “The gain characteristics of microchannel plates for x-ray photon counting,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 455–460 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Taylor, M. C. Hettrick, R. F. Malina, “Maximizing the quantum efficiency of microchannel plate detectors: The collection of photoelectrons from the interchannel web using an electric field,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 171–176 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (3)

1981 (3)

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and strip anodes for centroid-finding position-sensitive photon and particle detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067–1074 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Timothy, G. H. Mount, R. L. Bybee, “Multi-anode microchannel arrays,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28, 689–697 (1981).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, J. P. Knauer, K. Premaratne, “The charaterisation of x-ray photocathodes in the 0.1–10 keV photon energy region,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1509–1520 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1971 (1)

V. Chalmeton, P. Chevalier, “Pulse height distribution for single electron input,” Acta. Electron. 14, 99–106 (1971).

1966 (1)

H. O. Anger, “Survey of radioisotope cameras,” Instrum. Soc. Am. Trans. 5(4), 311–334 (1966).

Anger, H. O.

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and strip anodes for centroid-finding position-sensitive photon and particle detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067–1074 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. O. Anger, “Survey of radioisotope cameras,” Instrum. Soc. Am. Trans. 5(4), 311–334 (1966).

Barstow, M. A.

G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, G. C. Smith, M. Lewis, M. A. Barstow, “The gain characteristics of microchannel plates for x-ray photon counting,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 455–460 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, M. J. Whiteley, A. Wells, “Enhanced soft x-ray detection efficiencies for imaging microchannel plate detectors,” Nature 300, 509 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, S. R. Milward, “Imaging microchannel plate detectors for XUV sky survey experiments,” Preprint, Conference on X-Ray Instrumentation in Astronomy, Cannes, December 1985.

Barth, C. A.

Bixler, J.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. Lampton, J. Bixler, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Operational characteristics of wedge and strip image readout systems,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-33, 724–727 (1986).

Bowyer, S.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. Lampton, J. Bixler, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Operational characteristics of wedge and strip image readout systems,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-33, 724–727 (1986).

C. Martin, S. Bowyer, “Quantum efficiency of opaque CsI photocathodes with channel electron multiplier arrays in the extreme and far ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4206 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. Lampton, S. Chakrabarti, J. Vallerga, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Application of wedge and strip readout systems to detectors for astronomy,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed. Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627 (to be published).

Bybee, R. L.

J. G. Timothy, G. H. Mount, R. L. Bybee, “Multi-anode microchannel arrays,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28, 689–697 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Carruthers, G. R.

G. R. Carruthers, C. B. Opal, “Detection efficiencies of far-ultraviolet photon counting detectors,” presented at the 8th Symposium on Photo-Electronic Imaging Devices, Imperial College, London, September 1983.

Chakrabarti, S.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. Lampton, S. Chakrabarti, J. Vallerga, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Application of wedge and strip readout systems to detectors for astronomy,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed. Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627 (to be published).

Chalmeton, V.

V. Chalmeton, P. Chevalier, “Pulse height distribution for single electron input,” Acta. Electron. 14, 99–106 (1971).

Chevalier, P.

V. Chalmeton, P. Chevalier, “Pulse height distribution for single electron input,” Acta. Electron. 14, 99–106 (1971).

Clothier, S.

O. H. W. Siegmund, S. Clothier, J. Thorton, J. Lemen, R. Harper, I. Mason, J. L. Culhane, “Application of the wedge and strip anode to position sensing with microchannel plates and proportional counters,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 503–507 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Coburn, K.

O. H. W. Siegmund, K. Coburn, R. F. Malina, “Investigation of large format microchannel plate Z configurations,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-32, 443 (1985).
[CrossRef]

O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “Microchannel plate EUV detectors for the extreme ultraviolet explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Culhane, J. L.

O. H. W. Siegmund, S. Clothier, J. Thorton, J. Lemen, R. Harper, I. Mason, J. L. Culhane, “Application of the wedge and strip anode to position sensing with microchannel plates and proportional counters,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 503–507 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, G. W.

G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, G. C. Smith, M. Lewis, M. A. Barstow, “The gain characteristics of microchannel plates for x-ray photon counting,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 455–460 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, M. J. Whiteley, A. Wells, “Enhanced soft x-ray detection efficiencies for imaging microchannel plate detectors,” Nature 300, 509 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, S. R. Milward, “Imaging microchannel plate detectors for XUV sky survey experiments,” Preprint, Conference on X-Ray Instrumentation in Astronomy, Cannes, December 1985.

G. W. Fraser, M. J. Whiteley, J. F. Pearson, “Developments in microchannel plate detectors for imaging x-ray astronomy,” Preprint, Conference on X-Ray Instrumentation in Astronomy, Cannes, December1985.

Harper, R.

O. H. W. Siegmund, S. Clothier, J. Thorton, J. Lemen, R. Harper, I. Mason, J. L. Culhane, “Application of the wedge and strip anode to position sensing with microchannel plates and proportional counters,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 503–507 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, J. P. Knauer, K. Premaratne, “The charaterisation of x-ray photocathodes in the 0.1–10 keV photon energy region,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1509–1520 (1981).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Saloman, J. S. Pearlman, B. L. Henke, “Evaluation of high efficiency CsI and CuI photocathodes for soft x-ray diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 19, 749–753 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hettrick, M. C.

R. C. Taylor, M. C. Hettrick, R. F. Malina, “Maximizing the quantum efficiency of microchannel plate detectors: The collection of photoelectrons from the interchannel web using an electric field,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 171–176 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jelinsky, P.

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and strip anodes for centroid-finding position-sensitive photon and particle detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067–1074 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Knauer, J. P.

B. L. Henke, J. P. Knauer, K. Premaratne, “The charaterisation of x-ray photocathodes in the 0.1–10 keV photon energy region,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1509–1520 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lampton, M.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. Lampton, J. Bixler, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Operational characteristics of wedge and strip image readout systems,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-33, 724–727 (1986).

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and strip anodes for centroid-finding position-sensitive photon and particle detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067–1074 (1981).
[CrossRef]

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. Lampton, S. Chakrabarti, J. Vallerga, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Application of wedge and strip readout systems to detectors for astronomy,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed. Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627 (to be published).

Lawrence, G. M.

Lemen, J.

O. H. W. Siegmund, S. Clothier, J. Thorton, J. Lemen, R. Harper, I. Mason, J. L. Culhane, “Application of the wedge and strip anode to position sensing with microchannel plates and proportional counters,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 503–507 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, M.

G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, G. C. Smith, M. Lewis, M. A. Barstow, “The gain characteristics of microchannel plates for x-ray photon counting,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 455–460 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Malina, R. F.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. Lampton, J. Bixler, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Operational characteristics of wedge and strip image readout systems,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-33, 724–727 (1986).

O. H. W. Siegmund, K. Coburn, R. F. Malina, “Investigation of large format microchannel plate Z configurations,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-32, 443 (1985).
[CrossRef]

O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “Microchannel plate EUV detectors for the extreme ultraviolet explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Taylor, M. C. Hettrick, R. F. Malina, “Maximizing the quantum efficiency of microchannel plate detectors: The collection of photoelectrons from the interchannel web using an electric field,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 171–176 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and strip anodes for centroid-finding position-sensitive photon and particle detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067–1074 (1981).
[CrossRef]

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. Lampton, S. Chakrabarti, J. Vallerga, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Application of wedge and strip readout systems to detectors for astronomy,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed. Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627 (to be published).

Martin, C.

C. Martin, S. Bowyer, “Quantum efficiency of opaque CsI photocathodes with channel electron multiplier arrays in the extreme and far ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4206 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and strip anodes for centroid-finding position-sensitive photon and particle detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067–1074 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mason, I.

O. H. W. Siegmund, S. Clothier, J. Thorton, J. Lemen, R. Harper, I. Mason, J. L. Culhane, “Application of the wedge and strip anode to position sensing with microchannel plates and proportional counters,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 503–507 (1983).
[CrossRef]

McClintock, W. E.

Milward, S. R.

M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, S. R. Milward, “Imaging microchannel plate detectors for XUV sky survey experiments,” Preprint, Conference on X-Ray Instrumentation in Astronomy, Cannes, December 1985.

Mount, G. H.

J. G. Timothy, G. H. Mount, R. L. Bybee, “Multi-anode microchannel arrays,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28, 689–697 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opal, C. B.

G. R. Carruthers, C. B. Opal, “Detection efficiencies of far-ultraviolet photon counting detectors,” presented at the 8th Symposium on Photo-Electronic Imaging Devices, Imperial College, London, September 1983.

Pearlman, J. S.

Pearson, J. F.

G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, G. C. Smith, M. Lewis, M. A. Barstow, “The gain characteristics of microchannel plates for x-ray photon counting,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 455–460 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, M. J. Whiteley, J. F. Pearson, “Developments in microchannel plate detectors for imaging x-ray astronomy,” Preprint, Conference on X-Ray Instrumentation in Astronomy, Cannes, December1985.

Premaratne, K.

B. L. Henke, J. P. Knauer, K. Premaratne, “The charaterisation of x-ray photocathodes in the 0.1–10 keV photon energy region,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1509–1520 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Saloman, E. B.

Siegmund, O. H. W.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. Lampton, J. Bixler, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Operational characteristics of wedge and strip image readout systems,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-33, 724–727 (1986).

O. H. W. Siegmund, K. Coburn, R. F. Malina, “Investigation of large format microchannel plate Z configurations,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-32, 443 (1985).
[CrossRef]

O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “Microchannel plate EUV detectors for the extreme ultraviolet explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776 (1984).
[CrossRef]

O. H. W. Siegmund, S. Clothier, J. Thorton, J. Lemen, R. Harper, I. Mason, J. L. Culhane, “Application of the wedge and strip anode to position sensing with microchannel plates and proportional counters,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 503–507 (1983).
[CrossRef]

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. Lampton, S. Chakrabarti, J. Vallerga, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Application of wedge and strip readout systems to detectors for astronomy,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed. Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627 (to be published).

Smith, G. C.

G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, G. C. Smith, M. Lewis, M. A. Barstow, “The gain characteristics of microchannel plates for x-ray photon counting,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 455–460 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Steele, R. E.

Taylor, R. C.

R. C. Taylor, M. C. Hettrick, R. F. Malina, “Maximizing the quantum efficiency of microchannel plate detectors: The collection of photoelectrons from the interchannel web using an electric field,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 171–176 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Thorton, J.

O. H. W. Siegmund, S. Clothier, J. Thorton, J. Lemen, R. Harper, I. Mason, J. L. Culhane, “Application of the wedge and strip anode to position sensing with microchannel plates and proportional counters,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 503–507 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Timothy, J. G.

Vallerga, J.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. Lampton, S. Chakrabarti, J. Vallerga, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Application of wedge and strip readout systems to detectors for astronomy,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed. Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627 (to be published).

Wells, A.

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, M. J. Whiteley, A. Wells, “Enhanced soft x-ray detection efficiencies for imaging microchannel plate detectors,” Nature 300, 509 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Werthiemer, D.

O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “Microchannel plate EUV detectors for the extreme ultraviolet explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Whiteley, M. J.

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, M. J. Whiteley, A. Wells, “Enhanced soft x-ray detection efficiencies for imaging microchannel plate detectors,” Nature 300, 509 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, M. J. Whiteley, J. F. Pearson, “Developments in microchannel plate detectors for imaging x-ray astronomy,” Preprint, Conference on X-Ray Instrumentation in Astronomy, Cannes, December1985.

Acta. Electron. (1)

V. Chalmeton, P. Chevalier, “Pulse height distribution for single electron input,” Acta. Electron. 14, 99–106 (1971).

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (3)

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. Lampton, J. Bixler, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Operational characteristics of wedge and strip image readout systems,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-33, 724–727 (1986).

O. H. W. Siegmund, K. Coburn, R. F. Malina, “Investigation of large format microchannel plate Z configurations,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-32, 443 (1985).
[CrossRef]

O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “Microchannel plate EUV detectors for the extreme ultraviolet explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (3)

O. H. W. Siegmund, S. Clothier, J. Thorton, J. Lemen, R. Harper, I. Mason, J. L. Culhane, “Application of the wedge and strip anode to position sensing with microchannel plates and proportional counters,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 503–507 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, G. C. Smith, M. Lewis, M. A. Barstow, “The gain characteristics of microchannel plates for x-ray photon counting,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 455–460 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Timothy, G. H. Mount, R. L. Bybee, “Multi-anode microchannel arrays,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28, 689–697 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Instrum. Soc. Am. Trans. (1)

H. O. Anger, “Survey of radioisotope cameras,” Instrum. Soc. Am. Trans. 5(4), 311–334 (1966).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. L. Henke, J. P. Knauer, K. Premaratne, “The charaterisation of x-ray photocathodes in the 0.1–10 keV photon energy region,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1509–1520 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, M. J. Whiteley, A. Wells, “Enhanced soft x-ray detection efficiencies for imaging microchannel plate detectors,” Nature 300, 509 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

R. C. Taylor, M. C. Hettrick, R. F. Malina, “Maximizing the quantum efficiency of microchannel plate detectors: The collection of photoelectrons from the interchannel web using an electric field,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 171–176 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and strip anodes for centroid-finding position-sensitive photon and particle detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067–1074 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

G. W. Fraser, M. J. Whiteley, J. F. Pearson, “Developments in microchannel plate detectors for imaging x-ray astronomy,” Preprint, Conference on X-Ray Instrumentation in Astronomy, Cannes, December1985.

M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, S. R. Milward, “Imaging microchannel plate detectors for XUV sky survey experiments,” Preprint, Conference on X-Ray Instrumentation in Astronomy, Cannes, December 1985.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. Lampton, S. Chakrabarti, J. Vallerga, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Application of wedge and strip readout systems to detectors for astronomy,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed. Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.627 (to be published).

G. R. Carruthers, C. B. Opal, “Detection efficiencies of far-ultraviolet photon counting detectors,” presented at the 8th Symposium on Photo-Electronic Imaging Devices, Imperial College, London, September 1983.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cutaway of the EUVE detector showing the position of the filters, MCP’s, and anode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of a three-element wedge and strip anode. The widths of the wedges and strips vary linearly with the x and y coordinates, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pulse-height distribution for a Z stack of MCP’s under 2500-Å irradiation using a modal gain of 2.4 × 107.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pulse-height distribution of background events for a 5-h accumulation using a Z stack of MCP’s at a gain of 1.8 × 107.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Background-event rate as a function of counting threshold for a sample of three MCP Z stacks. (Gain ~ 1.7 × 107.)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Image of MCP background events illustrating the overall background uniformity.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Position resolution as a function of MCP gain, demonstrating the contributing factors to the resolution and experimentally obtained results.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dependence of position resolution on position across the detector compared with the predicted resolution (gain, ~1.4 × 107; mean resolution, ~110 μm FWHM; scale, 9 μm/channel.)

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Position sensitivity of a wedge and strip anode measured by comparison of observed and expected image point positions (gain ~ 1.6 × 107; resolution ~100 μm FWHM.) a, Observed point image displacement versus expected point image displacement; b, slices through point images showing the effect of image displacement on the point centroid positions.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Image of pinhole mask with horizontal spacing of 2 mm and vertical spacing of 4 mm, using 2500-Å illumination.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Position displacement of observed pinhole images from their expected positions as a function of position for a series of pinholes along the x direction (10 channels = 125 μm).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Differential nonlinearity demonstrated by an image slice ~1 resolution element wide, under near-uniform illumination conditions (gain, 1.5 × 107; 2500-Å illumination).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Quantum efficiency as a function of wavelength for an opaque (4000-Å-thick) CsI photocathode on MCP’s in a sealed-tube device with a MgF2 window, □, transmission of MgF2; ●, quantum efficiency of photocathode and window combined; *, quantum efficiency of photocathode alone. Input angle, 20°.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Quantum efficiency of a thick (15,000-Å) CsI photocathode deposited on MCP’s as a function of wavelength and illumination angle with respect to the channel walls. (a) 5° illumination angle; (b) 15° illumination angle; (c) 25° illumination angle.

Equations (6)

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X = F Q w / sum ,
Y = F Q s / sum ,
d x ( E ) FWHM = 2.35 L [ N w 2 ( 1 f 2 ) + f 2 ( N s 2 + N z 2 ) ] 0.5 ( f max f min ) Q ,
d x ( P ) FWHM = 2.35 L [ f ( 1 f ) / Q ] 0.5 ( f max f min ) ,
X = F ( Q w f Q z ) / sum ,
Y = F ( Q s f Q z ) / sum ,

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