Abstract

In this study we present the comparison of the performance of two systems to measure intraocular scattering. Measurements were made by using a psychophysical system based on a brightness comparison method that provides a glare index and a physical system based on the double-pass technique, which gives an objective scatter index by measuring the optical quality of the eye. Three external diffuser filters that simulated different grades of intraocular scattering were used in subjects with normal vision. The two measured indexes showed a graded rise with increasing level of scattering. The discrimination ability obtained for both systems showed that they were able to distinguish among conditions ranging from normal to early cataracts.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. L. Holladay, “Action of a light-source in the field of view in lowering visibility,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 1 (1927).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. J. Vos, “Disability glare—a state of the art report,” CIE J. 3, 39–53 (1984).
  3. G. A. Fry and M. Alpern, “The effect of a peripheral glare source upon the apparent brightness of an object,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 189–195 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Colombo, J. Barraza, and L. Issolio, “Effect of brief exposure to glare on brightness perception in the scotopic-mesopic range,” Lighting Res. Technol. 32, 65–69 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. M. Pérez, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, “Impact of scattering and spherical aberration in contrast sensitivity,” J. Vis. 9(3):19, 1–10 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Abrahamsson and J. Sjostrand, “Impairment of contrast sensitivity function (CSF) as a measure of disability glare,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 1131–1136 (1986).
  7. D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliot, and R. Steen, “Confirmation of the validity of the psychophysical light scattering factor,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 317–321 (1994).
  8. J. T. Holladay, T. C. Prager, J. Trujillo, and R. S. Ruiz, “Brightness acuity test and outdoor visual acuity in cataract patients,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 13, 67–69 (1987).
  9. L. Franssen, J. Coppens, and T. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 768–776 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. van den Berg, “Reliability of the compensation comparison method for measuring retinal stray light studied using Monte-Carlo simulations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054010 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. J. T. P. van den Berg and J. K. IJspeert, “Clinical assessment of intraocular stray light,” Appl. Opt. 31 (19), 3694–3696 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Barrionuevo, E. Colombo, D. Corregidor, M. Jaén, and L. Issolio, “Evaluation of the intraocular scattering through brightness reduction by glare using external diffusers to simulate cataracts,” Opt. Appl. 40, 63–75 (2010).
  13. A. F. Rossi, C. D. Rittenhouse, and M. A. Paradiso, “The representation of brightness in primary visual cortex,” Science 273, 1104–1107 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Kinoshita and H. Komatsu, “Neural representation of the luminance and brightness of a uniform surface in the macaque primary visual cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 86, 2559–2570 (2001).
  15. P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martín, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, “Analysis of the performance of the Hartmann-Shack sensor in the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1388–1398 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, and J. F. Bille, “Objective measurement of the WA’s aberration of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1949–1957 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).
  18. J. Santamaría, P. Artal, and J. Bescos, “Determination of the point-spread function of human eyes using a hybrid optical-digital method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1109–1114 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. Artal, “Calculations of two-dimensional foveal retinal images in real eyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1374–1381 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Artal, “Understanding aberrations by using double-pass techniques,” J. Refract. Sur. 16, 560–562 (2000).
  21. A. Guirao, C. González, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Average optical performance of the human eye as a function of age in a normal population,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 203–213 (1999).
  22. M. Vilaseca, A. Padilla, J. Pujol, J. Ondategui, P. Artal, and J. L. Güell, “Optical quality one month after verisyse and Veriflex phakic IOL implantation and Zeiss MEL 80 LASIK for myopia from 5.00 to 16.50 diopters,” J. Refr. Surg. 25, 689–698 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Vilaseca, A. Padilla, J. C. Ondategui, M. Arjona, J. L. Güell, and J. Pujol, “Effect of laser in situ keratomileusis on vision analyzed using preoperative optical quality,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36, 1945–1953 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  24. F. Díaz-Doutón, A. Benito, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, J. Güell, and P. Artal, “Comparison of the retinal image quality with a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and a double-pass instrument,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 1710–1716 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Saad, M. Saab, and D. Gatinel, “Repeatability of measurements with a double-pass system,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36, 28–33 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Vilaseca, E. Peris, J. Pujol, R. Borras, and M. Arjona, “Intra- and intersession repeatability of a double-pass instrument,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 87, 675–681 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  27. P. Artal, A. Benito, G. Pérez, E. Alcón, A. De Casas, J. Pujol, and J. Marín, “An objective scatter index based on double-pass retinal images of a point source to classify cataracts,” PLoS ONE 6, e16823 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  28. D. H. Brainard, “The psychophysics toolbox,” Spatial Vis. 10, 433–436 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  29. D. G. Pelli, “The VideoToolbox software for visual psychophysics: transforming numbers into movies,” Spatial Vis. 10, 437–442 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  30. A. B. Watson and D. G. Pelli, “QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychophysical method,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 113–120 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. L. Güell, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, F. Diaz-Douton, and P. Artal, “Optical Quality Analysis System Instrument for objective clinical evaluation of ocular optical quality,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 1598–1599 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  32. P. Artal, I. Iglesias, N. López, and D. G. Green, “Double-pass measurements of the retinal image quality with unequal entrance and exit pupil sizes and the reversibility of the eye’s optical system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2358–2366 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  33. P. Artal, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, and D. R. Williams, “Odd aberrations and double-pass measurements of retinal image quality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 195–201 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  34. N. López and P. Artal, “Comparison of double-pass estimates of the retinal image quality obtained with green and near-infrared light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 961–971 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  35. G. Westheimer and J. Liang, “Evaluating diffusion of light in the eye by objective means,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 2652–2657 (1994).
  36. G. C. de Wit, L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. van den Berg, “Simulating the straylight effects of cataracts,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32, 294–300 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  37. D. B. Elliott and P. Situ, “Visual acuity versus letter contrast sensitivity in early cataract,” Vis. Res. 38, 2047–2052 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  38. D. B. Elliott, “Assessment of patients with age-related cataract,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 18 (Suppl. 2), S51–S61 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  39. J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Correlation, regression, and repeated data,” Br. Med. J. 308, 896 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2011

P. Artal, A. Benito, G. Pérez, E. Alcón, A. De Casas, J. Pujol, and J. Marín, “An objective scatter index based on double-pass retinal images of a point source to classify cataracts,” PLoS ONE 6, e16823 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

A. Saad, M. Saab, and D. Gatinel, “Repeatability of measurements with a double-pass system,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36, 28–33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Vilaseca, E. Peris, J. Pujol, R. Borras, and M. Arjona, “Intra- and intersession repeatability of a double-pass instrument,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 87, 675–681 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Barrionuevo, E. Colombo, D. Corregidor, M. Jaén, and L. Issolio, “Evaluation of the intraocular scattering through brightness reduction by glare using external diffusers to simulate cataracts,” Opt. Appl. 40, 63–75 (2010).

M. Vilaseca, A. Padilla, J. C. Ondategui, M. Arjona, J. L. Güell, and J. Pujol, “Effect of laser in situ keratomileusis on vision analyzed using preoperative optical quality,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36, 1945–1953 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. Vilaseca, A. Padilla, J. Pujol, J. Ondategui, P. Artal, and J. L. Güell, “Optical quality one month after verisyse and Veriflex phakic IOL implantation and Zeiss MEL 80 LASIK for myopia from 5.00 to 16.50 diopters,” J. Refr. Surg. 25, 689–698 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Pérez, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, “Impact of scattering and spherical aberration in contrast sensitivity,” J. Vis. 9(3):19, 1–10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

L. Franssen, J. Coppens, and T. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 768–776 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. van den Berg, “Reliability of the compensation comparison method for measuring retinal stray light studied using Monte-Carlo simulations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054010 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Díaz-Doutón, A. Benito, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, J. Güell, and P. Artal, “Comparison of the retinal image quality with a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and a double-pass instrument,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 1710–1716 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. C. de Wit, L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. van den Berg, “Simulating the straylight effects of cataracts,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32, 294–300 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. L. Güell, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, F. Diaz-Douton, and P. Artal, “Optical Quality Analysis System Instrument for objective clinical evaluation of ocular optical quality,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 1598–1599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

M. Kinoshita and H. Komatsu, “Neural representation of the luminance and brightness of a uniform surface in the macaque primary visual cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 86, 2559–2570 (2001).

2000

P. Artal, “Understanding aberrations by using double-pass techniques,” J. Refract. Sur. 16, 560–562 (2000).

E. Colombo, J. Barraza, and L. Issolio, “Effect of brief exposure to glare on brightness perception in the scotopic-mesopic range,” Lighting Res. Technol. 32, 65–69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martín, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, “Analysis of the performance of the Hartmann-Shack sensor in the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1388–1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. Guirao, C. González, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Average optical performance of the human eye as a function of age in a normal population,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 203–213 (1999).

1998

D. B. Elliott and P. Situ, “Visual acuity versus letter contrast sensitivity in early cataract,” Vis. Res. 38, 2047–2052 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Elliott, “Assessment of patients with age-related cataract,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 18 (Suppl. 2), S51–S61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. H. Brainard, “The psychophysics toolbox,” Spatial Vis. 10, 433–436 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Pelli, “The VideoToolbox software for visual psychophysics: transforming numbers into movies,” Spatial Vis. 10, 437–442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. López and P. Artal, “Comparison of double-pass estimates of the retinal image quality obtained with green and near-infrared light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 961–971 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. F. Rossi, C. D. Rittenhouse, and M. A. Paradiso, “The representation of brightness in primary visual cortex,” Science 273, 1104–1107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Correlation, regression, and repeated data,” Br. Med. J. 308, 896 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, and J. F. Bille, “Objective measurement of the WA’s aberration of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1949–1957 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Westheimer and J. Liang, “Evaluating diffusion of light in the eye by objective means,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 2652–2657 (1994).

D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliot, and R. Steen, “Confirmation of the validity of the psychophysical light scattering factor,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 317–321 (1994).

1992

1990

1987

J. Santamaría, P. Artal, and J. Bescos, “Determination of the point-spread function of human eyes using a hybrid optical-digital method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1109–1114 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Holladay, T. C. Prager, J. Trujillo, and R. S. Ruiz, “Brightness acuity test and outdoor visual acuity in cataract patients,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 13, 67–69 (1987).

1986

M. Abrahamsson and J. Sjostrand, “Impairment of contrast sensitivity function (CSF) as a measure of disability glare,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 1131–1136 (1986).

1984

J. J. Vos, “Disability glare—a state of the art report,” CIE J. 3, 39–53 (1984).

1983

A. B. Watson and D. G. Pelli, “QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychophysical method,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 113–120 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1953

1927

Abrahamsson, M.

M. Abrahamsson and J. Sjostrand, “Impairment of contrast sensitivity function (CSF) as a measure of disability glare,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 1131–1136 (1986).

Alcón, E.

P. Artal, A. Benito, G. Pérez, E. Alcón, A. De Casas, J. Pujol, and J. Marín, “An objective scatter index based on double-pass retinal images of a point source to classify cataracts,” PLoS ONE 6, e16823 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alpern, M.

Altman, D. G.

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Correlation, regression, and repeated data,” Br. Med. J. 308, 896 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Arjona, M.

M. Vilaseca, A. Padilla, J. C. Ondategui, M. Arjona, J. L. Güell, and J. Pujol, “Effect of laser in situ keratomileusis on vision analyzed using preoperative optical quality,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36, 1945–1953 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Vilaseca, E. Peris, J. Pujol, R. Borras, and M. Arjona, “Intra- and intersession repeatability of a double-pass instrument,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 87, 675–681 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Díaz-Doutón, A. Benito, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, J. Güell, and P. Artal, “Comparison of the retinal image quality with a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and a double-pass instrument,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 1710–1716 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Güell, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, F. Diaz-Douton, and P. Artal, “Optical Quality Analysis System Instrument for objective clinical evaluation of ocular optical quality,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 1598–1599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Artal, P.

P. Artal, A. Benito, G. Pérez, E. Alcón, A. De Casas, J. Pujol, and J. Marín, “An objective scatter index based on double-pass retinal images of a point source to classify cataracts,” PLoS ONE 6, e16823 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Pérez, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, “Impact of scattering and spherical aberration in contrast sensitivity,” J. Vis. 9(3):19, 1–10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Vilaseca, A. Padilla, J. Pujol, J. Ondategui, P. Artal, and J. L. Güell, “Optical quality one month after verisyse and Veriflex phakic IOL implantation and Zeiss MEL 80 LASIK for myopia from 5.00 to 16.50 diopters,” J. Refr. Surg. 25, 689–698 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Díaz-Doutón, A. Benito, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, J. Güell, and P. Artal, “Comparison of the retinal image quality with a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and a double-pass instrument,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 1710–1716 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Güell, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, F. Diaz-Douton, and P. Artal, “Optical Quality Analysis System Instrument for objective clinical evaluation of ocular optical quality,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 1598–1599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, “Understanding aberrations by using double-pass techniques,” J. Refract. Sur. 16, 560–562 (2000).

P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martín, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, “Analysis of the performance of the Hartmann-Shack sensor in the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1388–1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Guirao, C. González, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Average optical performance of the human eye as a function of age in a normal population,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 203–213 (1999).

N. López and P. Artal, “Comparison of double-pass estimates of the retinal image quality obtained with green and near-infrared light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 961–971 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, and D. R. Williams, “Odd aberrations and double-pass measurements of retinal image quality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 195–201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, I. Iglesias, N. López, and D. G. Green, “Double-pass measurements of the retinal image quality with unequal entrance and exit pupil sizes and the reversibility of the eye’s optical system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2358–2366 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, “Calculations of two-dimensional foveal retinal images in real eyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1374–1381 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Santamaría, P. Artal, and J. Bescos, “Determination of the point-spread function of human eyes using a hybrid optical-digital method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1109–1114 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Barbero, S.

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

Barraza, J.

E. Colombo, J. Barraza, and L. Issolio, “Effect of brief exposure to glare on brightness perception in the scotopic-mesopic range,” Lighting Res. Technol. 32, 65–69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barrionuevo, P.

P. Barrionuevo, E. Colombo, D. Corregidor, M. Jaén, and L. Issolio, “Evaluation of the intraocular scattering through brightness reduction by glare using external diffusers to simulate cataracts,” Opt. Appl. 40, 63–75 (2010).

Benito, A.

P. Artal, A. Benito, G. Pérez, E. Alcón, A. De Casas, J. Pujol, and J. Marín, “An objective scatter index based on double-pass retinal images of a point source to classify cataracts,” PLoS ONE 6, e16823 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Díaz-Doutón, A. Benito, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, J. Güell, and P. Artal, “Comparison of the retinal image quality with a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and a double-pass instrument,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 1710–1716 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bescos, J.

Bille, J. F.

Bland, J. M.

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Correlation, regression, and repeated data,” Br. Med. J. 308, 896 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Borras, R.

M. Vilaseca, E. Peris, J. Pujol, R. Borras, and M. Arjona, “Intra- and intersession repeatability of a double-pass instrument,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 87, 675–681 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brainard, D. H.

D. H. Brainard, “The psychophysics toolbox,” Spatial Vis. 10, 433–436 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Colombo, E.

P. Barrionuevo, E. Colombo, D. Corregidor, M. Jaén, and L. Issolio, “Evaluation of the intraocular scattering through brightness reduction by glare using external diffusers to simulate cataracts,” Opt. Appl. 40, 63–75 (2010).

E. Colombo, J. Barraza, and L. Issolio, “Effect of brief exposure to glare on brightness perception in the scotopic-mesopic range,” Lighting Res. Technol. 32, 65–69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Coppens, J.

J. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. van den Berg, “Reliability of the compensation comparison method for measuring retinal stray light studied using Monte-Carlo simulations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054010 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Franssen, J. Coppens, and T. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 768–776 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coppens, J. E.

G. C. de Wit, L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. van den Berg, “Simulating the straylight effects of cataracts,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32, 294–300 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Corregidor, D.

P. Barrionuevo, E. Colombo, D. Corregidor, M. Jaén, and L. Issolio, “Evaluation of the intraocular scattering through brightness reduction by glare using external diffusers to simulate cataracts,” Opt. Appl. 40, 63–75 (2010).

De Casas, A.

P. Artal, A. Benito, G. Pérez, E. Alcón, A. De Casas, J. Pujol, and J. Marín, “An objective scatter index based on double-pass retinal images of a point source to classify cataracts,” PLoS ONE 6, e16823 (2011).
[CrossRef]

de Wit, G. C.

G. C. de Wit, L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. van den Berg, “Simulating the straylight effects of cataracts,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32, 294–300 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Diaz-Douton, F.

J. L. Güell, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, F. Diaz-Douton, and P. Artal, “Optical Quality Analysis System Instrument for objective clinical evaluation of ocular optical quality,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 1598–1599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Díaz-Doutón, F.

F. Díaz-Doutón, A. Benito, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, J. Güell, and P. Artal, “Comparison of the retinal image quality with a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and a double-pass instrument,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 1710–1716 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elliot, D. B.

D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliot, and R. Steen, “Confirmation of the validity of the psychophysical light scattering factor,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 317–321 (1994).

Elliott, D. B.

D. B. Elliott, “Assessment of patients with age-related cataract,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 18 (Suppl. 2), S51–S61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Elliott and P. Situ, “Visual acuity versus letter contrast sensitivity in early cataract,” Vis. Res. 38, 2047–2052 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Franssen, L.

G. C. de Wit, L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. van den Berg, “Simulating the straylight effects of cataracts,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32, 294–300 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Franssen, J. Coppens, and T. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 768–776 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. van den Berg, “Reliability of the compensation comparison method for measuring retinal stray light studied using Monte-Carlo simulations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054010 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fry, G. A.

Gatinel, D.

A. Saad, M. Saab, and D. Gatinel, “Repeatability of measurements with a double-pass system,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36, 28–33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Geraghty, E.

A. Guirao, C. González, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Average optical performance of the human eye as a function of age in a normal population,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 203–213 (1999).

Goelz, S.

González, C.

A. Guirao, C. González, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Average optical performance of the human eye as a function of age in a normal population,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 203–213 (1999).

Green, D. G.

Grimm, B.

Güell, J.

F. Díaz-Doutón, A. Benito, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, J. Güell, and P. Artal, “Comparison of the retinal image quality with a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and a double-pass instrument,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 1710–1716 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Güell, J. L.

M. Vilaseca, A. Padilla, J. C. Ondategui, M. Arjona, J. L. Güell, and J. Pujol, “Effect of laser in situ keratomileusis on vision analyzed using preoperative optical quality,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36, 1945–1953 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Vilaseca, A. Padilla, J. Pujol, J. Ondategui, P. Artal, and J. L. Güell, “Optical quality one month after verisyse and Veriflex phakic IOL implantation and Zeiss MEL 80 LASIK for myopia from 5.00 to 16.50 diopters,” J. Refr. Surg. 25, 689–698 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Güell, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, F. Diaz-Douton, and P. Artal, “Optical Quality Analysis System Instrument for objective clinical evaluation of ocular optical quality,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 1598–1599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guirao, A.

A. Guirao, C. González, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Average optical performance of the human eye as a function of age in a normal population,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 203–213 (1999).

Holladay, J. T.

J. T. Holladay, T. C. Prager, J. Trujillo, and R. S. Ruiz, “Brightness acuity test and outdoor visual acuity in cataract patients,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 13, 67–69 (1987).

Holladay, L. L.

Iglesias, I.

IJspeert, J. K.

Issolio, L.

P. Barrionuevo, E. Colombo, D. Corregidor, M. Jaén, and L. Issolio, “Evaluation of the intraocular scattering through brightness reduction by glare using external diffusers to simulate cataracts,” Opt. Appl. 40, 63–75 (2010).

E. Colombo, J. Barraza, and L. Issolio, “Effect of brief exposure to glare on brightness perception in the scotopic-mesopic range,” Lighting Res. Technol. 32, 65–69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jaén, M.

P. Barrionuevo, E. Colombo, D. Corregidor, M. Jaén, and L. Issolio, “Evaluation of the intraocular scattering through brightness reduction by glare using external diffusers to simulate cataracts,” Opt. Appl. 40, 63–75 (2010).

Kinoshita, M.

M. Kinoshita and H. Komatsu, “Neural representation of the luminance and brightness of a uniform surface in the macaque primary visual cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 86, 2559–2570 (2001).

Komatsu, H.

M. Kinoshita and H. Komatsu, “Neural representation of the luminance and brightness of a uniform surface in the macaque primary visual cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 86, 2559–2570 (2001).

Liang, J.

G. Westheimer and J. Liang, “Evaluating diffusion of light in the eye by objective means,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 2652–2657 (1994).

J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, and J. F. Bille, “Objective measurement of the WA’s aberration of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1949–1957 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Llorente, L.

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

Lloves, J. M.

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

López, N.

Manzanera, S.

G. M. Pérez, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, “Impact of scattering and spherical aberration in contrast sensitivity,” J. Vis. 9(3):19, 1–10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marcos, S.

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

P. Artal, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, and D. R. Williams, “Odd aberrations and double-pass measurements of retinal image quality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 195–201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marín, J.

P. Artal, A. Benito, G. Pérez, E. Alcón, A. De Casas, J. Pujol, and J. Marín, “An objective scatter index based on double-pass retinal images of a point source to classify cataracts,” PLoS ONE 6, e16823 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moreno-Barriuso, E.

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

Navarro, R.

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

P. Artal, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, and D. R. Williams, “Odd aberrations and double-pass measurements of retinal image quality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 195–201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Norrby, S.

A. Guirao, C. González, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Average optical performance of the human eye as a function of age in a normal population,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 203–213 (1999).

Ondategui, J.

M. Vilaseca, A. Padilla, J. Pujol, J. Ondategui, P. Artal, and J. L. Güell, “Optical quality one month after verisyse and Veriflex phakic IOL implantation and Zeiss MEL 80 LASIK for myopia from 5.00 to 16.50 diopters,” J. Refr. Surg. 25, 689–698 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ondategui, J. C.

M. Vilaseca, A. Padilla, J. C. Ondategui, M. Arjona, J. L. Güell, and J. Pujol, “Effect of laser in situ keratomileusis on vision analyzed using preoperative optical quality,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36, 1945–1953 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, A.

M. Vilaseca, A. Padilla, J. C. Ondategui, M. Arjona, J. L. Güell, and J. Pujol, “Effect of laser in situ keratomileusis on vision analyzed using preoperative optical quality,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36, 1945–1953 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Vilaseca, A. Padilla, J. Pujol, J. Ondategui, P. Artal, and J. L. Güell, “Optical quality one month after verisyse and Veriflex phakic IOL implantation and Zeiss MEL 80 LASIK for myopia from 5.00 to 16.50 diopters,” J. Refr. Surg. 25, 689–698 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Paradiso, M. A.

A. F. Rossi, C. D. Rittenhouse, and M. A. Paradiso, “The representation of brightness in primary visual cortex,” Science 273, 1104–1107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pelli, D. G.

D. G. Pelli, “The VideoToolbox software for visual psychophysics: transforming numbers into movies,” Spatial Vis. 10, 437–442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Watson and D. G. Pelli, “QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychophysical method,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 113–120 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Pérez, G.

P. Artal, A. Benito, G. Pérez, E. Alcón, A. De Casas, J. Pujol, and J. Marín, “An objective scatter index based on double-pass retinal images of a point source to classify cataracts,” PLoS ONE 6, e16823 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pérez, G. M.

G. M. Pérez, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, “Impact of scattering and spherical aberration in contrast sensitivity,” J. Vis. 9(3):19, 1–10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peris, E.

M. Vilaseca, E. Peris, J. Pujol, R. Borras, and M. Arjona, “Intra- and intersession repeatability of a double-pass instrument,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 87, 675–681 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Prager, T. C.

J. T. Holladay, T. C. Prager, J. Trujillo, and R. S. Ruiz, “Brightness acuity test and outdoor visual acuity in cataract patients,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 13, 67–69 (1987).

Prieto, P. M.

Pujol, J.

P. Artal, A. Benito, G. Pérez, E. Alcón, A. De Casas, J. Pujol, and J. Marín, “An objective scatter index based on double-pass retinal images of a point source to classify cataracts,” PLoS ONE 6, e16823 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Vilaseca, A. Padilla, J. C. Ondategui, M. Arjona, J. L. Güell, and J. Pujol, “Effect of laser in situ keratomileusis on vision analyzed using preoperative optical quality,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36, 1945–1953 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Vilaseca, E. Peris, J. Pujol, R. Borras, and M. Arjona, “Intra- and intersession repeatability of a double-pass instrument,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 87, 675–681 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Vilaseca, A. Padilla, J. Pujol, J. Ondategui, P. Artal, and J. L. Güell, “Optical quality one month after verisyse and Veriflex phakic IOL implantation and Zeiss MEL 80 LASIK for myopia from 5.00 to 16.50 diopters,” J. Refr. Surg. 25, 689–698 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Díaz-Doutón, A. Benito, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, J. Güell, and P. Artal, “Comparison of the retinal image quality with a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and a double-pass instrument,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 1710–1716 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Güell, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, F. Diaz-Douton, and P. Artal, “Optical Quality Analysis System Instrument for objective clinical evaluation of ocular optical quality,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 1598–1599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Redondo, M.

A. Guirao, C. González, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Average optical performance of the human eye as a function of age in a normal population,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 203–213 (1999).

Rittenhouse, C. D.

A. F. Rossi, C. D. Rittenhouse, and M. A. Paradiso, “The representation of brightness in primary visual cortex,” Science 273, 1104–1107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, A. F.

A. F. Rossi, C. D. Rittenhouse, and M. A. Paradiso, “The representation of brightness in primary visual cortex,” Science 273, 1104–1107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ruiz, R. S.

J. T. Holladay, T. C. Prager, J. Trujillo, and R. S. Ruiz, “Brightness acuity test and outdoor visual acuity in cataract patients,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 13, 67–69 (1987).

Saab, M.

A. Saad, M. Saab, and D. Gatinel, “Repeatability of measurements with a double-pass system,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36, 28–33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Saad, A.

A. Saad, M. Saab, and D. Gatinel, “Repeatability of measurements with a double-pass system,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36, 28–33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Santamaría, J.

Situ, P.

D. B. Elliott and P. Situ, “Visual acuity versus letter contrast sensitivity in early cataract,” Vis. Res. 38, 2047–2052 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sjostrand, J.

M. Abrahamsson and J. Sjostrand, “Impairment of contrast sensitivity function (CSF) as a measure of disability glare,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 1131–1136 (1986).

Steen, R.

D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliot, and R. Steen, “Confirmation of the validity of the psychophysical light scattering factor,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 317–321 (1994).

Trujillo, J.

J. T. Holladay, T. C. Prager, J. Trujillo, and R. S. Ruiz, “Brightness acuity test and outdoor visual acuity in cataract patients,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 13, 67–69 (1987).

van den Berg, T.

G. C. de Wit, L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. van den Berg, “Simulating the straylight effects of cataracts,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32, 294–300 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Franssen, J. Coppens, and T. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 768–776 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. van den Berg, “Reliability of the compensation comparison method for measuring retinal stray light studied using Monte-Carlo simulations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054010 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van den Berg, T. J. T. P.

Vargas-Martín, F.

Vilaseca, M.

M. Vilaseca, E. Peris, J. Pujol, R. Borras, and M. Arjona, “Intra- and intersession repeatability of a double-pass instrument,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 87, 675–681 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Vilaseca, A. Padilla, J. C. Ondategui, M. Arjona, J. L. Güell, and J. Pujol, “Effect of laser in situ keratomileusis on vision analyzed using preoperative optical quality,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36, 1945–1953 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Vilaseca, A. Padilla, J. Pujol, J. Ondategui, P. Artal, and J. L. Güell, “Optical quality one month after verisyse and Veriflex phakic IOL implantation and Zeiss MEL 80 LASIK for myopia from 5.00 to 16.50 diopters,” J. Refr. Surg. 25, 689–698 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos, “Disability glare—a state of the art report,” CIE J. 3, 39–53 (1984).

Watson, A. B.

A. B. Watson and D. G. Pelli, “QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychophysical method,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 113–120 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer and J. Liang, “Evaluating diffusion of light in the eye by objective means,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 2652–2657 (1994).

Whitaker, D.

D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliot, and R. Steen, “Confirmation of the validity of the psychophysical light scattering factor,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 317–321 (1994).

Williams, D. R.

Appl. Opt.

Br. Med. J.

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Correlation, regression, and repeated data,” Br. Med. J. 308, 896 (1994).
[CrossRef]

CIE J.

J. J. Vos, “Disability glare—a state of the art report,” CIE J. 3, 39–53 (1984).

Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

A. Guirao, C. González, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, “Average optical performance of the human eye as a function of age in a normal population,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 203–213 (1999).

F. Díaz-Doutón, A. Benito, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, J. Güell, and P. Artal, “Comparison of the retinal image quality with a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and a double-pass instrument,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 1710–1716 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Abrahamsson and J. Sjostrand, “Impairment of contrast sensitivity function (CSF) as a measure of disability glare,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 1131–1136 (1986).

D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliot, and R. Steen, “Confirmation of the validity of the psychophysical light scattering factor,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 317–321 (1994).

L. Franssen, J. Coppens, and T. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 768–776 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

G. Westheimer and J. Liang, “Evaluating diffusion of light in the eye by objective means,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 2652–2657 (1994).

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. Coppens, L. Franssen, and T. van den Berg, “Reliability of the compensation comparison method for measuring retinal stray light studied using Monte-Carlo simulations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054010 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg.

J. T. Holladay, T. C. Prager, J. Trujillo, and R. S. Ruiz, “Brightness acuity test and outdoor visual acuity in cataract patients,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 13, 67–69 (1987).

A. Saad, M. Saab, and D. Gatinel, “Repeatability of measurements with a double-pass system,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36, 28–33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. C. de Wit, L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. van den Berg, “Simulating the straylight effects of cataracts,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32, 294–300 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Vilaseca, A. Padilla, J. C. Ondategui, M. Arjona, J. L. Güell, and J. Pujol, “Effect of laser in situ keratomileusis on vision analyzed using preoperative optical quality,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36, 1945–1953 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Güell, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, F. Diaz-Douton, and P. Artal, “Optical Quality Analysis System Instrument for objective clinical evaluation of ocular optical quality,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 1598–1599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurophysiol.

M. Kinoshita and H. Komatsu, “Neural representation of the luminance and brightness of a uniform surface in the macaque primary visual cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 86, 2559–2570 (2001).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Refr. Surg.

M. Vilaseca, A. Padilla, J. Pujol, J. Ondategui, P. Artal, and J. L. Güell, “Optical quality one month after verisyse and Veriflex phakic IOL implantation and Zeiss MEL 80 LASIK for myopia from 5.00 to 16.50 diopters,” J. Refr. Surg. 25, 689–698 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Refract. Sur.

P. Artal, “Understanding aberrations by using double-pass techniques,” J. Refract. Sur. 16, 560–562 (2000).

J. Vis.

G. M. Pérez, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, “Impact of scattering and spherical aberration in contrast sensitivity,” J. Vis. 9(3):19, 1–10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lighting Res. Technol.

E. Colombo, J. Barraza, and L. Issolio, “Effect of brief exposure to glare on brightness perception in the scotopic-mesopic range,” Lighting Res. Technol. 32, 65–69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ophthal. Physiol. Opt.

D. B. Elliott, “Assessment of patients with age-related cataract,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 18 (Suppl. 2), S51–S61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Appl.

P. Barrionuevo, E. Colombo, D. Corregidor, M. Jaén, and L. Issolio, “Evaluation of the intraocular scattering through brightness reduction by glare using external diffusers to simulate cataracts,” Opt. Appl. 40, 63–75 (2010).

Optom. Vis. Sci.

M. Vilaseca, E. Peris, J. Pujol, R. Borras, and M. Arjona, “Intra- and intersession repeatability of a double-pass instrument,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 87, 675–681 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Percept. Psychophys.

A. B. Watson and D. G. Pelli, “QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychophysical method,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 113–120 (1983).
[CrossRef]

PLoS ONE

P. Artal, A. Benito, G. Pérez, E. Alcón, A. De Casas, J. Pujol, and J. Marín, “An objective scatter index based on double-pass retinal images of a point source to classify cataracts,” PLoS ONE 6, e16823 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Science

A. F. Rossi, C. D. Rittenhouse, and M. A. Paradiso, “The representation of brightness in primary visual cortex,” Science 273, 1104–1107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Spatial Vis.

D. H. Brainard, “The psychophysics toolbox,” Spatial Vis. 10, 433–436 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Pelli, “The VideoToolbox software for visual psychophysics: transforming numbers into movies,” Spatial Vis. 10, 437–442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Res.

D. B. Elliott and P. Situ, “Visual acuity versus letter contrast sensitivity in early cataract,” Vis. Res. 38, 2047–2052 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup of the BCM.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Configuration of the stimuli in the BCM.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Double-pass experimental setup (LD, laser diode; L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, lenses 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5; EP, entrance pupil; ExP, exit pupil; BS1, BS2, beam splitters 1 and 2; FT, fixation test; CCD1, CCD2: CCD, cameras 1 and 2; M1, M2, M3, M4, mirrors 1, 2, 3, and 4; DF, dichroic filter; IL, infrared LED).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

PSF of the filters BPM1, BPM2, and C3020. Shaded area on the left indicates part of the components taken into account to calculate OSI. Shaded area on the right indicates which are the components assessed by the BCM.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

log(GI+1) data (a) and OSI data (b) obtained for the 10 subjects and the four scattering conditions.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Mean values of the BCM data (a) and mean values of the data obtained by the DP system (b) in the four scattering conditions. Error bars indicate 95% confidence limits.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

OSI values versus log(GI+1) values for all observers and the four scattering conditions.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Transmittances (Mean±Standard Deviation) of the Three Filters Useda

Tables Icon

Table 2. P-Values Obtained from the Comparison Throw Tukey Post-Test between Two Conditions for Each Systema

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

GI=LrLmg1,

Metrics