Abstract

In a recent study of variational improvement of the Kirchhoff approximation for electromagnetic scattering by rough surfaces, a key ingredient in the variational principle was found to diverge for important configurations (e.g., backscatter) if the polarization had any vertical component. The cause and a cure of this divergence are discussed here. The divergence is demonstrated to occur for arbitrary perfectly conducting scatterers and its universal characteristics are determined, by means of a general divergence criterion that we derive. A variational cure for the divergence is prescribed, and it is tested successfully on a standard scattering model.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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