Abstract

Vibration suppression in astronomical adaptive optics (AO) systems has gathered great attention in the context of next-generation instrumentation for current telescopes and future Extremely Large Telescopes. Laser tomographic AO systems require natural guide stars to measure the low-order modes such as tip–tilt (TT) and TT-anisoplanatism. To increase the sky coverage, the guide stars are often faint, thus requiring lower temporal sampling frequencies to work on a more favorable signal-to-noise regime. Such sampling frequencies can be of the order of, or even lower than, the range of frequencies where vibrations are likely to appear. Ideally, vibrations affecting the low-order modes could be corrected at the higher laser loop frame rate using an upsampling procedure. This paper compares the most relevant solutions proposed hitherto to a novel multirate algorithm using the linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) approach capable of upsampling the correction to further reduce the impact of vibrations. Results from numerical Monte Carlo simulations span a large range of parameters from pure sinusoids to relatively broad peak vibrations, covering the likely-to-be signals in a realistic AO system. The improvement is shown at sampling frequencies from 20 to 800 Hz, including below the vibration itself, in the example of 29.5 Hz on a Thirty Meter Telescope-like scenario. The multirate LQG ensures the least residual for both faint and bright stars for all the peak widths considered based on telemetry from the Keck Observatory.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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