Abstract

External occulters for NASA exoplanet missions have been proposed as the means to suppressing the Poisson spot intensity by at least 10 orders of magnitude. The leading proposed external occulter shapes adhere to the binary petaled occulters with sharp petal tips. In a recent paper, Wasylkiwskyj and Shiri [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 1668 (2011) [CrossRef]  ] (WS2011) investigated two forms of occulters: a binary petaled occulter and a circular partially transparent occulter. They showed that the achievable intensity reduction for a petal-style occulter is limited by the radii of curvature at the petal tips. For a partially transparent occulter they derived the optimum transparency function that minimizes the intensity on the optic axis within a prescribed wavelength range and provides the required intensity suppression. Since the publication of WS2011, a paper by Cash describes the analytical model of the occulter [Astrophys. J. 738, 76 (2011) [CrossRef]  ] and recent commentary by Cash and Lo [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 913 (2012)] (CL2011) compares the intensity reduction of petal shape functions and concludes prematurely against the petal shapes in WS2011. In this correspondence, we analyze the performance of a petal shaped occulter with petals tips of 0.1 mm width (following the prescription of CL2011) and show that its suppression performance is compatible with the calculations reported in WS2011 and measured intensity reduction reported in [Proc. SPIE 6687, 66871B (2007) [CrossRef]  ] and [Proc. SPIE 6693, 669305 (2007) [CrossRef]  ].

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Cash and A. Lo, “Limits on achievable intensity reduction with an optical occulter: comment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 913–917 (2012).
  2. W. Wasylkiwskyj and S. Shiri, “Limits on achievable intensity reduction with an optical occulter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 1668–1676 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. J. Copi and G. D. Starkman, “The Big Occulting Steerable Satellite (BOSS),” Astrophys. J. 532, 581–592 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Cash, “Analytic modeling of starshades,” Astrophys. J. 738, 76 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. B. Leviton, W. C. Cash, B. Gleason, M. J. Kaiser, S. A. Levine, A. S. Lo, E. Schindhelm, and A. F. Shipley, “White-light demonstration of one hundred parts per billion irradiance suppression in air by new starshade occulters,” Proc. SPIE 6687, 66871B (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Schindhelm, A. Shipley, P. Oakley, D. Leviton, W. Cash, and G. Card, “Laboratory studies of petal-shaped occulters,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669305 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. B. Schultz, I. J. E. Jordan, M. Kochte, D. Fraquelli, F. Bruhweiler, J. M. Hollis, K. G. Carpenter, R. G. Lyon, M. DiSanti, C. Miskey, J. Leitner, R. D. Burns, S. R. Starin, M. Rodrigue, M. S. Fadali, D. Skelton, H. M. Hart, F. Hamilton, and K. P. Cheng, “UMBRAS: a matched occulter and telescope for imaging extrasolar planets,” Proc. SPIE 4860, 54–61 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

2007 (2)

D. B. Leviton, W. C. Cash, B. Gleason, M. J. Kaiser, S. A. Levine, A. S. Lo, E. Schindhelm, and A. F. Shipley, “White-light demonstration of one hundred parts per billion irradiance suppression in air by new starshade occulters,” Proc. SPIE 6687, 66871B (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Schindhelm, A. Shipley, P. Oakley, D. Leviton, W. Cash, and G. Card, “Laboratory studies of petal-shaped occulters,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. B. Schultz, I. J. E. Jordan, M. Kochte, D. Fraquelli, F. Bruhweiler, J. M. Hollis, K. G. Carpenter, R. G. Lyon, M. DiSanti, C. Miskey, J. Leitner, R. D. Burns, S. R. Starin, M. Rodrigue, M. S. Fadali, D. Skelton, H. M. Hart, F. Hamilton, and K. P. Cheng, “UMBRAS: a matched occulter and telescope for imaging extrasolar planets,” Proc. SPIE 4860, 54–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. J. Copi and G. D. Starkman, “The Big Occulting Steerable Satellite (BOSS),” Astrophys. J. 532, 581–592 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bruhweiler, F.

A. B. Schultz, I. J. E. Jordan, M. Kochte, D. Fraquelli, F. Bruhweiler, J. M. Hollis, K. G. Carpenter, R. G. Lyon, M. DiSanti, C. Miskey, J. Leitner, R. D. Burns, S. R. Starin, M. Rodrigue, M. S. Fadali, D. Skelton, H. M. Hart, F. Hamilton, and K. P. Cheng, “UMBRAS: a matched occulter and telescope for imaging extrasolar planets,” Proc. SPIE 4860, 54–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Burns, R. D.

A. B. Schultz, I. J. E. Jordan, M. Kochte, D. Fraquelli, F. Bruhweiler, J. M. Hollis, K. G. Carpenter, R. G. Lyon, M. DiSanti, C. Miskey, J. Leitner, R. D. Burns, S. R. Starin, M. Rodrigue, M. S. Fadali, D. Skelton, H. M. Hart, F. Hamilton, and K. P. Cheng, “UMBRAS: a matched occulter and telescope for imaging extrasolar planets,” Proc. SPIE 4860, 54–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Card, G.

E. Schindhelm, A. Shipley, P. Oakley, D. Leviton, W. Cash, and G. Card, “Laboratory studies of petal-shaped occulters,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carpenter, K. G.

A. B. Schultz, I. J. E. Jordan, M. Kochte, D. Fraquelli, F. Bruhweiler, J. M. Hollis, K. G. Carpenter, R. G. Lyon, M. DiSanti, C. Miskey, J. Leitner, R. D. Burns, S. R. Starin, M. Rodrigue, M. S. Fadali, D. Skelton, H. M. Hart, F. Hamilton, and K. P. Cheng, “UMBRAS: a matched occulter and telescope for imaging extrasolar planets,” Proc. SPIE 4860, 54–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cash, W.

W. Cash and A. Lo, “Limits on achievable intensity reduction with an optical occulter: comment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 913–917 (2012).

W. Cash, “Analytic modeling of starshades,” Astrophys. J. 738, 76 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Schindhelm, A. Shipley, P. Oakley, D. Leviton, W. Cash, and G. Card, “Laboratory studies of petal-shaped occulters,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cash, W. C.

D. B. Leviton, W. C. Cash, B. Gleason, M. J. Kaiser, S. A. Levine, A. S. Lo, E. Schindhelm, and A. F. Shipley, “White-light demonstration of one hundred parts per billion irradiance suppression in air by new starshade occulters,” Proc. SPIE 6687, 66871B (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, K. P.

A. B. Schultz, I. J. E. Jordan, M. Kochte, D. Fraquelli, F. Bruhweiler, J. M. Hollis, K. G. Carpenter, R. G. Lyon, M. DiSanti, C. Miskey, J. Leitner, R. D. Burns, S. R. Starin, M. Rodrigue, M. S. Fadali, D. Skelton, H. M. Hart, F. Hamilton, and K. P. Cheng, “UMBRAS: a matched occulter and telescope for imaging extrasolar planets,” Proc. SPIE 4860, 54–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Copi, C. J.

C. J. Copi and G. D. Starkman, “The Big Occulting Steerable Satellite (BOSS),” Astrophys. J. 532, 581–592 (2000).
[CrossRef]

DiSanti, M.

A. B. Schultz, I. J. E. Jordan, M. Kochte, D. Fraquelli, F. Bruhweiler, J. M. Hollis, K. G. Carpenter, R. G. Lyon, M. DiSanti, C. Miskey, J. Leitner, R. D. Burns, S. R. Starin, M. Rodrigue, M. S. Fadali, D. Skelton, H. M. Hart, F. Hamilton, and K. P. Cheng, “UMBRAS: a matched occulter and telescope for imaging extrasolar planets,” Proc. SPIE 4860, 54–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fadali, M. S.

A. B. Schultz, I. J. E. Jordan, M. Kochte, D. Fraquelli, F. Bruhweiler, J. M. Hollis, K. G. Carpenter, R. G. Lyon, M. DiSanti, C. Miskey, J. Leitner, R. D. Burns, S. R. Starin, M. Rodrigue, M. S. Fadali, D. Skelton, H. M. Hart, F. Hamilton, and K. P. Cheng, “UMBRAS: a matched occulter and telescope for imaging extrasolar planets,” Proc. SPIE 4860, 54–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fraquelli, D.

A. B. Schultz, I. J. E. Jordan, M. Kochte, D. Fraquelli, F. Bruhweiler, J. M. Hollis, K. G. Carpenter, R. G. Lyon, M. DiSanti, C. Miskey, J. Leitner, R. D. Burns, S. R. Starin, M. Rodrigue, M. S. Fadali, D. Skelton, H. M. Hart, F. Hamilton, and K. P. Cheng, “UMBRAS: a matched occulter and telescope for imaging extrasolar planets,” Proc. SPIE 4860, 54–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gleason, B.

D. B. Leviton, W. C. Cash, B. Gleason, M. J. Kaiser, S. A. Levine, A. S. Lo, E. Schindhelm, and A. F. Shipley, “White-light demonstration of one hundred parts per billion irradiance suppression in air by new starshade occulters,” Proc. SPIE 6687, 66871B (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, F.

A. B. Schultz, I. J. E. Jordan, M. Kochte, D. Fraquelli, F. Bruhweiler, J. M. Hollis, K. G. Carpenter, R. G. Lyon, M. DiSanti, C. Miskey, J. Leitner, R. D. Burns, S. R. Starin, M. Rodrigue, M. S. Fadali, D. Skelton, H. M. Hart, F. Hamilton, and K. P. Cheng, “UMBRAS: a matched occulter and telescope for imaging extrasolar planets,” Proc. SPIE 4860, 54–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hart, H. M.

A. B. Schultz, I. J. E. Jordan, M. Kochte, D. Fraquelli, F. Bruhweiler, J. M. Hollis, K. G. Carpenter, R. G. Lyon, M. DiSanti, C. Miskey, J. Leitner, R. D. Burns, S. R. Starin, M. Rodrigue, M. S. Fadali, D. Skelton, H. M. Hart, F. Hamilton, and K. P. Cheng, “UMBRAS: a matched occulter and telescope for imaging extrasolar planets,” Proc. SPIE 4860, 54–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hollis, J. M.

A. B. Schultz, I. J. E. Jordan, M. Kochte, D. Fraquelli, F. Bruhweiler, J. M. Hollis, K. G. Carpenter, R. G. Lyon, M. DiSanti, C. Miskey, J. Leitner, R. D. Burns, S. R. Starin, M. Rodrigue, M. S. Fadali, D. Skelton, H. M. Hart, F. Hamilton, and K. P. Cheng, “UMBRAS: a matched occulter and telescope for imaging extrasolar planets,” Proc. SPIE 4860, 54–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, I. J. E.

A. B. Schultz, I. J. E. Jordan, M. Kochte, D. Fraquelli, F. Bruhweiler, J. M. Hollis, K. G. Carpenter, R. G. Lyon, M. DiSanti, C. Miskey, J. Leitner, R. D. Burns, S. R. Starin, M. Rodrigue, M. S. Fadali, D. Skelton, H. M. Hart, F. Hamilton, and K. P. Cheng, “UMBRAS: a matched occulter and telescope for imaging extrasolar planets,” Proc. SPIE 4860, 54–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, M. J.

D. B. Leviton, W. C. Cash, B. Gleason, M. J. Kaiser, S. A. Levine, A. S. Lo, E. Schindhelm, and A. F. Shipley, “White-light demonstration of one hundred parts per billion irradiance suppression in air by new starshade occulters,” Proc. SPIE 6687, 66871B (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kochte, M.

A. B. Schultz, I. J. E. Jordan, M. Kochte, D. Fraquelli, F. Bruhweiler, J. M. Hollis, K. G. Carpenter, R. G. Lyon, M. DiSanti, C. Miskey, J. Leitner, R. D. Burns, S. R. Starin, M. Rodrigue, M. S. Fadali, D. Skelton, H. M. Hart, F. Hamilton, and K. P. Cheng, “UMBRAS: a matched occulter and telescope for imaging extrasolar planets,” Proc. SPIE 4860, 54–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, J.

A. B. Schultz, I. J. E. Jordan, M. Kochte, D. Fraquelli, F. Bruhweiler, J. M. Hollis, K. G. Carpenter, R. G. Lyon, M. DiSanti, C. Miskey, J. Leitner, R. D. Burns, S. R. Starin, M. Rodrigue, M. S. Fadali, D. Skelton, H. M. Hart, F. Hamilton, and K. P. Cheng, “UMBRAS: a matched occulter and telescope for imaging extrasolar planets,” Proc. SPIE 4860, 54–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Levine, S. A.

D. B. Leviton, W. C. Cash, B. Gleason, M. J. Kaiser, S. A. Levine, A. S. Lo, E. Schindhelm, and A. F. Shipley, “White-light demonstration of one hundred parts per billion irradiance suppression in air by new starshade occulters,” Proc. SPIE 6687, 66871B (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leviton, D.

E. Schindhelm, A. Shipley, P. Oakley, D. Leviton, W. Cash, and G. Card, “Laboratory studies of petal-shaped occulters,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leviton, D. B.

D. B. Leviton, W. C. Cash, B. Gleason, M. J. Kaiser, S. A. Levine, A. S. Lo, E. Schindhelm, and A. F. Shipley, “White-light demonstration of one hundred parts per billion irradiance suppression in air by new starshade occulters,” Proc. SPIE 6687, 66871B (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lo, A.

Lo, A. S.

D. B. Leviton, W. C. Cash, B. Gleason, M. J. Kaiser, S. A. Levine, A. S. Lo, E. Schindhelm, and A. F. Shipley, “White-light demonstration of one hundred parts per billion irradiance suppression in air by new starshade occulters,” Proc. SPIE 6687, 66871B (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lyon, R. G.

A. B. Schultz, I. J. E. Jordan, M. Kochte, D. Fraquelli, F. Bruhweiler, J. M. Hollis, K. G. Carpenter, R. G. Lyon, M. DiSanti, C. Miskey, J. Leitner, R. D. Burns, S. R. Starin, M. Rodrigue, M. S. Fadali, D. Skelton, H. M. Hart, F. Hamilton, and K. P. Cheng, “UMBRAS: a matched occulter and telescope for imaging extrasolar planets,” Proc. SPIE 4860, 54–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miskey, C.

A. B. Schultz, I. J. E. Jordan, M. Kochte, D. Fraquelli, F. Bruhweiler, J. M. Hollis, K. G. Carpenter, R. G. Lyon, M. DiSanti, C. Miskey, J. Leitner, R. D. Burns, S. R. Starin, M. Rodrigue, M. S. Fadali, D. Skelton, H. M. Hart, F. Hamilton, and K. P. Cheng, “UMBRAS: a matched occulter and telescope for imaging extrasolar planets,” Proc. SPIE 4860, 54–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oakley, P.

E. Schindhelm, A. Shipley, P. Oakley, D. Leviton, W. Cash, and G. Card, “Laboratory studies of petal-shaped occulters,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rodrigue, M.

A. B. Schultz, I. J. E. Jordan, M. Kochte, D. Fraquelli, F. Bruhweiler, J. M. Hollis, K. G. Carpenter, R. G. Lyon, M. DiSanti, C. Miskey, J. Leitner, R. D. Burns, S. R. Starin, M. Rodrigue, M. S. Fadali, D. Skelton, H. M. Hart, F. Hamilton, and K. P. Cheng, “UMBRAS: a matched occulter and telescope for imaging extrasolar planets,” Proc. SPIE 4860, 54–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schindhelm, E.

E. Schindhelm, A. Shipley, P. Oakley, D. Leviton, W. Cash, and G. Card, “Laboratory studies of petal-shaped occulters,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Leviton, W. C. Cash, B. Gleason, M. J. Kaiser, S. A. Levine, A. S. Lo, E. Schindhelm, and A. F. Shipley, “White-light demonstration of one hundred parts per billion irradiance suppression in air by new starshade occulters,” Proc. SPIE 6687, 66871B (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, A. B.

A. B. Schultz, I. J. E. Jordan, M. Kochte, D. Fraquelli, F. Bruhweiler, J. M. Hollis, K. G. Carpenter, R. G. Lyon, M. DiSanti, C. Miskey, J. Leitner, R. D. Burns, S. R. Starin, M. Rodrigue, M. S. Fadali, D. Skelton, H. M. Hart, F. Hamilton, and K. P. Cheng, “UMBRAS: a matched occulter and telescope for imaging extrasolar planets,” Proc. SPIE 4860, 54–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shipley, A.

E. Schindhelm, A. Shipley, P. Oakley, D. Leviton, W. Cash, and G. Card, “Laboratory studies of petal-shaped occulters,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shipley, A. F.

D. B. Leviton, W. C. Cash, B. Gleason, M. J. Kaiser, S. A. Levine, A. S. Lo, E. Schindhelm, and A. F. Shipley, “White-light demonstration of one hundred parts per billion irradiance suppression in air by new starshade occulters,” Proc. SPIE 6687, 66871B (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shiri, S.

Skelton, D.

A. B. Schultz, I. J. E. Jordan, M. Kochte, D. Fraquelli, F. Bruhweiler, J. M. Hollis, K. G. Carpenter, R. G. Lyon, M. DiSanti, C. Miskey, J. Leitner, R. D. Burns, S. R. Starin, M. Rodrigue, M. S. Fadali, D. Skelton, H. M. Hart, F. Hamilton, and K. P. Cheng, “UMBRAS: a matched occulter and telescope for imaging extrasolar planets,” Proc. SPIE 4860, 54–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Starin, S. R.

A. B. Schultz, I. J. E. Jordan, M. Kochte, D. Fraquelli, F. Bruhweiler, J. M. Hollis, K. G. Carpenter, R. G. Lyon, M. DiSanti, C. Miskey, J. Leitner, R. D. Burns, S. R. Starin, M. Rodrigue, M. S. Fadali, D. Skelton, H. M. Hart, F. Hamilton, and K. P. Cheng, “UMBRAS: a matched occulter and telescope for imaging extrasolar planets,” Proc. SPIE 4860, 54–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Starkman, G. D.

C. J. Copi and G. D. Starkman, “The Big Occulting Steerable Satellite (BOSS),” Astrophys. J. 532, 581–592 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wasylkiwskyj, W.

Astrophys. J. (2)

C. J. Copi and G. D. Starkman, “The Big Occulting Steerable Satellite (BOSS),” Astrophys. J. 532, 581–592 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Cash, “Analytic modeling of starshades,” Astrophys. J. 738, 76 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Proc. SPIE (3)

D. B. Leviton, W. C. Cash, B. Gleason, M. J. Kaiser, S. A. Levine, A. S. Lo, E. Schindhelm, and A. F. Shipley, “White-light demonstration of one hundred parts per billion irradiance suppression in air by new starshade occulters,” Proc. SPIE 6687, 66871B (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Schindhelm, A. Shipley, P. Oakley, D. Leviton, W. Cash, and G. Card, “Laboratory studies of petal-shaped occulters,” Proc. SPIE 6693, 669305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Schultz, I. J. E. Jordan, M. Kochte, D. Fraquelli, F. Bruhweiler, J. M. Hollis, K. G. Carpenter, R. G. Lyon, M. DiSanti, C. Miskey, J. Leitner, R. D. Burns, S. R. Starin, M. Rodrigue, M. S. Fadali, D. Skelton, H. M. Hart, F. Hamilton, and K. P. Cheng, “UMBRAS: a matched occulter and telescope for imaging extrasolar planets,” Proc. SPIE 4860, 54–61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Comparison of flat tip and rounded tip at 0.1 mm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Intensity reduction along optical axis.

Metrics