Abstract

Literature that describes the prevalence of inherited red-green color deficiency in different populations is reviewed. Large random population surveys show that the prevalence of deficiency in European Caucasians is about 8% in men and about 0.4% in women and between 4% and 6.5% in men of Chinese and Japanese ethnicity. However, the male: female prevalence ratio is markedly different in Europeans and Asians. Recent surveys suggest that the prevalence is rising in men of African ethnicity and in geographic areas that have been settled by incoming migrants. It is proposed that founder events and genetic drift, rather than natural selection, are the cause of these differences.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  28. R. A. Crone, “Incidence of known and unknown colour vision defects,” Ophthalmol. Basel 155, 37–55 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  38. P. C. Dutta, “Variability and regional differences of colour blindness in India,” Hum. Genet. 2, 204–206 (1966).
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  40. I. Iinuma and Y. Handa, “Mass examination of colour sense using the anomaloscope,” Acta Soc. Ophthalmol. Jpn. 76, 549–557 (1972).
  41. H. Ichikawa and A. Majima, “Genealogical studies on interesting families of defective colour vision discovered by mass examination in Japan and Formosa,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol.  13, 265–271 (1974).
  42. G. O. Williams, F. E. Taylor, I. I. Odidika, and K. A. Musa, “Frequency of colour blindness among Nigerian school children in Lagos,” Am. J. Hum. Biol. 10, 283–288 (1998).
  43. P. G. C. Odeigah and E. E. Okon, “Colour vision defects and gene flow in Nigerians,” East Afr. Med. J. 63, 666–671 (1986).
  44. K. B. M. Crooks, “Further observations on colour blindness among Negroes,” Hum. Biol. 8, 451–458 (1936).
  45. D. R. Sweeney, R. T. Zegers, and W. E. Collins, “Color blindness in male negro children,” J. Soc. Psychol. 62, 85–91 (1964).
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  48. M. Cruz, H. G. S. Cerdana, A. M. B. Cabrera, C. B. Garcia, E. T. Santos-Morabe, and M. L. R. Nanagas, “Prevalence of color-vision deficiency among male high-school students,” Phil. J. Ophthalmol. 35, 20–24 (2010).
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  56. M. Rodriguez-Carmona, L. T. Sharpe, J. A. Harlow, and J. L. Barbur, “Sex related differences in chromatic sensitivity,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 433–440 (2008).
  57. G. Jordan and J. D. Mollon, “A study of women heterozygous for colour deficiencies,” Vision Res. 33, 1495–1508 (1993).
  58. E. Konstantakopoulou, M. Rodriguez-Carmona, and J. L. Barbur, “Processing of colour signals in female carriers of colour vision deficiency,” J. Vision submitted.
  59. J. M. Steward and B. L. Cole, “What do colour vision defectives say about everyday tasks?” Optom. Vis. Sci. 66, 288–295 (1989).
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2011

J. Neitz and M. Neitz, “The genetics of normal and defective color vision,” Vis. Res. 51, 633–651 (2011).

2010

M. Cruz, H. G. S. Cerdana, A. M. B. Cabrera, C. B. Garcia, E. T. Santos-Morabe, and M. L. R. Nanagas, “Prevalence of color-vision deficiency among male high-school students,” Phil. J. Ophthalmol. 35, 20–24 (2010).

J. Birch, “Identification of red-green colour deficiency: Sensitivity of the Ishihara and American Optical Company (Hardy, Rand and Rittler) pseudoisochromatic plates to identify slight anomalous trichromatism,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 667–671 (2010).

2008

R. C. Baraas, “Poorer color discrimination by females when tested with pseudoisochromatic plates containing vanishing designs on neutral backgrounds,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 501–505 (2008).

M. Rodriguez-Carmona, L. T. Sharpe, J. A. Harlow, and J. L. Barbur, “Sex related differences in chromatic sensitivity,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 433–440 (2008).

C. McMahon, J. Carroll, S. Awua, J. Neitz, and M. Neitz, “The L:  M cone ratio in males of African descent with normal color vision,” J. Vision 8(2):5, 1–9 (2008).

2005

S. S. Deeb, “The molecular basis of variation in human color vision,” Clin. Genet. 67, 369–377 (2005).

M. Citirik, G. Acaroglu, C. Batman, and O. Zilelioglu, “Congenital colour blindness in young Turkish men,” Ophthalmol. Epidemiol. 12, 133–137 (2005).

2003

H. Ueyama, Y. H. Li, G. L. Fu, P. Lertrit, L. O. Atchaneeyasakul, S. Oda, S. Tanabe, Y. Nishida, S. Yamada, and I. Ohkubo, “An A-71C substitution in a green gene at the second position in the red/green visual-pigment gene array is associated with deutan color deficiency,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 3357–3362 (2003).

2001

H. Ueyama, S. Hayashi, S. Tanabe, Y. Tanaka, T. Hayashi, S. S. Deeb, S. Yamada, and I. Ohkub, “ Number and arrangement of the red and green visual pigment genes in color-normal Japanese males,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S84–88 (2001).

1998

G. O. Williams, F. E. Taylor, I. I. Odidika, and K. A. Musa, “Frequency of colour blindness among Nigerian school children in Lagos,” Am. J. Hum. Biol. 10, 283–288 (1998).

1997

J. Birch, “Efficiency of the Ishihara plates for identifying red–green colour deficiency,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 17, 403–408 (1997).

1996

M. Modarres, M. Mirasamadi, and G. A. Peyman, “Prevalence of congenital colour deficiencies in secondary school students in Tehran,” Intern. Ophthalmol. 20, 221–222 (1996).

1995

S. Naresh, “Study of colour blindness in Jat Sikhs,” Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 39, 127–130 (1995).

1993

G. Jordan and J. D. Mollon, “A study of women heterozygous for colour deficiencies,” Vision Res. 33, 1495–1508 (1993).

1990

A. L. Jorgenson, S. S. Deeb, and A. G. Motulsky, “Molecular genetics of X chromosome-linked color vision among populations of African and Japanese ancestry: High frequency of a shortened red pigment gene among Afro-Americans,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 6512–6516 (1990).

1989

J. M. Steward and B. L. Cole, “What do colour vision defectives say about everyday tasks?” Optom. Vis. Sci. 66, 288–295 (1989).

H. B. Kim, S. G. Lee, M. D. Choe, J. K. Lee, and B. H. Ahn, “The incidence of congenital colour deficiency among Koreans,” J. Kor. Med. Sci. 4, 117–120 (1989).

1987

T. E. Reimchen, “Human color vision deficiencies and atmospheric twilight,” Soc. Biol. 34, 1–11 (1987).

1986

P. G. C. Odeigah and E. E. Okon, “Colour vision defects and gene flow in Nigerians,” East Afr. Med. J. 63, 666–671 (1986).

1980

T. A. Ahmad and S. L. Chai, “Colour Vision in the Singapore male,” Sing. Med. J. 21, 639–642 (1980).

1978

K. Feig and H.-H. Ropers, “On the incidence of unilateral and bilateral colour blindness in heterozygous females,” Hum. Genet. 41, 313–323 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976

J. Koliopoulos, P. Iordanides, G. Palimeris, and E. Chimonidou, “Data concerning colour vision deficiencies among 29,985 young Greeks,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 161–164 (1976).

I. Iinuma and Y. Handa, “A consideration of the racial incidence of congenital dyschromats in males and females,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 151–157 (1976).

1974

H. Ichikawa and A. Majima, “Genealogical studies on interesting families of defective colour vision discovered by mass examination in Japan and Formosa,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol.  13, 265–271 (1974).

1972

I. Iinuma and Y. Handa, “Mass examination of colour sense using the anomaloscope,” Acta Soc. Ophthalmol. Jpn. 76, 549–557 (1972).

1968

R. A. Crone, “Incidence of known and unknown colour vision defects,” Ophthalmol. Basel 155, 37–55 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967

H. Forsius, A. W. Eriksson, and J. Fellman, “Colour blindness in Finland,” Acta Ophthalmol. 46, 542–552 (1967).

1966

P. C. Dutta, “Variability and regional differences of colour blindness in India,” Hum. Genet. 2, 204–206 (1966).

1964

H. C. Thuline, “Color vision defects in American school children,” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 188, 514–518 (1964).

D. R. Sweeney, R. T. Zegers, and W. E. Collins, “Color blindness in male negro children,” J. Soc. Psychol. 62, 85–91 (1964).

1963

K. R. Dronamraju and P. M. Khan, “Frequency of colour blindness among tribal and non-tribal peoples of Andhra Pradesh,” Ann. Hum. Genet. 27, 17–21 (1963).

K. S. Mehra, “Incidence of colour blindness among Indians,” Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 47, 486–487 (1963).

1962

R. H. Post, “Population differences in red and green colour vision deficiency: A review and a query on selection relaxation,” Eug. Quart. 9, 131–146 (1962).

1958

R. G. Frey, “Welche pseudoisochromatishen Tafeln sind fur die Praxis am besten geeignet?” Graefes Arch. Ophthalmol. 160, 301–320 (1958).

S. J. Belcher, K. W. Greenshields, and W. D. Wright, “A colour vision survey,” Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 42, 355–359 (1958).

C. Yang, J.-C. Chiang, P.-H. Feng, and N.-H. Yang, “Colour blindness among Chinese,” Chin. Med. J. 76, 283–284 (1958).

1957

J. François, G. Verriest, V. Mortier, and R. Vanderdonck, “De la fréquence des dyschromatopsies congénitales chez l’homme,” Ann. Ottalmol. Clinica Oculistica 190, 5–16 (1957).

1956

L. L. Sloan and A. Habel, “Tests for color deficiency based on the pseudoisochromatic principle—a comparative study,” A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 55, 229–239 (1956).

G. Rand and M. C. Rittler, “An evaluation of the AO HRR pseudoisochromatic plates,” A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 56, 736–742 (1956).

I. Mann and C. Turner, “Colour vision in native races in Australasia,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 41, 797–800 (1956).

1950

E. Chan and W. S. Mao, “Colour blindness among Chinese,” Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 39, 744–745 (1950).

1943

P. E. Vernon and A. Straker, “Distribution of colour blind men in Great Britain,” Nature 152, 690 (1943).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Miles, “Color vision in eleven thousand museum visitors,” Yale J. Biol. Med. 16, 59–76 (1943).

1938

J. H. Nelson, “Anomalous trichromatism and it’s relation to normal trichromatism,” Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 50, 661–702 (1938).
[CrossRef]

1936

K. B. M. Crooks, “Further observations on colour blindness among Negroes,” Hum. Biol. 8, 451–458 (1936).

1935

S. Sato, “Statistical observations on congenital abnormalities in colour vision in Japan,” Acta Soc. Ophthalmol. Jpn. 38, 2227–2230 (1935).

1934

L. G. Kilburn and Y. T. Beh, “The incidence of colour blindness among Chinese,” Science 79, 34 (1934).
[CrossRef]

1933

T. R. Garth, “The incidence of colour blindness among races,” Science 77, 333–334 (1933).
[CrossRef]

M. Weiland, “Utersuchungen uber Farbenschwache bei Konduktorinnen,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 130, 444–462 (1933).
[CrossRef]

1930

F. Clements, “Racial differences in color blindness,” Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 14, 417–432 (1930).

1929

W. R. Miles, “100 cases of color blindness detected with the Ishihara plates,” J. Gen. Psychol. 2, 535–543 (1929).
[CrossRef]

1928

P. von Planta, “Die Haufigkeit der angeborenen Farbensinnstorungen bei Knaben un Madchen und ihre Feststellung durch die ublichen klinischen Proben,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 120, 253–281 (1928).

1927

G. H. M. Waaler, “Ueber die Erblichkeitsverhaltnisse der verschiedenen Arten von angeborener Rotgrunblindheit,” Acta Ophthalmol. 5, 309–345 (1927).
[CrossRef]

von Planta, P.

P. von Planta, “Die Haufigkeit der angeborenen Farbensinnstorungen bei Knaben un Madchen und ihre Feststellung durch die ublichen klinischen Proben,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 120, 253–281 (1928).

Acaroglu, G.

M. Citirik, G. Acaroglu, C. Batman, and O. Zilelioglu, “Congenital colour blindness in young Turkish men,” Ophthalmol. Epidemiol. 12, 133–137 (2005).

Ahmad, T. A.

T. A. Ahmad and S. L. Chai, “Colour Vision in the Singapore male,” Sing. Med. J. 21, 639–642 (1980).

Ahn, B. H.

H. B. Kim, S. G. Lee, M. D. Choe, J. K. Lee, and B. H. Ahn, “The incidence of congenital colour deficiency among Koreans,” J. Kor. Med. Sci. 4, 117–120 (1989).

Atchaneeyasakul, L. O.

H. Ueyama, Y. H. Li, G. L. Fu, P. Lertrit, L. O. Atchaneeyasakul, S. Oda, S. Tanabe, Y. Nishida, S. Yamada, and I. Ohkubo, “An A-71C substitution in a green gene at the second position in the red/green visual-pigment gene array is associated with deutan color deficiency,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 3357–3362 (2003).

Awua, S.

C. McMahon, J. Carroll, S. Awua, J. Neitz, and M. Neitz, “The L:  M cone ratio in males of African descent with normal color vision,” J. Vision 8(2):5, 1–9 (2008).

Baraas, R. C.

R. C. Baraas, “Poorer color discrimination by females when tested with pseudoisochromatic plates containing vanishing designs on neutral backgrounds,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 501–505 (2008).

Barbur, J. L.

M. Rodriguez-Carmona, L. T. Sharpe, J. A. Harlow, and J. L. Barbur, “Sex related differences in chromatic sensitivity,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 433–440 (2008).

E. Konstantakopoulou, M. Rodriguez-Carmona, and J. L. Barbur, “Processing of colour signals in female carriers of colour vision deficiency,” J. Vision submitted.

Batman, C.

M. Citirik, G. Acaroglu, C. Batman, and O. Zilelioglu, “Congenital colour blindness in young Turkish men,” Ophthalmol. Epidemiol. 12, 133–137 (2005).

Beh, Y. T.

L. G. Kilburn and Y. T. Beh, “The incidence of colour blindness among Chinese,” Science 79, 34 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Belcher, S. J.

S. J. Belcher, K. W. Greenshields, and W. D. Wright, “A colour vision survey,” Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 42, 355–359 (1958).

Birch, J.

J. Birch, “Identification of red-green colour deficiency: Sensitivity of the Ishihara and American Optical Company (Hardy, Rand and Rittler) pseudoisochromatic plates to identify slight anomalous trichromatism,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 667–671 (2010).

J. Birch, “Efficiency of the Ishihara plates for identifying red–green colour deficiency,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 17, 403–408 (1997).

Cabrera, A. M. B.

M. Cruz, H. G. S. Cerdana, A. M. B. Cabrera, C. B. Garcia, E. T. Santos-Morabe, and M. L. R. Nanagas, “Prevalence of color-vision deficiency among male high-school students,” Phil. J. Ophthalmol. 35, 20–24 (2010).

Carroll, J.

C. McMahon, J. Carroll, S. Awua, J. Neitz, and M. Neitz, “The L:  M cone ratio in males of African descent with normal color vision,” J. Vision 8(2):5, 1–9 (2008).

Cerdana, H. G. S.

M. Cruz, H. G. S. Cerdana, A. M. B. Cabrera, C. B. Garcia, E. T. Santos-Morabe, and M. L. R. Nanagas, “Prevalence of color-vision deficiency among male high-school students,” Phil. J. Ophthalmol. 35, 20–24 (2010).

Chai, S. L.

T. A. Ahmad and S. L. Chai, “Colour Vision in the Singapore male,” Sing. Med. J. 21, 639–642 (1980).

Chan, E.

E. Chan and W. S. Mao, “Colour blindness among Chinese,” Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 39, 744–745 (1950).

Chiang, J.-C.

C. Yang, J.-C. Chiang, P.-H. Feng, and N.-H. Yang, “Colour blindness among Chinese,” Chin. Med. J. 76, 283–284 (1958).

Chimonidou, E.

J. Koliopoulos, P. Iordanides, G. Palimeris, and E. Chimonidou, “Data concerning colour vision deficiencies among 29,985 young Greeks,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 161–164 (1976).

Choe, M. D.

H. B. Kim, S. G. Lee, M. D. Choe, J. K. Lee, and B. H. Ahn, “The incidence of congenital colour deficiency among Koreans,” J. Kor. Med. Sci. 4, 117–120 (1989).

Citirik, M.

M. Citirik, G. Acaroglu, C. Batman, and O. Zilelioglu, “Congenital colour blindness in young Turkish men,” Ophthalmol. Epidemiol. 12, 133–137 (2005).

Clements, F.

F. Clements, “Racial differences in color blindness,” Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 14, 417–432 (1930).

Cole, B. L.

J. M. Steward and B. L. Cole, “What do colour vision defectives say about everyday tasks?” Optom. Vis. Sci. 66, 288–295 (1989).

Collins, W. E.

D. R. Sweeney, R. T. Zegers, and W. E. Collins, “Color blindness in male negro children,” J. Soc. Psychol. 62, 85–91 (1964).

Crone, R. A.

R. A. Crone, “Incidence of known and unknown colour vision defects,” Ophthalmol. Basel 155, 37–55 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Crooks, K. B. M.

K. B. M. Crooks, “Further observations on colour blindness among Negroes,” Hum. Biol. 8, 451–458 (1936).

Cruz, M.

M. Cruz, H. G. S. Cerdana, A. M. B. Cabrera, C. B. Garcia, E. T. Santos-Morabe, and M. L. R. Nanagas, “Prevalence of color-vision deficiency among male high-school students,” Phil. J. Ophthalmol. 35, 20–24 (2010).

Cruz-Coke, R.

R. Cruz-Coke, Colour Blindness—An Evolutionary Approach (Thomas, 1970), pp. 106–111.

Deeb, S. S.

S. S. Deeb, “The molecular basis of variation in human color vision,” Clin. Genet. 67, 369–377 (2005).

H. Ueyama, S. Hayashi, S. Tanabe, Y. Tanaka, T. Hayashi, S. S. Deeb, S. Yamada, and I. Ohkub, “ Number and arrangement of the red and green visual pigment genes in color-normal Japanese males,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S84–88 (2001).

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H. Forsius, A. W. Eriksson, and J. Fellman, “Colour blindness in Finland,” Acta Ophthalmol. 46, 542–552 (1967).

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J. François, G. Verriest, V. Mortier, and R. Vanderdonck, “De la fréquence des dyschromatopsies congénitales chez l’homme,” Ann. Ottalmol. Clinica Oculistica 190, 5–16 (1957).

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M. Cruz, H. G. S. Cerdana, A. M. B. Cabrera, C. B. Garcia, E. T. Santos-Morabe, and M. L. R. Nanagas, “Prevalence of color-vision deficiency among male high-school students,” Phil. J. Ophthalmol. 35, 20–24 (2010).

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S. J. Belcher, K. W. Greenshields, and W. D. Wright, “A colour vision survey,” Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 42, 355–359 (1958).

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L. L. Sloan and A. Habel, “Tests for color deficiency based on the pseudoisochromatic principle—a comparative study,” A.M.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. 55, 229–239 (1956).

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I. Iinuma and Y. Handa, “A consideration of the racial incidence of congenital dyschromats in males and females,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 151–157 (1976).

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M. Rodriguez-Carmona, L. T. Sharpe, J. A. Harlow, and J. L. Barbur, “Sex related differences in chromatic sensitivity,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 433–440 (2008).

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H. Ueyama, S. Hayashi, S. Tanabe, Y. Tanaka, T. Hayashi, S. S. Deeb, S. Yamada, and I. Ohkub, “ Number and arrangement of the red and green visual pigment genes in color-normal Japanese males,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S84–88 (2001).

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H. Ueyama, S. Hayashi, S. Tanabe, Y. Tanaka, T. Hayashi, S. S. Deeb, S. Yamada, and I. Ohkub, “ Number and arrangement of the red and green visual pigment genes in color-normal Japanese males,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S84–88 (2001).

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E. Konstantakopoulou, M. Rodriguez-Carmona, and J. L. Barbur, “Processing of colour signals in female carriers of colour vision deficiency,” J. Vision submitted.

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H. Ueyama, Y. H. Li, G. L. Fu, P. Lertrit, L. O. Atchaneeyasakul, S. Oda, S. Tanabe, Y. Nishida, S. Yamada, and I. Ohkubo, “An A-71C substitution in a green gene at the second position in the red/green visual-pigment gene array is associated with deutan color deficiency,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 3357–3362 (2003).

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G. Jordan and J. D. Mollon, “A study of women heterozygous for colour deficiencies,” Vision Res. 33, 1495–1508 (1993).

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A. L. Jorgenson, S. S. Deeb, and A. G. Motulsky, “Molecular genetics of X chromosome-linked color vision among populations of African and Japanese ancestry: High frequency of a shortened red pigment gene among Afro-Americans,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 6512–6516 (1990).

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M. Cruz, H. G. S. Cerdana, A. M. B. Cabrera, C. B. Garcia, E. T. Santos-Morabe, and M. L. R. Nanagas, “Prevalence of color-vision deficiency among male high-school students,” Phil. J. Ophthalmol. 35, 20–24 (2010).

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J. Neitz and M. Neitz, “The genetics of normal and defective color vision,” Vis. Res. 51, 633–651 (2011).

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H. Ueyama, Y. H. Li, G. L. Fu, P. Lertrit, L. O. Atchaneeyasakul, S. Oda, S. Tanabe, Y. Nishida, S. Yamada, and I. Ohkubo, “An A-71C substitution in a green gene at the second position in the red/green visual-pigment gene array is associated with deutan color deficiency,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 3357–3362 (2003).

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H. Ueyama, Y. H. Li, G. L. Fu, P. Lertrit, L. O. Atchaneeyasakul, S. Oda, S. Tanabe, Y. Nishida, S. Yamada, and I. Ohkubo, “An A-71C substitution in a green gene at the second position in the red/green visual-pigment gene array is associated with deutan color deficiency,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 3357–3362 (2003).

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M. Cruz, H. G. S. Cerdana, A. M. B. Cabrera, C. B. Garcia, E. T. Santos-Morabe, and M. L. R. Nanagas, “Prevalence of color-vision deficiency among male high-school students,” Phil. J. Ophthalmol. 35, 20–24 (2010).

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M. Rodriguez-Carmona, L. T. Sharpe, J. A. Harlow, and J. L. Barbur, “Sex related differences in chromatic sensitivity,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 433–440 (2008).

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H. Ueyama, Y. H. Li, G. L. Fu, P. Lertrit, L. O. Atchaneeyasakul, S. Oda, S. Tanabe, Y. Nishida, S. Yamada, and I. Ohkubo, “An A-71C substitution in a green gene at the second position in the red/green visual-pigment gene array is associated with deutan color deficiency,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 3357–3362 (2003).

H. Ueyama, S. Hayashi, S. Tanabe, Y. Tanaka, T. Hayashi, S. S. Deeb, S. Yamada, and I. Ohkub, “ Number and arrangement of the red and green visual pigment genes in color-normal Japanese males,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S84–88 (2001).

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H. Ueyama, S. Hayashi, S. Tanabe, Y. Tanaka, T. Hayashi, S. S. Deeb, S. Yamada, and I. Ohkub, “ Number and arrangement of the red and green visual pigment genes in color-normal Japanese males,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S84–88 (2001).

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G. O. Williams, F. E. Taylor, I. I. Odidika, and K. A. Musa, “Frequency of colour blindness among Nigerian school children in Lagos,” Am. J. Hum. Biol. 10, 283–288 (1998).

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H. Ueyama, Y. H. Li, G. L. Fu, P. Lertrit, L. O. Atchaneeyasakul, S. Oda, S. Tanabe, Y. Nishida, S. Yamada, and I. Ohkubo, “An A-71C substitution in a green gene at the second position in the red/green visual-pigment gene array is associated with deutan color deficiency,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 3357–3362 (2003).

H. Ueyama, S. Hayashi, S. Tanabe, Y. Tanaka, T. Hayashi, S. S. Deeb, S. Yamada, and I. Ohkub, “ Number and arrangement of the red and green visual pigment genes in color-normal Japanese males,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S84–88 (2001).

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G. P. Grassivaro, L. Romana, M. Mongogna, and F. Viviani, “Origin and distribution of Daltonism in Italy,” Am. J. Hum. Biol. 15, 566–572.

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H. Ueyama, Y. H. Li, G. L. Fu, P. Lertrit, L. O. Atchaneeyasakul, S. Oda, S. Tanabe, Y. Nishida, S. Yamada, and I. Ohkubo, “An A-71C substitution in a green gene at the second position in the red/green visual-pigment gene array is associated with deutan color deficiency,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 3357–3362 (2003).

H. Ueyama, S. Hayashi, S. Tanabe, Y. Tanaka, T. Hayashi, S. S. Deeb, S. Yamada, and I. Ohkub, “ Number and arrangement of the red and green visual pigment genes in color-normal Japanese males,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S84–88 (2001).

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S. Sato, “Statistical observations on congenital abnormalities in colour vision in Japan,” Acta Soc. Ophthalmol. Jpn. 38, 2227–2230 (1935).

I. Iinuma and Y. Handa, “Mass examination of colour sense using the anomaloscope,” Acta Soc. Ophthalmol. Jpn. 76, 549–557 (1972).

Am. J. Hum. Biol.

G. O. Williams, F. E. Taylor, I. I. Odidika, and K. A. Musa, “Frequency of colour blindness among Nigerian school children in Lagos,” Am. J. Hum. Biol. 10, 283–288 (1998).

G. P. Grassivaro, L. Romana, M. Mongogna, and F. Viviani, “Origin and distribution of Daltonism in Italy,” Am. J. Hum. Biol. 15, 566–572.

Am. J. Ophthalmol.

I. Mann and C. Turner, “Colour vision in native races in Australasia,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 41, 797–800 (1956).

Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.

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Ann. Hum. Genet.

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Ann. Ottalmol. Clinica Oculistica

J. François, G. Verriest, V. Mortier, and R. Vanderdonck, “De la fréquence des dyschromatopsies congénitales chez l’homme,” Ann. Ottalmol. Clinica Oculistica 190, 5–16 (1957).

Brit. J. Ophthalmol.

E. Chan and W. S. Mao, “Colour blindness among Chinese,” Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 39, 744–745 (1950).

S. J. Belcher, K. W. Greenshields, and W. D. Wright, “A colour vision survey,” Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 42, 355–359 (1958).

K. S. Mehra, “Incidence of colour blindness among Indians,” Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 47, 486–487 (1963).

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Clin. Genet.

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East Afr. Med. J.

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Eug. Quart.

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Hum. Biol.

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Hum. Genet.

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Nature

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[CrossRef]

Ophthalmol. Basel

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Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt.

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Optom. Vis. Sci.

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M. Cruz, H. G. S. Cerdana, A. M. B. Cabrera, C. B. Garcia, E. T. Santos-Morabe, and M. L. R. Nanagas, “Prevalence of color-vision deficiency among male high-school students,” Phil. J. Ophthalmol. 35, 20–24 (2010).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

H. Ueyama, Y. H. Li, G. L. Fu, P. Lertrit, L. O. Atchaneeyasakul, S. Oda, S. Tanabe, Y. Nishida, S. Yamada, and I. Ohkubo, “An A-71C substitution in a green gene at the second position in the red/green visual-pigment gene array is associated with deutan color deficiency,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 3357–3362 (2003).

A. L. Jorgenson, S. S. Deeb, and A. G. Motulsky, “Molecular genetics of X chromosome-linked color vision among populations of African and Japanese ancestry: High frequency of a shortened red pigment gene among Afro-Americans,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 6512–6516 (1990).

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Science

L. G. Kilburn and Y. T. Beh, “The incidence of colour blindness among Chinese,” Science 79, 34 (1934).
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J. Neitz and M. Neitz, “The genetics of normal and defective color vision,” Vis. Res. 51, 633–651 (2011).

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Other

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M. W. Strickberger, Genetics, 3rd ed. (MacMillan, 1990), pp. 705–706.

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Tables (8)

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Table 1. Confidence Limits for Surveys of the Prevalence of Genetic Traits Estimated to Have a Frequency of Either 8% or 5%

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Table 2. Prevalence of Red-Green Color Deficiency Determined with the Ishihara Plates in European Caucasian Populations That Included over 5000 Men [7,8,22,23]

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Table 3. Prevalence of Red-Green Color Deficiency Determined with the Ishihara Plates in European Caucasian Populations That Included More Than 1000 Men [5, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28]

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Table 4. Prevalence of Different Types of Red-Green Color Deficiency in European Men Obtained with the Nagel Anomaloscope [5,8,22,25,26,33]

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Table 5. Expression of Red-Green Color Deficiency in Female Mixed Heterozygotes with a Gene for Protan Deficiency on One X Chromosome and a Gene for Deutan Color Deficiency on the Other That Corresponds to a Prevalence Ratio in Men of 1 P: 1 PA: 1 D: 35 DA

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Table 6. Prevalence of Red-Ggreen Color Deficiency in Chinese Populations Determined with the Ishihara Plates (NB: place names are in Mandarin) [3,4,6,7,19,20,21]

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Table 7. Prevalence of Red-Green Color Deficiency in Taiwan, Korea, and Singapore [9,19,21]

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Table 8. Prevalence of Red-Green Color Deficiency Obtained with the Ishihara Plates in Large Japanese Populations Reported by Iinuma and Handa 1972 [19]

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