Abstract

Successive and simultaneous brightness comparisons between test colors and a comparison white were performed to study how accurately the brightness of colored lights was maintained in memory. The test colors were monochromatic lights chosen from 410 to 670 nm and a white light. The stimulus duration was 1 sec, and test-comparison stimulus-onset asynchronies in successive comparisons were more than 11 sec depending on the experiments. The results show that the variability of successive brightness comparisons was 1.5–2.0 times greater than that of simultaneous brightness comparison. This degree of deterioration of brightness discrimination is reasonably consistent with those of hue and saturation discrimination previously reported. Brightness shifts in the darker direction were found for most colors.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Uchikawa, M. Ikeda, “Temporal deterioration of wavelength discrimination with successive comparison method,” Vision Res. 21, 591–595 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. E. Clark, “Retrieval of color information from perceptual memory,”J. Exp. Psychol. 82, 263–266 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. H. Nilsson, T. M. Nelson, “Delayed monochromatic hue matches indicate characteristics of visual memory.”J. Exp. Psychol. Human Percept. Perform. 7, 141–150 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Uchikawa, “Purity discrimination: successive vs simultaneous comparison method,” Vision Res. 23, 53–58 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. M. Newhall, R. W. Burnham, J. R. Clark, “Comparison of successive with simultaneous color matching,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 43–56 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  13. D. J. Finney, Probit Analysis (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1971).

1983 (1)

K. Uchikawa, “Purity discrimination: successive vs simultaneous comparison method,” Vision Res. 23, 53–58 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

K. Uchikawa, “Color discrimination with successive comparison method,” Kogaku (Jpn. J. Opt.) 11, 600–606 (1982).

1981 (2)

K. Uchikawa, M. Ikeda, “Temporal deterioration of wavelength discrimination with successive comparison method,” Vision Res. 21, 591–595 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Nilsson, T. M. Nelson, “Delayed monochromatic hue matches indicate characteristics of visual memory.”J. Exp. Psychol. Human Percept. Perform. 7, 141–150 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

T. H. Nilson, T. M. Nelson, “Monochromatic brightness discrimination and recall,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1573(A) (1980).

1977 (1)

W. P. Banks, G. Barber, “Color information in iconic memory,” Psychol. Rev. 84, 536–546 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

S. E. Clark, “Retrieval of color information from perceptual memory,”J. Exp. Psychol. 82, 263–266 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1960 (1)

1957 (1)

1955 (2)

V. Hamwi, C. Landis, “Memory for color,”J. Psychol. 39, 183–194 (1955).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Burnham, J. R. Clark, “A test of hue memory,”J. Appl. Psychol. 39, 164–172 (1955).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

Banks, W. P.

W. P. Banks, G. Barber, “Color information in iconic memory,” Psychol. Rev. 84, 536–546 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barber, G.

W. P. Banks, G. Barber, “Color information in iconic memory,” Psychol. Rev. 84, 536–546 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartleson, C. J.

Burnham, R. W.

Clark, J. R.

Clark, S. E.

S. E. Clark, “Retrieval of color information from perceptual memory,”J. Exp. Psychol. 82, 263–266 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finney, D. J.

D. J. Finney, Probit Analysis (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1971).

Hamwi, V.

V. Hamwi, C. Landis, “Memory for color,”J. Psychol. 39, 183–194 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, M.

K. Uchikawa, M. Ikeda, “Temporal deterioration of wavelength discrimination with successive comparison method,” Vision Res. 21, 591–595 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landis, C.

V. Hamwi, C. Landis, “Memory for color,”J. Psychol. 39, 183–194 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, T. M.

T. H. Nilsson, T. M. Nelson, “Delayed monochromatic hue matches indicate characteristics of visual memory.”J. Exp. Psychol. Human Percept. Perform. 7, 141–150 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Nilson, T. M. Nelson, “Monochromatic brightness discrimination and recall,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1573(A) (1980).

Newhall, S. M.

Nilson, T. H.

T. H. Nilson, T. M. Nelson, “Monochromatic brightness discrimination and recall,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1573(A) (1980).

Nilsson, T. H.

T. H. Nilsson, T. M. Nelson, “Delayed monochromatic hue matches indicate characteristics of visual memory.”J. Exp. Psychol. Human Percept. Perform. 7, 141–150 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Uchikawa, K.

K. Uchikawa, “Purity discrimination: successive vs simultaneous comparison method,” Vision Res. 23, 53–58 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Uchikawa, “Color discrimination with successive comparison method,” Kogaku (Jpn. J. Opt.) 11, 600–606 (1982).

K. Uchikawa, M. Ikeda, “Temporal deterioration of wavelength discrimination with successive comparison method,” Vision Res. 21, 591–595 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Psychol. (1)

R. W. Burnham, J. R. Clark, “A test of hue memory,”J. Appl. Psychol. 39, 164–172 (1955).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Psychol. (1)

S. E. Clark, “Retrieval of color information from perceptual memory,”J. Exp. Psychol. 82, 263–266 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Exp. Psychol. Human Percept. Perform. (1)

T. H. Nilsson, T. M. Nelson, “Delayed monochromatic hue matches indicate characteristics of visual memory.”J. Exp. Psychol. Human Percept. Perform. 7, 141–150 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Psychol. (1)

V. Hamwi, C. Landis, “Memory for color,”J. Psychol. 39, 183–194 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Kogaku (Jpn. J. Opt.) (1)

K. Uchikawa, “Color discrimination with successive comparison method,” Kogaku (Jpn. J. Opt.) 11, 600–606 (1982).

Psychol. Rev. (1)

W. P. Banks, G. Barber, “Color information in iconic memory,” Psychol. Rev. 84, 536–546 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (2)

K. Uchikawa, “Purity discrimination: successive vs simultaneous comparison method,” Vision Res. 23, 53–58 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Uchikawa, M. Ikeda, “Temporal deterioration of wavelength discrimination with successive comparison method,” Vision Res. 21, 591–595 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

D. J. Finney, Probit Analysis (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1971).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Examples of standard deviation (SD) of simultaneous matching (●) and successive matching (○) as a function of log relative luminance of 530-nm test stimulus. Observers: KU (top), SS (bottom).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mean SD’s for test wavelengths and white: ● simultaneous matching, ○ successive matching. Observers: KU (top), SS (bottom).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Means of log relative matching luminance of the comparison white with the simultaneous matching (filled symbols) and the successive matching (open symbols). Observers: (a) KU; (b) SS. Test wavelengths are shown on the upper right of each set of data. Solid and dashed lines give the best fit to the respective points.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Examples of percent “brighter” response with 610-nm test stimulus for observer KU: ● the simultaneous comparison; ○ the successive comparison without interference stimuli; and □ the successive comparison with interference stimuli. Solid, dashed, and dotted ogives give the best fit to the respective points. (b) Matching luminance M1, M2, and M3 of the comparison white to a test stimulus (50% point) and SD’s SD1, SD2, and SD3 (distance between 84% and 50% points) with simultaneous comparison, successive comparison without interference stimuli, and successive comparison with interference stimuli, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Standard deviations with simultaneous comparison SD1 (●); successive comparison without interference stimuli SD2 (○); and successive comparison with interference stimuli SD3 (△) as functions of test wavelength. Observers: (top) KU; (bottom) SS.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Brightness shift for the successive comparison without interference stimuli M2–M1 (●) and with interference stimuli M3–M1 (○) as functions of test wavelength. Observers: (top) KU; (bottom) SS. Zero value on the ordinate indicates no brightness shift.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Same as Fig. 6 but for successive comparison with brighter interference stimuli M3 (B)–M1 (□) and with darker interference stimuli M3 (D)–M1 (△). M2–M1 (●) is replotted from Fig. 6 for comparison.

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