Abstract

The near-normal incidence reflectances for a ternary system composed of 75% H2SO4, 10% HNO3, and 15% H2O and for a 10% aqueous solution of HNO3 have been measured at ambient temperature over the spectral range of 5000 to 500 cm−1. A Kramers–Kronig phase-shift analysis of the measured spectral reflectance has been used to determine the real and imaginary components of the index of refraction for each sample. The ternary-system spectrum has been compared with the spectrum of 10% HNO3 and also with the spectrum of 75% H2SO4 obtained by Palmer and Williams. [ Appl. Opt. 14, 208 ( 1975)]. These results may prove useful for studies concerning aerosol formation of this ternary system in the stratosphere.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. D. Downing, D. Williams, “Infrared optical constants of aqueous solutions of electrolytes. Further studies of salts,”J. Phys. Chem. 80, 1950–1951 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. P. Sethna, H. D. Downing, L. W. Pinkley, D. Williams, “Infrared band intensities in ammonium hydroxide and ammonium salts,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 429–431 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. W. Adams, K. A. Fuller, H. D. Downing, “Infrared optical constants of aqueous solutions of sodium sulfate,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 893–894 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. W. Robertson, H. D. Downing, B. Curnutte, D. Williams, “Optical constants of solid ammonia in the infrared,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 432–435 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. W. Schaaf, D. Williams, “Optical constants of ice in the infrared,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 726–732 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. P. Sethna, L. W. Pinkley, D. Williams. “Optical constants of cupric sulfate in the infrared,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 499–501 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Rhine, D. Williams, G. M. Hale, M. R. Querry, “Infrared optical constants of aqueous solutions of electrolytes. The alkali halides,”J. Phys. Chem. 78, 238–246 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. W. Pinkley, P. P. Sethna, D. Williams, “Infrared band intensities of saturated hydrocarbons,”J. Phys. Chem. 82, 1532–1537 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. P. Sethna, D. Williams, “Optical constants of alcohols in the infrared,”J. Phys. Chem. 83, 405–409 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. R. Querry, R. C. Waring, W. E. Holland, L. M. Earls, M. D. Herrman, W. P. Nijm, G. M. Hale, “Optical constants in the infrared for K2SO4, NH4H2PO4, and H2SO4in water,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 39–46 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. L. Boone, K. A. Fuller, H. D. Downing, “Infrared optical constants of aqueous solutions of nitric acid,”J. Phys. Chem. 84, 2666–2667 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. L. Lazrus, B. Gandrud, R. D. Cadle, “Nitric acid vapor in the stratosphere,”J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 389–392 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  13. O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, “Physical properties of the stratosphere aerosols,”J. Geophys. Res. 78, 7051–7056 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. M. Rosen, “The boiling point of stratospheric aerosols,”J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1044–1046 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. S. Kiang, P. Hamill, “H2SO4–HNO3–H2O ternary system in the stratosphere,” Nature 250, 401–402 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. F. Palmer, D. Williams, “Optical properties of water in the near infrared,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1107–1110 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. D. Downing, D. Williams, “Optical constants of water in the infrared,”J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656–1661 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. F. Palmer, D. Williams, “Optical constants of sulfuric acid: application to the clouds of Venus?” Appl. Opt. 14, 208–219 (1975).
    [PubMed]
  19. L. W. Pinkley, D. Williams, “The infrared optical constants of sulfuric acid at 250 K,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 122–124 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. A. Giguere, R. Savoie, “Infrared spectra of sulfuric acid and oleums,” Can. J. Chem. 38, 2467–2476 (1960).
    [CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

T. L. Boone, K. A. Fuller, H. D. Downing, “Infrared optical constants of aqueous solutions of nitric acid,”J. Phys. Chem. 84, 2666–2667 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

P. P. Sethna, D. Williams, “Optical constants of alcohols in the infrared,”J. Phys. Chem. 83, 405–409 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

L. W. Pinkley, P. P. Sethna, D. Williams, “Infrared band intensities of saturated hydrocarbons,”J. Phys. Chem. 82, 1532–1537 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Sethna, H. D. Downing, L. W. Pinkley, D. Williams, “Infrared band intensities in ammonium hydroxide and ammonium salts,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 429–431 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

1976 (2)

L. W. Pinkley, D. Williams, “The infrared optical constants of sulfuric acid at 250 K,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 122–124 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. D. Downing, D. Williams, “Infrared optical constants of aqueous solutions of electrolytes. Further studies of salts,”J. Phys. Chem. 80, 1950–1951 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (3)

1974 (4)

C. S. Kiang, P. Hamill, “H2SO4–HNO3–H2O ternary system in the stratosphere,” Nature 250, 401–402 (1974).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Querry, R. C. Waring, W. E. Holland, L. M. Earls, M. D. Herrman, W. P. Nijm, G. M. Hale, “Optical constants in the infrared for K2SO4, NH4H2PO4, and H2SO4in water,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 39–46 (1974).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Palmer, D. Williams, “Optical properties of water in the near infrared,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1107–1110 (1974).
[CrossRef]

P. Rhine, D. Williams, G. M. Hale, M. R. Querry, “Infrared optical constants of aqueous solutions of electrolytes. The alkali halides,”J. Phys. Chem. 78, 238–246 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (2)

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, “Physical properties of the stratosphere aerosols,”J. Geophys. Res. 78, 7051–7056 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Schaaf, D. Williams, “Optical constants of ice in the infrared,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 726–732 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

A. L. Lazrus, B. Gandrud, R. D. Cadle, “Nitric acid vapor in the stratosphere,”J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 389–392 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. M. Rosen, “The boiling point of stratospheric aerosols,”J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1044–1046 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

P. A. Giguere, R. Savoie, “Infrared spectra of sulfuric acid and oleums,” Can. J. Chem. 38, 2467–2476 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Adams, R. W.

Boone, T. L.

T. L. Boone, K. A. Fuller, H. D. Downing, “Infrared optical constants of aqueous solutions of nitric acid,”J. Phys. Chem. 84, 2666–2667 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Cadle, R. D.

A. L. Lazrus, B. Gandrud, R. D. Cadle, “Nitric acid vapor in the stratosphere,”J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 389–392 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Curnutte, B.

Downing, H. D.

R. W. Adams, K. A. Fuller, H. D. Downing, “Infrared optical constants of aqueous solutions of sodium sulfate,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 893–894 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Boone, K. A. Fuller, H. D. Downing, “Infrared optical constants of aqueous solutions of nitric acid,”J. Phys. Chem. 84, 2666–2667 (1980).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Sethna, H. D. Downing, L. W. Pinkley, D. Williams, “Infrared band intensities in ammonium hydroxide and ammonium salts,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 429–431 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. D. Downing, D. Williams, “Infrared optical constants of aqueous solutions of electrolytes. Further studies of salts,”J. Phys. Chem. 80, 1950–1951 (1976).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Robertson, H. D. Downing, B. Curnutte, D. Williams, “Optical constants of solid ammonia in the infrared,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 432–435 (1975).
[CrossRef]

H. D. Downing, D. Williams, “Optical constants of water in the infrared,”J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656–1661 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Earls, L. M.

Fuller, K. A.

R. W. Adams, K. A. Fuller, H. D. Downing, “Infrared optical constants of aqueous solutions of sodium sulfate,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 893–894 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Boone, K. A. Fuller, H. D. Downing, “Infrared optical constants of aqueous solutions of nitric acid,”J. Phys. Chem. 84, 2666–2667 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Gandrud, B.

A. L. Lazrus, B. Gandrud, R. D. Cadle, “Nitric acid vapor in the stratosphere,”J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 389–392 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Giguere, P. A.

P. A. Giguere, R. Savoie, “Infrared spectra of sulfuric acid and oleums,” Can. J. Chem. 38, 2467–2476 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Hale, G. M.

M. R. Querry, R. C. Waring, W. E. Holland, L. M. Earls, M. D. Herrman, W. P. Nijm, G. M. Hale, “Optical constants in the infrared for K2SO4, NH4H2PO4, and H2SO4in water,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 39–46 (1974).
[CrossRef]

P. Rhine, D. Williams, G. M. Hale, M. R. Querry, “Infrared optical constants of aqueous solutions of electrolytes. The alkali halides,”J. Phys. Chem. 78, 238–246 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hamill, P.

C. S. Kiang, P. Hamill, “H2SO4–HNO3–H2O ternary system in the stratosphere,” Nature 250, 401–402 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Herrman, M. D.

Holland, W. E.

Kiang, C. S.

C. S. Kiang, P. Hamill, “H2SO4–HNO3–H2O ternary system in the stratosphere,” Nature 250, 401–402 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Lazrus, A. L.

A. L. Lazrus, B. Gandrud, R. D. Cadle, “Nitric acid vapor in the stratosphere,”J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 389–392 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Nijm, W. P.

Palmer, K. F.

Pinkley, L. W.

Pollack, J. B.

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, “Physical properties of the stratosphere aerosols,”J. Geophys. Res. 78, 7051–7056 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Querry, M. R.

P. Rhine, D. Williams, G. M. Hale, M. R. Querry, “Infrared optical constants of aqueous solutions of electrolytes. The alkali halides,”J. Phys. Chem. 78, 238–246 (1974).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Querry, R. C. Waring, W. E. Holland, L. M. Earls, M. D. Herrman, W. P. Nijm, G. M. Hale, “Optical constants in the infrared for K2SO4, NH4H2PO4, and H2SO4in water,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 39–46 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rhine, P.

P. Rhine, D. Williams, G. M. Hale, M. R. Querry, “Infrared optical constants of aqueous solutions of electrolytes. The alkali halides,”J. Phys. Chem. 78, 238–246 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, C. W.

Rosen, J. M.

J. M. Rosen, “The boiling point of stratospheric aerosols,”J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1044–1046 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Savoie, R.

P. A. Giguere, R. Savoie, “Infrared spectra of sulfuric acid and oleums,” Can. J. Chem. 38, 2467–2476 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Schaaf, J. W.

Sethna, P. P.

P. P. Sethna, D. Williams, “Optical constants of alcohols in the infrared,”J. Phys. Chem. 83, 405–409 (1979).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Pinkley, P. P. Sethna, D. Williams, “Infrared band intensities of saturated hydrocarbons,”J. Phys. Chem. 82, 1532–1537 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Sethna, H. D. Downing, L. W. Pinkley, D. Williams, “Infrared band intensities in ammonium hydroxide and ammonium salts,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 429–431 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Sethna, L. W. Pinkley, D. Williams. “Optical constants of cupric sulfate in the infrared,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 499–501 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Toon, O. B.

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, “Physical properties of the stratosphere aerosols,”J. Geophys. Res. 78, 7051–7056 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Waring, R. C.

Williams, D.

P. P. Sethna, D. Williams, “Optical constants of alcohols in the infrared,”J. Phys. Chem. 83, 405–409 (1979).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Pinkley, P. P. Sethna, D. Williams, “Infrared band intensities of saturated hydrocarbons,”J. Phys. Chem. 82, 1532–1537 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Sethna, H. D. Downing, L. W. Pinkley, D. Williams, “Infrared band intensities in ammonium hydroxide and ammonium salts,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 429–431 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Sethna, L. W. Pinkley, D. Williams. “Optical constants of cupric sulfate in the infrared,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 499–501 (1977).
[CrossRef]

H. D. Downing, D. Williams, “Infrared optical constants of aqueous solutions of electrolytes. Further studies of salts,”J. Phys. Chem. 80, 1950–1951 (1976).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Pinkley, D. Williams, “The infrared optical constants of sulfuric acid at 250 K,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 122–124 (1976).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Robertson, H. D. Downing, B. Curnutte, D. Williams, “Optical constants of solid ammonia in the infrared,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 432–435 (1975).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Palmer, D. Williams, “Optical constants of sulfuric acid: application to the clouds of Venus?” Appl. Opt. 14, 208–219 (1975).
[PubMed]

H. D. Downing, D. Williams, “Optical constants of water in the infrared,”J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656–1661 (1975).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Palmer, D. Williams, “Optical properties of water in the near infrared,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1107–1110 (1974).
[CrossRef]

P. Rhine, D. Williams, G. M. Hale, M. R. Querry, “Infrared optical constants of aqueous solutions of electrolytes. The alkali halides,”J. Phys. Chem. 78, 238–246 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Schaaf, D. Williams, “Optical constants of ice in the infrared,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 726–732 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Can. J. Chem. (1)

P. A. Giguere, R. Savoie, “Infrared spectra of sulfuric acid and oleums,” Can. J. Chem. 38, 2467–2476 (1960).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (2)

A. L. Lazrus, B. Gandrud, R. D. Cadle, “Nitric acid vapor in the stratosphere,”J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 389–392 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Rosen, “The boiling point of stratospheric aerosols,”J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1044–1046 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, “Physical properties of the stratosphere aerosols,”J. Geophys. Res. 78, 7051–7056 (1973).
[CrossRef]

H. D. Downing, D. Williams, “Optical constants of water in the infrared,”J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656–1661 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (8)

J. Phys. Chem. (5)

H. D. Downing, D. Williams, “Infrared optical constants of aqueous solutions of electrolytes. Further studies of salts,”J. Phys. Chem. 80, 1950–1951 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. Rhine, D. Williams, G. M. Hale, M. R. Querry, “Infrared optical constants of aqueous solutions of electrolytes. The alkali halides,”J. Phys. Chem. 78, 238–246 (1974).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Pinkley, P. P. Sethna, D. Williams, “Infrared band intensities of saturated hydrocarbons,”J. Phys. Chem. 82, 1532–1537 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Sethna, D. Williams, “Optical constants of alcohols in the infrared,”J. Phys. Chem. 83, 405–409 (1979).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Boone, K. A. Fuller, H. D. Downing, “Infrared optical constants of aqueous solutions of nitric acid,”J. Phys. Chem. 84, 2666–2667 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

C. S. Kiang, P. Hamill, “H2SO4–HNO3–H2O ternary system in the stratosphere,” Nature 250, 401–402 (1974).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The absorption index of 10% HNO3 from 5000 to 500 cm−1 (T = 25°C).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The absorption index of 75% H2SO4–10% HNO3–15% H2O from 5000 to 500 cm−1 (T = 25°C).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Constants of the Ternary System

Tables Icon

Table 2 Optical Constants of 10% HNO3

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

θ ( ν ) = 2 ν Π P 0 ln [ R ( ν ) ] 1 / 2 ν 2 - ν 2 d ν ,
r ^ = [ R ( ν ) ] 1 / 2 exp [ i θ ( ν ) ] .
n = 1 - R 1 + R - 2 R cos θ , k = - 2 R sin θ 1 + R - 2 R cos θ .

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