Abstract

A perceptual experiment was conducted to measure the visibility of black-level differences in the proximity of a bright glare source. In a controlled viewing environment, visual difference thresholds were adaptively measured using dark, shadow-detail images shown on a high dynamic range liquid crystal display while an external LED lamp was used to induce intra-ocular glare over a small range of eccentricities. This high-contrast situation is relevant to high dynamic range displays that may have bright regions in displayed images, as well as to viewing environments that include lamps or other light sources. The resulting difference thresholds are modeled with a combination of the CIE total glare equation, the DICOM contrast visibility model, and a new estimate of adaptation luminance.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Seetzen, L. Whitehead, and G. Ward, “A high dynamic range display system using low and high resolution modulators,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, 2003), Vol. 34, pp. 1450–1453.
  2. CIE, “Disability glare. Vision and colour: Physical measurement of light and radiation,” Research Note 135/1 (CIE, 1999).
  3. H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2004, J. C. Hart, ed. (ACM, 2004), pp. 760–768.
  4. J. J. McCann and A. Rizzi, “Retinal HDR images: Intraocular glare and object size,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 913–920 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Swinkels, R. Muijs, E. Langendijk, and F. Vossen, “Effect of backlight segmentation on perceived image quality for HDR displays,” in Proceedings of IDW 2006 (Society for Information Display, 2006), pp. 1451–1454.
  6. E. H. A. Langendijk and M. Hammer, “Contrast requirements for OLEDs and LCDs based on human eye glare,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, 2010), Vol. 41, pp. 192–194.
  7. R. Mantiuk, S. Daly, and L. Kerofsky, “The luminance of pure black: exploring the effect of surround in the context of electronic displays,” Proc. SPIE 7527, 75270W (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. G. J. Barten, “Physical model for the contrast sensitivity of the human eye,” Proc. SPIE 1666, 57–72 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. DICOM, “Digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM), Part 14: Grayscale standard display function,” PS 3.14-2008 (National Electrical Manufacturers Association, 2008).
  10. C. Kaernbach, “Simple adaptive testing with the weighted up-down method,” Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 49, 227–229 (1991).
  11. P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, “The visual effect of non-uniform surrounds,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35 (3), 233–248 (1945).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

R. Mantiuk, S. Daly, and L. Kerofsky, “The luminance of pure black: exploring the effect of surround in the context of electronic displays,” Proc. SPIE 7527, 75270W (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. J. McCann and A. Rizzi, “Retinal HDR images: Intraocular glare and object size,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 913–920 (2009).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

P. G. J. Barten, “Physical model for the contrast sensitivity of the human eye,” Proc. SPIE 1666, 57–72 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

C. Kaernbach, “Simple adaptive testing with the weighted up-down method,” Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 49, 227–229 (1991).

1945 (1)

Barten, P. G. J.

P. G. J. Barten, “Physical model for the contrast sensitivity of the human eye,” Proc. SPIE 1666, 57–72 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Daly, S.

R. Mantiuk, S. Daly, and L. Kerofsky, “The luminance of pure black: exploring the effect of surround in the context of electronic displays,” Proc. SPIE 7527, 75270W (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, A.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2004, J. C. Hart, ed. (ACM, 2004), pp. 760–768.

Hammer, M.

E. H. A. Langendijk and M. Hammer, “Contrast requirements for OLEDs and LCDs based on human eye glare,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, 2010), Vol. 41, pp. 192–194.

Heidrich, W.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2004, J. C. Hart, ed. (ACM, 2004), pp. 760–768.

Kaernbach, C.

C. Kaernbach, “Simple adaptive testing with the weighted up-down method,” Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 49, 227–229 (1991).

Kerofsky, L.

R. Mantiuk, S. Daly, and L. Kerofsky, “The luminance of pure black: exploring the effect of surround in the context of electronic displays,” Proc. SPIE 7527, 75270W (2010).
[CrossRef]

Langendijk, E.

S. Swinkels, R. Muijs, E. Langendijk, and F. Vossen, “Effect of backlight segmentation on perceived image quality for HDR displays,” in Proceedings of IDW 2006 (Society for Information Display, 2006), pp. 1451–1454.

Langendijk, E. H. A.

E. H. A. Langendijk and M. Hammer, “Contrast requirements for OLEDs and LCDs based on human eye glare,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, 2010), Vol. 41, pp. 192–194.

Mantiuk, R.

R. Mantiuk, S. Daly, and L. Kerofsky, “The luminance of pure black: exploring the effect of surround in the context of electronic displays,” Proc. SPIE 7527, 75270W (2010).
[CrossRef]

McCann, J. J.

J. J. McCann and A. Rizzi, “Retinal HDR images: Intraocular glare and object size,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 913–920 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moon, P.

Muijs, R.

S. Swinkels, R. Muijs, E. Langendijk, and F. Vossen, “Effect of backlight segmentation on perceived image quality for HDR displays,” in Proceedings of IDW 2006 (Society for Information Display, 2006), pp. 1451–1454.

Rizzi, A.

J. J. McCann and A. Rizzi, “Retinal HDR images: Intraocular glare and object size,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 913–920 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seetzen, H.

H. Seetzen, L. Whitehead, and G. Ward, “A high dynamic range display system using low and high resolution modulators,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, 2003), Vol. 34, pp. 1450–1453.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2004, J. C. Hart, ed. (ACM, 2004), pp. 760–768.

Spencer, D. E.

Stuerzlinger, W.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2004, J. C. Hart, ed. (ACM, 2004), pp. 760–768.

Swinkels, S.

S. Swinkels, R. Muijs, E. Langendijk, and F. Vossen, “Effect of backlight segmentation on perceived image quality for HDR displays,” in Proceedings of IDW 2006 (Society for Information Display, 2006), pp. 1451–1454.

Trentacoste, M.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2004, J. C. Hart, ed. (ACM, 2004), pp. 760–768.

Vorozcovs, A.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2004, J. C. Hart, ed. (ACM, 2004), pp. 760–768.

Vossen, F.

S. Swinkels, R. Muijs, E. Langendijk, and F. Vossen, “Effect of backlight segmentation on perceived image quality for HDR displays,” in Proceedings of IDW 2006 (Society for Information Display, 2006), pp. 1451–1454.

Ward, G.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2004, J. C. Hart, ed. (ACM, 2004), pp. 760–768.

H. Seetzen, L. Whitehead, and G. Ward, “A high dynamic range display system using low and high resolution modulators,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, 2003), Vol. 34, pp. 1450–1453.

Whitehead, L.

H. Seetzen, L. Whitehead, and G. Ward, “A high dynamic range display system using low and high resolution modulators,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, 2003), Vol. 34, pp. 1450–1453.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2004, J. C. Hart, ed. (ACM, 2004), pp. 760–768.

Atten. Percept. Psychophys. (1)

C. Kaernbach, “Simple adaptive testing with the weighted up-down method,” Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 49, 227–229 (1991).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

J. J. McCann and A. Rizzi, “Retinal HDR images: Intraocular glare and object size,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17, 913–920 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. Mantiuk, S. Daly, and L. Kerofsky, “The luminance of pure black: exploring the effect of surround in the context of electronic displays,” Proc. SPIE 7527, 75270W (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. G. J. Barten, “Physical model for the contrast sensitivity of the human eye,” Proc. SPIE 1666, 57–72 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

DICOM, “Digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM), Part 14: Grayscale standard display function,” PS 3.14-2008 (National Electrical Manufacturers Association, 2008).

S. Swinkels, R. Muijs, E. Langendijk, and F. Vossen, “Effect of backlight segmentation on perceived image quality for HDR displays,” in Proceedings of IDW 2006 (Society for Information Display, 2006), pp. 1451–1454.

E. H. A. Langendijk and M. Hammer, “Contrast requirements for OLEDs and LCDs based on human eye glare,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, 2010), Vol. 41, pp. 192–194.

H. Seetzen, L. Whitehead, and G. Ward, “A high dynamic range display system using low and high resolution modulators,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, 2003), Vol. 34, pp. 1450–1453.

CIE, “Disability glare. Vision and colour: Physical measurement of light and radiation,” Research Note 135/1 (CIE, 1999).

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2004, J. C. Hart, ed. (ACM, 2004), pp. 760–768.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

DICOM perceptually uniform luminance differences, in percent luminance, as a function of average luminance. Beyond the right edge of this plot, the steps reach a minimum of about 0.8% at 200cd/m2, and then rise slowly with higher luminance.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photograph of the double LCD taken from the viewpoint of the observer, showing the 1° grid image on the center 20×20 degree region of the screen and the lit LED glare lamp at the bottom. The red shaded squares show the possible positions of the image pairs at distances of 4, 7, and 10 degrees of visual angle from the glare source.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Top view of the viewing box with its top removed in a photograph (L) and in a diagram (R), showing the baffles (bold green) that were angled so that the surfaces facing the observer were not illuminated by the display. Similar baffles were used above and below the observer’s head, as can be seen in the photograph. Also visible in the photograph, directly below the display, is the box housing the LED glare source. The wide horizontal strip visible is a structural member holding the baffles in place.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Diagram of the experimental conditions on axes of glare angle, glare luminance, and image luminance. Six images were presented with each condition. Not shown, Condition 1 was a short training staircase with factor levels matching 5b; it was excluded from the analysis.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Source images used in the experiment. Upper, L-R: cosine, cosine2, curls. Lower, L-R: eye, nose, palm. Each image was presented at a size of two degrees of visual angle square.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Image processing steps used to create black-level variations. First, the images were normalized to the same mean luminance. Next, the normalized image was scaled to move the mean luminance to the average luminance required for the experiment, and finally, the black level was raised by scaling the luminance down and shifting it up, compressing the range while preserving the maximum luminance value.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Black luminance thresholds with 95% confidence intervals for all ten experimental conditions (labeled). High-glare (10,000cd/m2) conditions for two average image luminance levels (0.50cd/m2 in blue squares; 0.25cd/m2 in red circles) and low-glare (1,000cd/m2) conditions for two average image luminance levels (0.50cd/m2 in magenta triangles; 0.25cd/m2 in green diamonds) are shown as a function of visual angle from the glare source. The no-glare condition is labeled on the x-axis as “NG.”

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Mean black luminance thresholds with 95% confidence intervals for the six images used in the experiment. The pair of images cosine2 and eye is significantly lower than the group of the four remaining images; however, eye and curls are not significantly different from one another.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Experimental luminance thresholds with 95% confidence intervals for all experimental conditions shown as a function of visual angle from the glare source (the no-glare condition is labeled on the x-axis as “NG”). The predictions of the improved model taking into account adaptation luminance are shown as stars near the corresponding experimental points. The model fit resulted in a R2=0.95.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Spatial sensitivity curve used in the computation of adaptation luminance as a function of visual angle. The dashed red curve (standard deviation 0.67) is weighted 99.35% in linear combination with the dotted green curve (standard deviation 3.9) weighted 0.65% to create the solid blue curve. Looking at the area beneath the curve, the central 92%, based on Moon and Spencer’s suggestion, is shaded gray, corresponding to a 2.2° foveal region.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of Black-Level Thresholds Measured in the Experiment for Each Conditiona

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