Abstract

Brightness luminous-efficiency functions for point sources and for 2° and 10° fields are based on 6, 63, and 76 subjects, respectively. The function for point sources can be approximated by Judd’s 1951 modification of the CIE V(λ) function. The 2° and 10° functions differ greatly from V(λ). The two functions differ from each other only at wavelengths from 410 through 520 nm, where the differences are attributed to absorption by the macular pigment.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Ikeda, H. Yaguchi, K. Sagawa, “Brightness luminous-efficiency functions for 2° and 10° fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1660–1665 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Wu Xin-jia, Piao Da-zhi, Liu Yun-zhu, Liu Shao-Jue, Li Qi, He Bao-yuan, Xu Zhong-hui, National Institute of Technology, Beijing, China, “Photopic spectral luminous-efficiency functions measured by heterochromatic brightness matching method” (personal communication, 1983).
  3. M. Ikeda, Y. Nakano, “Stiles summation index applied to heterochromatic brightness matching,” Perception (to be published).
  4. M. Ikeda, “Luminous efficiencies of 2° and 10° fields for brightness perception obtained for Japanese subjects,” Illum. Eng. Inst. Jpn. 6, 40–44 (1982).
  5. K. Sagawa, K. Takeichi, “Spectral luminous efficiency functions in the mesopic range,” J. Opt. Soc. A 3, 71–75 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. A. Palmer, “Visibility curves by direct comparison in a 10° field at 1000 Td,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 578–583 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. CIE Technical Report of Committee TC1-02, “Spectral luminous efficiency functions for brightness for monochromatic point sources, 2° and 10° fields” (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, Paris, to be published).
  8. M. Ikeda, H. Yaguchi, K. Yoshimatsu, M. Ohmi, “Luminous-efficiency functions for point sources,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 68–73 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Nusinowitz, P. K. Kaiser, “Small fields spectral sensitivity,” in Abstracts of the CIE 20th Session (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, Paris, 1983), Vol. 1, p. D102.
  10. D. B. Judd, “Report of U.S. Secretariat Committee on Colorimetry and Artificial Daylight,” in CIE Proceedings (Bureau Central CIE, Paris, 1951), Vol. 1, Part 7, p. 11. Or see, for example, G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science, Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982), p. 330.
  11. R. E. Bedford, G. W. Wyszecki, “Luminosity functions for various field sizes and levels of retinal illuminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 406–411 (1958).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Ikeda, T. Tamura, K. Uchikawa, “Transient effect of chromatic contribution to brightness,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Congress of AIC, Vol. 1, Vision (Centre Français de la Couleur, Paris, 1985), p. 18.

1986 (1)

K. Sagawa, K. Takeichi, “Spectral luminous efficiency functions in the mesopic range,” J. Opt. Soc. A 3, 71–75 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1982 (3)

1958 (1)

Bao-yuan, He

Wu Xin-jia, Piao Da-zhi, Liu Yun-zhu, Liu Shao-Jue, Li Qi, He Bao-yuan, Xu Zhong-hui, National Institute of Technology, Beijing, China, “Photopic spectral luminous-efficiency functions measured by heterochromatic brightness matching method” (personal communication, 1983).

Bedford, R. E.

Da-zhi, Piao

Wu Xin-jia, Piao Da-zhi, Liu Yun-zhu, Liu Shao-Jue, Li Qi, He Bao-yuan, Xu Zhong-hui, National Institute of Technology, Beijing, China, “Photopic spectral luminous-efficiency functions measured by heterochromatic brightness matching method” (personal communication, 1983).

Ikeda, M.

M. Ikeda, “Luminous efficiencies of 2° and 10° fields for brightness perception obtained for Japanese subjects,” Illum. Eng. Inst. Jpn. 6, 40–44 (1982).

M. Ikeda, H. Yaguchi, K. Sagawa, “Brightness luminous-efficiency functions for 2° and 10° fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1660–1665 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ikeda, H. Yaguchi, K. Yoshimatsu, M. Ohmi, “Luminous-efficiency functions for point sources,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 68–73 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ikeda, T. Tamura, K. Uchikawa, “Transient effect of chromatic contribution to brightness,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Congress of AIC, Vol. 1, Vision (Centre Français de la Couleur, Paris, 1985), p. 18.

M. Ikeda, Y. Nakano, “Stiles summation index applied to heterochromatic brightness matching,” Perception (to be published).

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, “Report of U.S. Secretariat Committee on Colorimetry and Artificial Daylight,” in CIE Proceedings (Bureau Central CIE, Paris, 1951), Vol. 1, Part 7, p. 11. Or see, for example, G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science, Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982), p. 330.

Kaiser, P. K.

S. Nusinowitz, P. K. Kaiser, “Small fields spectral sensitivity,” in Abstracts of the CIE 20th Session (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, Paris, 1983), Vol. 1, p. D102.

Nakano, Y.

M. Ikeda, Y. Nakano, “Stiles summation index applied to heterochromatic brightness matching,” Perception (to be published).

Nusinowitz, S.

S. Nusinowitz, P. K. Kaiser, “Small fields spectral sensitivity,” in Abstracts of the CIE 20th Session (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, Paris, 1983), Vol. 1, p. D102.

Ohmi, M.

Palmer, D. A.

Qi, Li

Wu Xin-jia, Piao Da-zhi, Liu Yun-zhu, Liu Shao-Jue, Li Qi, He Bao-yuan, Xu Zhong-hui, National Institute of Technology, Beijing, China, “Photopic spectral luminous-efficiency functions measured by heterochromatic brightness matching method” (personal communication, 1983).

Sagawa, K.

K. Sagawa, K. Takeichi, “Spectral luminous efficiency functions in the mesopic range,” J. Opt. Soc. A 3, 71–75 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Ikeda, H. Yaguchi, K. Sagawa, “Brightness luminous-efficiency functions for 2° and 10° fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1660–1665 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shao-Jue, Liu

Wu Xin-jia, Piao Da-zhi, Liu Yun-zhu, Liu Shao-Jue, Li Qi, He Bao-yuan, Xu Zhong-hui, National Institute of Technology, Beijing, China, “Photopic spectral luminous-efficiency functions measured by heterochromatic brightness matching method” (personal communication, 1983).

Takeichi, K.

K. Sagawa, K. Takeichi, “Spectral luminous efficiency functions in the mesopic range,” J. Opt. Soc. A 3, 71–75 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, T.

M. Ikeda, T. Tamura, K. Uchikawa, “Transient effect of chromatic contribution to brightness,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Congress of AIC, Vol. 1, Vision (Centre Français de la Couleur, Paris, 1985), p. 18.

Uchikawa, K.

M. Ikeda, T. Tamura, K. Uchikawa, “Transient effect of chromatic contribution to brightness,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Congress of AIC, Vol. 1, Vision (Centre Français de la Couleur, Paris, 1985), p. 18.

Wyszecki, G. W.

Xin-jia, Wu

Wu Xin-jia, Piao Da-zhi, Liu Yun-zhu, Liu Shao-Jue, Li Qi, He Bao-yuan, Xu Zhong-hui, National Institute of Technology, Beijing, China, “Photopic spectral luminous-efficiency functions measured by heterochromatic brightness matching method” (personal communication, 1983).

Yaguchi, H.

Yoshimatsu, K.

Yun-zhu, Liu

Wu Xin-jia, Piao Da-zhi, Liu Yun-zhu, Liu Shao-Jue, Li Qi, He Bao-yuan, Xu Zhong-hui, National Institute of Technology, Beijing, China, “Photopic spectral luminous-efficiency functions measured by heterochromatic brightness matching method” (personal communication, 1983).

Zhong-hui, Xu

Wu Xin-jia, Piao Da-zhi, Liu Yun-zhu, Liu Shao-Jue, Li Qi, He Bao-yuan, Xu Zhong-hui, National Institute of Technology, Beijing, China, “Photopic spectral luminous-efficiency functions measured by heterochromatic brightness matching method” (personal communication, 1983).

Illum. Eng. Inst. Jpn. (1)

M. Ikeda, “Luminous efficiencies of 2° and 10° fields for brightness perception obtained for Japanese subjects,” Illum. Eng. Inst. Jpn. 6, 40–44 (1982).

J. Opt. Soc. A (1)

K. Sagawa, K. Takeichi, “Spectral luminous efficiency functions in the mesopic range,” J. Opt. Soc. A 3, 71–75 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Other (6)

CIE Technical Report of Committee TC1-02, “Spectral luminous efficiency functions for brightness for monochromatic point sources, 2° and 10° fields” (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, Paris, to be published).

S. Nusinowitz, P. K. Kaiser, “Small fields spectral sensitivity,” in Abstracts of the CIE 20th Session (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, Paris, 1983), Vol. 1, p. D102.

D. B. Judd, “Report of U.S. Secretariat Committee on Colorimetry and Artificial Daylight,” in CIE Proceedings (Bureau Central CIE, Paris, 1951), Vol. 1, Part 7, p. 11. Or see, for example, G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science, Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982), p. 330.

Wu Xin-jia, Piao Da-zhi, Liu Yun-zhu, Liu Shao-Jue, Li Qi, He Bao-yuan, Xu Zhong-hui, National Institute of Technology, Beijing, China, “Photopic spectral luminous-efficiency functions measured by heterochromatic brightness matching method” (personal communication, 1983).

M. Ikeda, Y. Nakano, “Stiles summation index applied to heterochromatic brightness matching,” Perception (to be published).

M. Ikeda, T. Tamura, K. Uchikawa, “Transient effect of chromatic contribution to brightness,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Congress of AIC, Vol. 1, Vision (Centre Français de la Couleur, Paris, 1985), p. 18.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Averaged luminous-efficiency function of 2° field and the range of variation of individual data of 63 subjects.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Averaged luminous-efficiency function of 10° field and the range of variation of individual data of 76 subjects.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of previous (dots) and present (open circles) results of 2° luminous-efficiency function.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Lower section, Proposed luminous-efficiency functions for brightness for 2° (open circles) and 10° (crosses). Upper section, difference between 10° and 2° luminous-efficiency functions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimentally determined spectral luminous-efficiency function for point sources (open circles) and the Judd modification of the 1924 CIE V(λ) function (solid line).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Averaged Values of Luminous Efficiencies, log Vb(λ), Standard Deviations, σ, and Numbers of Subjects, n

Tables Icon

Table 2 Proposed Luminous-Efficiency Functions for 2° Field, Vb,2(λ), and 10° Field, Vb,10(λ), in Logarithmic Unitsa

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