Abstract

The wavefront sensor in active and adaptive telescopes is usually not in the optical path toward the scientific detector. It may generate additional wavefront aberrations, which have to be separated from the errors due to the telescope optics. The aberrations that are not rotationally symmetric can be disentangled from the telescope aberrations by a series of measurements taken in the center of the field, with the wavefront sensor at different orientation angles with respect to the focal plane. This method has been applied at the VLT Survey Telescope on the ESO Paranal observatory.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  19. P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, and L. Marty, “Active optics correction forces for the VST 2.6 m primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62733A (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Schipani and L. Marty, “Stewart platform kinematics and secondary mirror aberration control,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62733B (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. Schipani and F. Perrotta, “The image quality error budget for the VST telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 70171H (2008).
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  22. P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
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  23. P. Schipani, M. Capaccioli, S. D’Orsi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, C. Molfese, F. Perrotta, G. De Paris, D. Fierro, R. Tomelleri, P. Rossettini, F. Perina, S. Recchia, and D. Magrin, “The VST active primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77393 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Schipani, S. D’Orsi, L. Ferragina, D. Fierro, L. Marty, F. Perrotta, and C. Arcidiacono, “Performance of the VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 773932 (2010).
  25. P. Schipani, L. Marty, F. Perrotta, D. Magrin, and S. D’Orsi, “The primary mirror system control software for the VST,” Proc. SPIE 7740, 774037 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. F. Perrotta and P. Schipani, “A simulation model for a telescope earthquake analysis: the VST primary mirror safety system,” Exp. Astron. 29, 189–206 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  29. R. Wilson and B. Delabre, “Concerning the alignment of modern telescopes: theory, practice, and tolerances illustrated by the ESO NTT,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 109, 53–60 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  30. P. Gitton and L. Noethe, “Tuning of the NTT alignment,” The Messenger 92, 15–18 (1998).
  31. L. Noethe and S. Guisard, “Analytical expressions for field astigmatism in decentered two mirror telescopes and application to the collimation of the ESO VLT,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 144, 157–167 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  32. L. Noethe and S. Guisard, “Final Alignment of the VLT,” Proc. SPIE. 4003, 382–390 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  33. A. Rakich, J. M. Hill, C. J. Biddick, D. L. Miller, and T. Leibold, “Use of field aberrations in the alignment of the Large Binocular Telescope Optics,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121L (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  34. D. Terrett and W. J. Sutherland, “The interaction between pointing and active optics on the VISTA telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7740, 7743A (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  35. T. Schmid, K. Thompson, and J. Rolland, “A unique astigmatic nodal property in misaligned Ritchey-Chrétien telescopes with misalignment coma removed,” Opt. Express 18, 5282–5288 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  36. T. Schmid, J. Rolland, A. Rakich, and K. Thompson, “Separation of the effects of astigmatic figure error from misalignments using Nodal Aberration Therory (NAT),” Opt. Express 18, 17433–17447 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  37. T. Schmid, K. Thompson, and J. Rolland, “Misalignment induced nodal aberration fields in two-mirror astronomical telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 49, D131–D144 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  38. C. Arcidiacono, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, G. Umbriaco, and D. Magrin, “The opto-mechanical alignment procedure of the VLT Survey Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 773357 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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2011 (3)

M. Capaccioli and P. Schipani, “The VLT Survey Telescope opens to the sky: history of a commissioning,” The Messenger 146, 2–6 (2011).

K. Kuijken, “OmegaCAM: ESO’s newest imager,” The Messenger 146, 8–11 (2011).

F. Perrotta and P. Schipani, “A simulation model for a telescope earthquake analysis: the VST primary mirror safety system,” Exp. Astron. 29, 189–206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (10)

P. Schipani, M. Capaccioli, S. D’Orsi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, C. Molfese, F. Perrotta, G. De Paris, D. Fierro, R. Tomelleri, P. Rossettini, F. Perina, S. Recchia, and D. Magrin, “The VST active primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77393 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, S. D’Orsi, L. Ferragina, D. Fierro, L. Marty, F. Perrotta, and C. Arcidiacono, “Performance of the VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 773932 (2010).

P. Schipani, L. Marty, F. Perrotta, D. Magrin, and S. D’Orsi, “The primary mirror system control software for the VST,” Proc. SPIE 7740, 774037 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Schmid, K. Thompson, and J. Rolland, “A unique astigmatic nodal property in misaligned Ritchey-Chrétien telescopes with misalignment coma removed,” Opt. Express 18, 5282–5288 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, S. D’Orsi, D. Fierro, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, C. Molfese, and F. Perrotta, “Active optics primary mirror support system for the 2.6 m VST telescope,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1234–1241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Schmid, K. Thompson, and J. Rolland, “Misalignment induced nodal aberration fields in two-mirror astronomical telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 49, D131–D144 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, S. D’Orsi, D. Fierro, and L. Marty, “Active optics control of the VST telescope secondary mirror,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3199–3207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Schmid, J. Rolland, A. Rakich, and K. Thompson, “Separation of the effects of astigmatic figure error from misalignments using Nodal Aberration Therory (NAT),” Opt. Express 18, 17433–17447 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Terrett and W. J. Sutherland, “The interaction between pointing and active optics on the VISTA telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7740, 7743A (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Arcidiacono, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, G. Umbriaco, and D. Magrin, “The opto-mechanical alignment procedure of the VLT Survey Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 773357 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. A. Potanin, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor for testing the quality of the optics of the 2.5 m SAI Telescope,” Astronomy Reports 53, 703–709 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

B. Lefort and J. Castro, “The GTC primary mirror control system,” Proc. SPIE 7019, 70190I (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Rakich, J. M. Hill, C. J. Biddick, D. L. Miller, and T. Leibold, “Use of field aberrations in the alignment of the Large Binocular Telescope Optics,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121L (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani and F. Perrotta, “The image quality error budget for the VST telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 70171H (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

P. Schipani, M. Brescia, and L. Marty, “The active optics control software for the VST Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6274, 627417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, and L. Marty, “Active optics correction forces for the VST 2.6 m primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62733A (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani and L. Marty, “Stewart platform kinematics and secondary mirror aberration control,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62733B (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. M. Martin, B. Cuerden, L. R. Dettmann, and J. M. Hill, “Active optics and force optimization for the first 8.4 m LBT mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 826–837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

P. L. Schechter, G. Burley, C. Hull, M. Johns, B. Martin, S. Schaller, S. A. Shectman, and S. C. West, “Active optics on the Baade 6.5 m (Magellan I) telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 619–627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Wilson, “The history and development of the ESO active optics system,” The Messenger 113, 2–9 (2003).

M. Hartung, A. Blanc, T. Fusco, F. Lacombe, L. M. Mugnier, G. Rousset, and R. Lenzen, “Calibration of NAOS and CONICA static aberrations,” Astron. Astrophys. 399, 385–394 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

L. Noethe, “Active optics in modern, large optical telescopes,” Prog. Opt. 43, 3–69 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

L. Noethe and S. Guisard, “Analytical expressions for field astigmatism in decentered two mirror telescopes and application to the collimation of the ESO VLT,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 144, 157–167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Noethe and S. Guisard, “Final Alignment of the VLT,” Proc. SPIE. 4003, 382–390 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

P. Gitton and L. Noethe, “Tuning of the NTT alignment,” The Messenger 92, 15–18 (1998).

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, and J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 412–423(1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. Wilson and B. Delabre, “Concerning the alignment of modern telescopes: theory, practice, and tolerances illustrated by the ESO NTT,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 109, 53–60 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. A. McLeod, “Collimation of fast wide-field telescopes,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 108, 217–219 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996–1008 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Stepp, E. Huang, and M. Cho, “Gemini primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 2199, 223–238 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Iye and K. Kodaira, “Primary mirror support system for the SUBARU telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2199, 762–772(1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, and G. Andreoni, “Active optics IV: set-up and performance of the optics of the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) in the observatory,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 219–243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Sarazin and F. Roddier, “The ESO differential image motion monitor,” Astron. Astrophys. 227, 294–300 (1990).

1980 (1)

R. Shack and K. Thompson, “Influence of alignment errors of a telescope system on its aberration field,” Proc. SPIE 251, 146–153 (1980).

1976 (1)

Anaclerio, E.

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andreae, S.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996–1008 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Andreoni, G.

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, and G. Andreoni, “Active optics IV: set-up and performance of the optics of the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) in the observatory,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 219–243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Arcidiacono, C.

C. Arcidiacono, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, G. Umbriaco, and D. Magrin, “The opto-mechanical alignment procedure of the VLT Survey Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 773357 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, S. D’Orsi, L. Ferragina, D. Fierro, L. Marty, F. Perrotta, and C. Arcidiacono, “Performance of the VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 773932 (2010).

Arthur, A. A.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996–1008 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Biddick, C. J.

A. Rakich, J. M. Hill, C. J. Biddick, D. L. Miller, and T. Leibold, “Use of field aberrations in the alignment of the Large Binocular Telescope Optics,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121L (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biocca, A.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996–1008 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Blanc, A.

M. Hartung, A. Blanc, T. Fusco, F. Lacombe, L. M. Mugnier, G. Rousset, and R. Lenzen, “Calibration of NAOS and CONICA static aberrations,” Astron. Astrophys. 399, 385–394 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brescia, M.

P. Schipani, M. Brescia, and L. Marty, “The active optics control software for the VST Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6274, 627417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burley, G.

P. L. Schechter, G. Burley, C. Hull, M. Johns, B. Martin, S. Schaller, S. A. Shectman, and S. C. West, “Active optics on the Baade 6.5 m (Magellan I) telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 619–627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Callahan, S. P.

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, and J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 412–423(1998).
[CrossRef]

Capaccioli, M.

M. Capaccioli and P. Schipani, “The VLT Survey Telescope opens to the sky: history of a commissioning,” The Messenger 146, 2–6 (2011).

P. Schipani, M. Capaccioli, S. D’Orsi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, C. Molfese, F. Perrotta, G. De Paris, D. Fierro, R. Tomelleri, P. Rossettini, F. Perina, S. Recchia, and D. Magrin, “The VST active primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77393 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Caputi, O.

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Castro, J.

B. Lefort and J. Castro, “The GTC primary mirror control system,” Proc. SPIE 7019, 70190I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, M.

L. Stepp, E. Huang, and M. Cho, “Gemini primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 2199, 223–238 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R. W.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996–1008 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cuerden, B.

H. M. Martin, B. Cuerden, L. R. Dettmann, and J. M. Hill, “Active optics and force optimization for the first 8.4 m LBT mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 826–837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, and J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 412–423(1998).
[CrossRef]

D’Orsi, S.

P. Schipani, S. D’Orsi, L. Ferragina, D. Fierro, L. Marty, F. Perrotta, and C. Arcidiacono, “Performance of the VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 773932 (2010).

P. Schipani, S. D’Orsi, D. Fierro, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, C. Molfese, and F. Perrotta, “Active optics primary mirror support system for the 2.6 m VST telescope,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1234–1241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, M. Capaccioli, S. D’Orsi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, C. Molfese, F. Perrotta, G. De Paris, D. Fierro, R. Tomelleri, P. Rossettini, F. Perina, S. Recchia, and D. Magrin, “The VST active primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77393 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, S. D’Orsi, D. Fierro, and L. Marty, “Active optics control of the VST telescope secondary mirror,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3199–3207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, L. Marty, F. Perrotta, D. Magrin, and S. D’Orsi, “The primary mirror system control software for the VST,” Proc. SPIE 7740, 774037 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Davison, W. B.

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, and J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 412–423(1998).
[CrossRef]

De Paris, G.

P. Schipani, M. Capaccioli, S. D’Orsi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, C. Molfese, F. Perrotta, G. De Paris, D. Fierro, R. Tomelleri, P. Rossettini, F. Perina, S. Recchia, and D. Magrin, “The VST active primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77393 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Delabre, B.

R. Wilson and B. Delabre, “Concerning the alignment of modern telescopes: theory, practice, and tolerances illustrated by the ESO NTT,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 109, 53–60 (1997).
[CrossRef]

DeRigne, S. T.

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, and J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 412–423(1998).
[CrossRef]

Dettmann, L. R.

H. M. Martin, B. Cuerden, L. R. Dettmann, and J. M. Hill, “Active optics and force optimization for the first 8.4 m LBT mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 826–837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, and J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 412–423(1998).
[CrossRef]

Farinato, J.

C. Arcidiacono, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, G. Umbriaco, and D. Magrin, “The opto-mechanical alignment procedure of the VLT Survey Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 773357 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferragina, L.

P. Schipani, S. D’Orsi, L. Ferragina, D. Fierro, L. Marty, F. Perrotta, and C. Arcidiacono, “Performance of the VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 773932 (2010).

P. Schipani, S. D’Orsi, D. Fierro, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, C. Molfese, and F. Perrotta, “Active optics primary mirror support system for the 2.6 m VST telescope,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1234–1241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, M. Capaccioli, S. D’Orsi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, C. Molfese, F. Perrotta, G. De Paris, D. Fierro, R. Tomelleri, P. Rossettini, F. Perina, S. Recchia, and D. Magrin, “The VST active primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77393 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fierro, D.

P. Schipani, S. D’Orsi, D. Fierro, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, C. Molfese, and F. Perrotta, “Active optics primary mirror support system for the 2.6 m VST telescope,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1234–1241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, S. D’Orsi, D. Fierro, and L. Marty, “Active optics control of the VST telescope secondary mirror,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3199–3207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, M. Capaccioli, S. D’Orsi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, C. Molfese, F. Perrotta, G. De Paris, D. Fierro, R. Tomelleri, P. Rossettini, F. Perina, S. Recchia, and D. Magrin, “The VST active primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77393 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, S. D’Orsi, L. Ferragina, D. Fierro, L. Marty, F. Perrotta, and C. Arcidiacono, “Performance of the VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 773932 (2010).

Franck, J.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996–1008 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Franza, F.

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, and G. Andreoni, “Active optics IV: set-up and performance of the optics of the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) in the observatory,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 219–243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fuertes, J. M.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996–1008 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fumi, P.

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fusco, T.

M. Hartung, A. Blanc, T. Fusco, F. Lacombe, L. M. Mugnier, G. Rousset, and R. Lenzen, “Calibration of NAOS and CONICA static aberrations,” Astron. Astrophys. 399, 385–394 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gabor, G.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996–1008 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gallieni, D.

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gitton, P.

P. Gitton and L. Noethe, “Tuning of the NTT alignment,” The Messenger 92, 15–18 (1998).

Guisard, S.

L. Noethe and S. Guisard, “Final Alignment of the VLT,” Proc. SPIE. 4003, 382–390 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Noethe and S. Guisard, “Analytical expressions for field astigmatism in decentered two mirror telescopes and application to the collimation of the ESO VLT,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 144, 157–167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hartung, M.

M. Hartung, A. Blanc, T. Fusco, F. Lacombe, L. M. Mugnier, G. Rousset, and R. Lenzen, “Calibration of NAOS and CONICA static aberrations,” Astron. Astrophys. 399, 385–394 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hill, J. M.

A. Rakich, J. M. Hill, C. J. Biddick, D. L. Miller, and T. Leibold, “Use of field aberrations in the alignment of the Large Binocular Telescope Optics,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121L (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Martin, B. Cuerden, L. R. Dettmann, and J. M. Hill, “Active optics and force optimization for the first 8.4 m LBT mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 826–837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, E.

L. Stepp, E. Huang, and M. Cho, “Gemini primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 2199, 223–238 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hull, C.

P. L. Schechter, G. Burley, C. Hull, M. Johns, B. Martin, S. Schaller, S. A. Shectman, and S. C. West, “Active optics on the Baade 6.5 m (Magellan I) telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 619–627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iye, M.

M. Iye and K. Kodaira, “Primary mirror support system for the SUBARU telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2199, 762–772(1994).
[CrossRef]

Jared, R. C.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996–1008 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Johns, M.

P. L. Schechter, G. Burley, C. Hull, M. Johns, B. Martin, S. Schaller, S. A. Shectman, and S. C. West, “Active optics on the Baade 6.5 m (Magellan I) telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 619–627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kodaira, K.

M. Iye and K. Kodaira, “Primary mirror support system for the SUBARU telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2199, 762–772(1994).
[CrossRef]

Kuijken, K.

K. Kuijken, “OmegaCAM: ESO’s newest imager,” The Messenger 146, 8–11 (2011).

Lacombe, F.

M. Hartung, A. Blanc, T. Fusco, F. Lacombe, L. M. Mugnier, G. Rousset, and R. Lenzen, “Calibration of NAOS and CONICA static aberrations,” Astron. Astrophys. 399, 385–394 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lazzarini, P.

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lefort, B.

B. Lefort and J. Castro, “The GTC primary mirror control system,” Proc. SPIE 7019, 70190I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leibold, T.

A. Rakich, J. M. Hill, C. J. Biddick, D. L. Miller, and T. Leibold, “Use of field aberrations in the alignment of the Large Binocular Telescope Optics,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121L (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lenzen, R.

M. Hartung, A. Blanc, T. Fusco, F. Lacombe, L. M. Mugnier, G. Rousset, and R. Lenzen, “Calibration of NAOS and CONICA static aberrations,” Astron. Astrophys. 399, 385–394 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liacer, J.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996–1008 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Magrin, D.

C. Arcidiacono, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, G. Umbriaco, and D. Magrin, “The opto-mechanical alignment procedure of the VLT Survey Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 773357 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, M. Capaccioli, S. D’Orsi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, C. Molfese, F. Perrotta, G. De Paris, D. Fierro, R. Tomelleri, P. Rossettini, F. Perina, S. Recchia, and D. Magrin, “The VST active primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77393 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, L. Marty, F. Perrotta, D. Magrin, and S. D’Orsi, “The primary mirror system control software for the VST,” Proc. SPIE 7740, 774037 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Martin, B.

P. L. Schechter, G. Burley, C. Hull, M. Johns, B. Martin, S. Schaller, S. A. Shectman, and S. C. West, “Active optics on the Baade 6.5 m (Magellan I) telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 619–627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martin, H. M.

H. M. Martin, B. Cuerden, L. R. Dettmann, and J. M. Hill, “Active optics and force optimization for the first 8.4 m LBT mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 826–837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, and J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 412–423(1998).
[CrossRef]

Marty, L.

P. Schipani, S. D’Orsi, L. Ferragina, D. Fierro, L. Marty, F. Perrotta, and C. Arcidiacono, “Performance of the VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 773932 (2010).

P. Schipani, S. D’Orsi, D. Fierro, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, C. Molfese, and F. Perrotta, “Active optics primary mirror support system for the 2.6 m VST telescope,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1234–1241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, L. Marty, F. Perrotta, D. Magrin, and S. D’Orsi, “The primary mirror system control software for the VST,” Proc. SPIE 7740, 774037 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, S. D’Orsi, D. Fierro, and L. Marty, “Active optics control of the VST telescope secondary mirror,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3199–3207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, M. Capaccioli, S. D’Orsi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, C. Molfese, F. Perrotta, G. De Paris, D. Fierro, R. Tomelleri, P. Rossettini, F. Perina, S. Recchia, and D. Magrin, “The VST active primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77393 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, M. Brescia, and L. Marty, “The active optics control software for the VST Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6274, 627417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, and L. Marty, “Active optics correction forces for the VST 2.6 m primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62733A (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani and L. Marty, “Stewart platform kinematics and secondary mirror aberration control,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62733B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mast, T.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996–1008 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McLeod, B. A.

B. A. McLeod, “Collimation of fast wide-field telescopes,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 108, 217–219 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meng, J.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996–1008 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Merrick, T.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996–1008 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. L.

A. Rakich, J. M. Hill, C. J. Biddick, D. L. Miller, and T. Leibold, “Use of field aberrations in the alignment of the Large Binocular Telescope Optics,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121L (2008).
[CrossRef]

Minor, R.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996–1008 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Molfese, C.

P. Schipani, S. D’Orsi, D. Fierro, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, C. Molfese, and F. Perrotta, “Active optics primary mirror support system for the 2.6 m VST telescope,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1234–1241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, M. Capaccioli, S. D’Orsi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, C. Molfese, F. Perrotta, G. De Paris, D. Fierro, R. Tomelleri, P. Rossettini, F. Perina, S. Recchia, and D. Magrin, “The VST active primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77393 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mugnier, L. M.

M. Hartung, A. Blanc, T. Fusco, F. Lacombe, L. M. Mugnier, G. Rousset, and R. Lenzen, “Calibration of NAOS and CONICA static aberrations,” Astron. Astrophys. 399, 385–394 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996–1008 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Noethe, L.

L. Noethe, “Active optics in modern, large optical telescopes,” Prog. Opt. 43, 3–69 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Noethe and S. Guisard, “Analytical expressions for field astigmatism in decentered two mirror telescopes and application to the collimation of the ESO VLT,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 144, 157–167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Noethe and S. Guisard, “Final Alignment of the VLT,” Proc. SPIE. 4003, 382–390 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Gitton and L. Noethe, “Tuning of the NTT alignment,” The Messenger 92, 15–18 (1998).

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, and G. Andreoni, “Active optics IV: set-up and performance of the optics of the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) in the observatory,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 219–243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Noll, R.

Orayani, M.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996–1008 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Parodi, G.

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, and J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 412–423(1998).
[CrossRef]

Perina, F.

P. Schipani, M. Capaccioli, S. D’Orsi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, C. Molfese, F. Perrotta, G. De Paris, D. Fierro, R. Tomelleri, P. Rossettini, F. Perina, S. Recchia, and D. Magrin, “The VST active primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77393 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Perrotta, F.

F. Perrotta and P. Schipani, “A simulation model for a telescope earthquake analysis: the VST primary mirror safety system,” Exp. Astron. 29, 189–206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, S. D’Orsi, L. Ferragina, D. Fierro, L. Marty, F. Perrotta, and C. Arcidiacono, “Performance of the VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 773932 (2010).

P. Schipani, L. Marty, F. Perrotta, D. Magrin, and S. D’Orsi, “The primary mirror system control software for the VST,” Proc. SPIE 7740, 774037 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, M. Capaccioli, S. D’Orsi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, C. Molfese, F. Perrotta, G. De Paris, D. Fierro, R. Tomelleri, P. Rossettini, F. Perina, S. Recchia, and D. Magrin, “The VST active primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77393 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, S. D’Orsi, D. Fierro, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, C. Molfese, and F. Perrotta, “Active optics primary mirror support system for the 2.6 m VST telescope,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1234–1241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani and F. Perrotta, “The image quality error budget for the VST telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 70171H (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, and L. Marty, “Active optics correction forces for the VST 2.6 m primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62733A (2006).
[CrossRef]

Potanin, S. A.

S. A. Potanin, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor for testing the quality of the optics of the 2.5 m SAI Telescope,” Astronomy Reports 53, 703–709 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ragazzoni, R.

C. Arcidiacono, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, G. Umbriaco, and D. Magrin, “The opto-mechanical alignment procedure of the VLT Survey Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 773357 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rakich, A.

T. Schmid, J. Rolland, A. Rakich, and K. Thompson, “Separation of the effects of astigmatic figure error from misalignments using Nodal Aberration Therory (NAT),” Opt. Express 18, 17433–17447 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Rakich, J. M. Hill, C. J. Biddick, D. L. Miller, and T. Leibold, “Use of field aberrations in the alignment of the Large Binocular Telescope Optics,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121L (2008).
[CrossRef]

Recchia, S.

P. Schipani, M. Capaccioli, S. D’Orsi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, C. Molfese, F. Perrotta, G. De Paris, D. Fierro, R. Tomelleri, P. Rossettini, F. Perina, S. Recchia, and D. Magrin, “The VST active primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77393 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

M. Sarazin and F. Roddier, “The ESO differential image motion monitor,” Astron. Astrophys. 227, 294–300 (1990).

Rolland, J.

Rossettini, P.

P. Schipani, M. Capaccioli, S. D’Orsi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, C. Molfese, F. Perrotta, G. De Paris, D. Fierro, R. Tomelleri, P. Rossettini, F. Perina, S. Recchia, and D. Magrin, “The VST active primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77393 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rousset, G.

M. Hartung, A. Blanc, T. Fusco, F. Lacombe, L. M. Mugnier, G. Rousset, and R. Lenzen, “Calibration of NAOS and CONICA static aberrations,” Astron. Astrophys. 399, 385–394 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Salz, P.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996–1008 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sarazin, M.

M. Sarazin and F. Roddier, “The ESO differential image motion monitor,” Astron. Astrophys. 227, 294–300 (1990).

Schaefer, B.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996–1008 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schaller, S.

P. L. Schechter, G. Burley, C. Hull, M. Johns, B. Martin, S. Schaller, S. A. Shectman, and S. C. West, “Active optics on the Baade 6.5 m (Magellan I) telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 619–627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schechter, P. L.

P. L. Schechter, G. Burley, C. Hull, M. Johns, B. Martin, S. Schaller, S. A. Shectman, and S. C. West, “Active optics on the Baade 6.5 m (Magellan I) telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 619–627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schipani, P.

F. Perrotta and P. Schipani, “A simulation model for a telescope earthquake analysis: the VST primary mirror safety system,” Exp. Astron. 29, 189–206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Capaccioli and P. Schipani, “The VLT Survey Telescope opens to the sky: history of a commissioning,” The Messenger 146, 2–6 (2011).

P. Schipani, L. Marty, F. Perrotta, D. Magrin, and S. D’Orsi, “The primary mirror system control software for the VST,” Proc. SPIE 7740, 774037 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, S. D’Orsi, D. Fierro, and L. Marty, “Active optics control of the VST telescope secondary mirror,” Appl. Opt. 49, 3199–3207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, M. Capaccioli, S. D’Orsi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, C. Molfese, F. Perrotta, G. De Paris, D. Fierro, R. Tomelleri, P. Rossettini, F. Perina, S. Recchia, and D. Magrin, “The VST active primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77393 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, S. D’Orsi, D. Fierro, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, C. Molfese, and F. Perrotta, “Active optics primary mirror support system for the 2.6 m VST telescope,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1234–1241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, S. D’Orsi, L. Ferragina, D. Fierro, L. Marty, F. Perrotta, and C. Arcidiacono, “Performance of the VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 773932 (2010).

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani and F. Perrotta, “The image quality error budget for the VST telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 70171H (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, and L. Marty, “Active optics correction forces for the VST 2.6 m primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62733A (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, M. Brescia, and L. Marty, “The active optics control software for the VST Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6274, 627417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani and L. Marty, “Stewart platform kinematics and secondary mirror aberration control,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62733B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, T.

Shack, R.

R. Shack and K. Thompson, “Influence of alignment errors of a telescope system on its aberration field,” Proc. SPIE 251, 146–153 (1980).

Shectman, S. A.

P. L. Schechter, G. Burley, C. Hull, M. Johns, B. Martin, S. Schaller, S. A. Shectman, and S. C. West, “Active optics on the Baade 6.5 m (Magellan I) telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 619–627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stepp, L.

L. Stepp, E. Huang, and M. Cho, “Gemini primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 2199, 223–238 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, W. J.

D. Terrett and W. J. Sutherland, “The interaction between pointing and active optics on the VISTA telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7740, 7743A (2010).
[CrossRef]

Terrett, D.

D. Terrett and W. J. Sutherland, “The interaction between pointing and active optics on the VISTA telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7740, 7743A (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, K.

Tomelleri, R.

P. Schipani, M. Capaccioli, S. D’Orsi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, C. Molfese, F. Perrotta, G. De Paris, D. Fierro, R. Tomelleri, P. Rossettini, F. Perina, S. Recchia, and D. Magrin, “The VST active primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77393 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Trebisky, T. J.

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, and J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 412–423(1998).
[CrossRef]

Umbriaco, G.

C. Arcidiacono, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, G. Umbriaco, and D. Magrin, “The opto-mechanical alignment procedure of the VLT Survey Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 773357 (2010).
[CrossRef]

West, S. C.

P. L. Schechter, G. Burley, C. Hull, M. Johns, B. Martin, S. Schaller, S. A. Shectman, and S. C. West, “Active optics on the Baade 6.5 m (Magellan I) telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 619–627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, and J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 412–423(1998).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J. T.

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, and J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 412–423(1998).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R.

R. Wilson and B. Delabre, “Concerning the alignment of modern telescopes: theory, practice, and tolerances illustrated by the ESO NTT,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 109, 53–60 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R. N.

R. N. Wilson, “The history and development of the ESO active optics system,” The Messenger 113, 2–9 (2003).

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, and G. Andreoni, “Active optics IV: set-up and performance of the optics of the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) in the observatory,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 219–243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Witebsky, C.

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996–1008 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Astron. Astrophys. (2)

M. Sarazin and F. Roddier, “The ESO differential image motion monitor,” Astron. Astrophys. 227, 294–300 (1990).

M. Hartung, A. Blanc, T. Fusco, F. Lacombe, L. M. Mugnier, G. Rousset, and R. Lenzen, “Calibration of NAOS and CONICA static aberrations,” Astron. Astrophys. 399, 385–394 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. (1)

L. Noethe and S. Guisard, “Analytical expressions for field astigmatism in decentered two mirror telescopes and application to the collimation of the ESO VLT,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 144, 157–167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Astronomy Reports (1)

S. A. Potanin, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor for testing the quality of the optics of the 2.5 m SAI Telescope,” Astronomy Reports 53, 703–709 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Astron. (1)

F. Perrotta and P. Schipani, “A simulation model for a telescope earthquake analysis: the VST primary mirror safety system,” Exp. Astron. 29, 189–206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, and G. Andreoni, “Active optics IV: set-up and performance of the optics of the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) in the observatory,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 219–243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (19)

A. Rakich, J. M. Hill, C. J. Biddick, D. L. Miller, and T. Leibold, “Use of field aberrations in the alignment of the Large Binocular Telescope Optics,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70121L (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Terrett and W. J. Sutherland, “The interaction between pointing and active optics on the VISTA telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7740, 7743A (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Arcidiacono, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, G. Umbriaco, and D. Magrin, “The opto-mechanical alignment procedure of the VLT Survey Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 773357 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Shack and K. Thompson, “Influence of alignment errors of a telescope system on its aberration field,” Proc. SPIE 251, 146–153 (1980).

L. Stepp, E. Huang, and M. Cho, “Gemini primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 2199, 223–238 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Iye and K. Kodaira, “Primary mirror support system for the SUBARU telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2199, 762–772(1994).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, and J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 3352, 412–423(1998).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Schechter, G. Burley, C. Hull, M. Johns, B. Martin, S. Schaller, S. A. Shectman, and S. C. West, “Active optics on the Baade 6.5 m (Magellan I) telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4837, 619–627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Martin, B. Cuerden, L. R. Dettmann, and J. M. Hill, “Active optics and force optimization for the first 8.4 m LBT mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5489, 826–837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Jared, A. A. Arthur, S. Andreae, A. Biocca, R. W. Cohen, J. M. Fuertes, J. Franck, G. Gabor, J. Liacer, T. Mast, J. Meng, T. Merrick, R. Minor, J. Nelson, M. Orayani, P. Salz, B. Schaefer, and C. Witebsky, “The W. M. Keck telescope segmented primary mirror active control system,” Proc. SPIE 1236, 996–1008 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Lefort and J. Castro, “The GTC primary mirror control system,” Proc. SPIE 7019, 70190I (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, M. Brescia, and L. Marty, “The active optics control software for the VST Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6274, 627417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, and L. Marty, “Active optics correction forces for the VST 2.6 m primary mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62733A (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani and L. Marty, “Stewart platform kinematics and secondary mirror aberration control,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62733B (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani and F. Perrotta, “The image quality error budget for the VST telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7017, 70171H (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, F. Perrotta, C. Molfese, O. Caputi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, M. Capaccioli, D. Gallieni, P. Fumi, E. Anaclerio, P. Lazzarini, and G. De Paris, “The VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, M. Capaccioli, S. D’Orsi, L. Ferragina, L. Marty, C. Molfese, F. Perrotta, G. De Paris, D. Fierro, R. Tomelleri, P. Rossettini, F. Perina, S. Recchia, and D. Magrin, “The VST active primary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77393 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Schipani, S. D’Orsi, L. Ferragina, D. Fierro, L. Marty, F. Perrotta, and C. Arcidiacono, “Performance of the VST secondary mirror support system,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 773932 (2010).

P. Schipani, L. Marty, F. Perrotta, D. Magrin, and S. D’Orsi, “The primary mirror system control software for the VST,” Proc. SPIE 7740, 774037 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE. (1)

L. Noethe and S. Guisard, “Final Alignment of the VLT,” Proc. SPIE. 4003, 382–390 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Opt. (1)

L. Noethe, “Active optics in modern, large optical telescopes,” Prog. Opt. 43, 3–69 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (2)

B. A. McLeod, “Collimation of fast wide-field telescopes,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 108, 217–219 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Wilson and B. Delabre, “Concerning the alignment of modern telescopes: theory, practice, and tolerances illustrated by the ESO NTT,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 109, 53–60 (1997).
[CrossRef]

The Messenger (4)

P. Gitton and L. Noethe, “Tuning of the NTT alignment,” The Messenger 92, 15–18 (1998).

R. N. Wilson, “The history and development of the ESO active optics system,” The Messenger 113, 2–9 (2003).

M. Capaccioli and P. Schipani, “The VLT Survey Telescope opens to the sky: history of a commissioning,” The Messenger 146, 2–6 (2011).

K. Kuijken, “OmegaCAM: ESO’s newest imager,” The Messenger 146, 8–11 (2011).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

VST at Paranal observatory.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical layout.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Field aberrations in case of perfect alignment. Only cosine components of Zernike standard polynomials are shown for coma and astigmatism.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Field aberrations in case of a 255 arc sec rotation in the coma-free point reference system. Only cosine components of Zernike standard polynomials are shown for coma and astigmatism.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Pattern of ellipticities caused by misalignment induced astigmatism (real data).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Ideal field astigmatism vectors as seen by the Shack–Hartmann: the modulus is 160 nm at a field radius θ=40arcmin.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Effect of positive rotations around X (left) and Y (right) in the reference system of the coma free point, in terms of astigmatism vectors. The modulus of the vectors depends on the field radius θ.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Measured field astigmatism vectors, before (black dashed line) and after (blue solid line) the alignment.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

VST adapter-rotator.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Conceptual layout of the guide probe with autoguider and Shack–Hartmann perpendicular arms.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Shack–Hartmann astigmatism (rotational symmetry n=2).

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Shack–Hartmann trefoil (rotational symmetry n=3).

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Shack–Hartmann tetrafoil (rotational symmetry n=4).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Measurement Noise

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Z4=ccurvϑ2,
Z7=ccomaϑsin(φ)Z8=ccomaϑcos(φ),
Z5=castϑ2sin(2φ)Z6=castϑ2cos(2φ).
Z4=c3curvϑ2+c5curvϑ4,
Z7=(c3comaϑ+c5comaϑ3)sin(φ)Z8=(c3comaϑ+c5comaϑ3)cos(φ),
Z5=(c3astϑ2+c5astϑ4)sin(2φ)Z6=(c3astϑ2+c5astϑ4)cos(2φ).
a⃗ws+a⃗tel=a⃗m.
xtel,i=atelcos(nφiφ0)ytel,i=atelsin(nφiφ0),
xws+cosnφiatelcosφ0+sinnφiatelsinφ0=xm,iyws+sinnφiatelcosφ0cosnφiatelsinφ0=ym,i,

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