Abstract

Certain hues undergo shifts in their appearance when they are viewed by the peripheral retina. This has often been shown on a 3-primary color CRT monitor. To investigate the possible role of metamerism, we replicated our peripheral color matching experiments using Munsell paper stimuli viewed under real and simulated daylight (using a 3-primary projection system). Using stimuli of constant value and chroma (7/4), observers adjusted the hue of a 3 deg target presented 18 deg nasally, until it matched a 1 deg target presented 1 deg nasally. The magnitude and pattern of measured hue shifts were similar to those measured using CRT stimuli. We conclude that the perceived hue shifts that have previously been reported in the peripheral retina are independent of the nature of the stimulus and of the illuminant.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. D. J. McKeefry, I. J. Murray, and N. R. A. Parry, “Perceived shifts in saturation and hue of chromatic stimuli in the near peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3168–3179 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  24. B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and U. Grunert, “Retinal connectivity and primate vision,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 29, 622–639 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Magnussen, L. Spillmann, F. Stürzel, and J. S. Werner, “Unveiling the foveal blue scotoma through an afterimage,” Vis. Res. 44, 377–383 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Bompas and J. K. O’Regan, “Evidence for a role of action in colour perception,” Perception 35, 65–78 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. K. T. Mullen, “Color vision as a post-receptoral specialization of the central visual-field,” Vis. Res. 31, 119–130 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. D. Mollon, “Color vision,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 33, 41–85 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  29. D. M. Levi, S. A. Klein, and P. Aitsebaomo, “Detection and discrimination of the direction of motion in central and peripheral vision of normal and amblyopic observers,” Vis. Res. 24, 789–800 (1984).
    [CrossRef]

2012

A. Panorgias, J. J. Kulikowski, N. R. A. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and I. J. Murray, “Cone contrasts and peripheral colour matching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29 (this issue), (2012).

2010

M. A. Webster, K. Halen, A. J. Meyers, P. Winkler, and J. S. Werner, “Colour appearance and compensation in the near periphery,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B 277, 1817–1825(2010).

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and U. Grunert, “Retinal connectivity and primate vision,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 29, 622–639 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

A. Bompas and J. K. O’Regan, “Evidence for a role of action in colour perception,” Perception 35, 65–78 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. R. A. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and I. J. Murray, “Variant and invariant color perception in the near peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1586–1597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Murray, N. R. A. Parry, and D. J. McKeefry, “Cone opponency in the near peripheral retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 2, 503–507 (2006).

2005

S. G. Solomon, B. B. Lee, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and P. R. Martin, “Chromatic organization of ganglion receptive fields in peripheral retina,” J. Neurosci. 25, 4527–4539 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Vakrou, D. Whitaker, P. V. McGraw, and D. J. McKeefry, “Functional evidence for cone-selective connectivity in the human retina,” J. Physiol. (Lond.) 566, 93–102 (2005).

K. T. Mullen, M. Sakurai, and W. Chu, “Does L/M cone opponency disappear in the human periphery?” Perception 34, 951–959 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

L. Diller, O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, M. J. McMahon, D. R. Williams, and D. M. Dacey, “L and M cone contributions to the midget and parasol ganglion receptive fields of macaque monkey retina,” J. Neurosci. 24, 1079–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Magnussen, L. Spillmann, F. Stürzel, and J. S. Werner, “Unveiling the foveal blue scotoma through an afterimage,” Vis. Res. 44, 377–383 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Ayama and M. Sakurai, “Changes in hue and saturation of chromatic lights in the peripheral visual field,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 413–424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. T. Mullen and F. A. Kingdom, “Differential distributions of red-green and blue-yellow cone opponency across the visual field,” Vis. Neurosci. 19, 109–118 (2002).

1997

S. Marcos, R. P. Tornow, A. E. Elsner, and R. Navarro, “Foveal cone spacing and cone photopigment density difference: objective measurements in the same subjects,” Vis. Res. 37, 1909–1915 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

D. M. Dacey, “Circuitry for color coding in the primate retina,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 582–588 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992

1991

K. T. Mullen, “Color vision as a post-receptoral specialization of the central visual-field,” Vis. Res. 31, 119–130 (1991).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1984

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extra-foveal retina,” Vis. Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. Delori, and J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. I. Absorbance spectra, localization, and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).

D. M. Levi, S. A. Klein, and P. Aitsebaomo, “Detection and discrimination of the direction of motion in central and peripheral vision of normal and amblyopic observers,” Vis. Res. 24, 789–800 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982

J. D. Mollon, “Color vision,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 33, 41–85 (1982).
[CrossRef]

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Color vision in the peripheral retina under photopic conditions,” Vis. Res. 22, 839–844 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1977

1976

1959

J. D. Moreland and A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Abramov, I.

Aitsebaomo, P.

D. M. Levi, S. A. Klein, and P. Aitsebaomo, “Detection and discrimination of the direction of motion in central and peripheral vision of normal and amblyopic observers,” Vis. Res. 24, 789–800 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Allen, K. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Auran, J. D.

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. Delori, and J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. I. Absorbance spectra, localization, and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).

Ayama, M.

M. Ayama and M. Sakurai, “Changes in hue and saturation of chromatic lights in the peripheral visual field,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 413–424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bompas, A.

A. Bompas and J. K. O’Regan, “Evidence for a role of action in colour perception,” Perception 35, 65–78 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brown, P. K.

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. Delori, and J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. I. Absorbance spectra, localization, and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).

Chan, H.

Chu, W.

K. T. Mullen, M. Sakurai, and W. Chu, “Does L/M cone opponency disappear in the human periphery?” Perception 34, 951–959 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, A.

J. D. Moreland and A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dacey, D. M.

L. Diller, O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, M. J. McMahon, D. R. Williams, and D. M. Dacey, “L and M cone contributions to the midget and parasol ganglion receptive fields of macaque monkey retina,” J. Neurosci. 24, 1079–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Dacey, “Circuitry for color coding in the primate retina,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 582–588 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Delori, F.

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. Delori, and J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. I. Absorbance spectra, localization, and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).

Diller, L.

L. Diller, O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, M. J. McMahon, D. R. Williams, and D. M. Dacey, “L and M cone contributions to the midget and parasol ganglion receptive fields of macaque monkey retina,” J. Neurosci. 24, 1079–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Elsner, A. E.

S. Marcos, R. P. Tornow, A. E. Elsner, and R. Navarro, “Foveal cone spacing and cone photopigment density difference: objective measurements in the same subjects,” Vis. Res. 37, 1909–1915 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J.

Grunert, U.

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and U. Grunert, “Retinal connectivity and primate vision,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 29, 622–639 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Halen, K.

M. A. Webster, K. Halen, A. J. Meyers, P. Winkler, and J. S. Werner, “Colour appearance and compensation in the near periphery,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B 277, 1817–1825(2010).

Hurley, J. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kingdom, F. A.

K. T. Mullen and F. A. Kingdom, “Differential distributions of red-green and blue-yellow cone opponency across the visual field,” Vis. Neurosci. 19, 109–118 (2002).

Klein, S. A.

D. M. Levi, S. A. Klein, and P. Aitsebaomo, “Detection and discrimination of the direction of motion in central and peripheral vision of normal and amblyopic observers,” Vis. Res. 24, 789–800 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Klock, I. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kulikowski, J. J.

A. Panorgias, J. J. Kulikowski, N. R. A. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and I. J. Murray, “Cone contrasts and peripheral colour matching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29 (this issue), (2012).

Lee, B. B.

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and U. Grunert, “Retinal connectivity and primate vision,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 29, 622–639 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Solomon, B. B. Lee, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and P. R. Martin, “Chromatic organization of ganglion receptive fields in peripheral retina,” J. Neurosci. 25, 4527–4539 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lerea, C. L.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Levi, D. M.

D. M. Levi, S. A. Klein, and P. Aitsebaomo, “Detection and discrimination of the direction of motion in central and peripheral vision of normal and amblyopic observers,” Vis. Res. 24, 789–800 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Magnussen, S.

S. Magnussen, L. Spillmann, F. Stürzel, and J. S. Werner, “Unveiling the foveal blue scotoma through an afterimage,” Vis. Res. 44, 377–383 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marcos, S.

S. Marcos, R. P. Tornow, A. E. Elsner, and R. Navarro, “Foveal cone spacing and cone photopigment density difference: objective measurements in the same subjects,” Vis. Res. 37, 1909–1915 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. R.

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and U. Grunert, “Retinal connectivity and primate vision,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 29, 622–639 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Solomon, B. B. Lee, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and P. R. Martin, “Chromatic organization of ganglion receptive fields in peripheral retina,” J. Neurosci. 25, 4527–4539 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McGraw, P. V.

C. Vakrou, D. Whitaker, P. V. McGraw, and D. J. McKeefry, “Functional evidence for cone-selective connectivity in the human retina,” J. Physiol. (Lond.) 566, 93–102 (2005).

McKeefry, D. J.

A. Panorgias, J. J. Kulikowski, N. R. A. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and I. J. Murray, “Cone contrasts and peripheral colour matching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29 (this issue), (2012).

D. J. McKeefry, I. J. Murray, and N. R. A. Parry, “Perceived shifts in saturation and hue of chromatic stimuli in the near peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3168–3179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. R. A. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and I. J. Murray, “Variant and invariant color perception in the near peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1586–1597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Murray, N. R. A. Parry, and D. J. McKeefry, “Cone opponency in the near peripheral retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 2, 503–507 (2006).

C. Vakrou, D. Whitaker, P. V. McGraw, and D. J. McKeefry, “Functional evidence for cone-selective connectivity in the human retina,” J. Physiol. (Lond.) 566, 93–102 (2005).

McMahon, M. J.

L. Diller, O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, M. J. McMahon, D. R. Williams, and D. M. Dacey, “L and M cone contributions to the midget and parasol ganglion receptive fields of macaque monkey retina,” J. Neurosci. 24, 1079–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meyers, A. J.

M. A. Webster, K. Halen, A. J. Meyers, P. Winkler, and J. S. Werner, “Colour appearance and compensation in the near periphery,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B 277, 1817–1825(2010).

Milam, A. H.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mollon, J. D.

J. D. Mollon, “Color vision,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 33, 41–85 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Moreland, J. D.

J. D. Moreland and A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Moreland, “Peripheral colour vision,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology (Vol. VII/4), Visual Psychophysics, J. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer, 1972), pp. 517–536.

Mullen, K. T.

K. T. Mullen, M. Sakurai, and W. Chu, “Does L/M cone opponency disappear in the human periphery?” Perception 34, 951–959 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Mullen and F. A. Kingdom, “Differential distributions of red-green and blue-yellow cone opponency across the visual field,” Vis. Neurosci. 19, 109–118 (2002).

K. T. Mullen, “Color vision as a post-receptoral specialization of the central visual-field,” Vis. Res. 31, 119–130 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Murray, I. J.

A. Panorgias, J. J. Kulikowski, N. R. A. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and I. J. Murray, “Cone contrasts and peripheral colour matching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29 (this issue), (2012).

D. J. McKeefry, I. J. Murray, and N. R. A. Parry, “Perceived shifts in saturation and hue of chromatic stimuli in the near peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3168–3179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. R. A. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and I. J. Murray, “Variant and invariant color perception in the near peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1586–1597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Murray, N. R. A. Parry, and D. J. McKeefry, “Cone opponency in the near peripheral retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 2, 503–507 (2006).

Navarro, R.

S. Marcos, R. P. Tornow, A. E. Elsner, and R. Navarro, “Foveal cone spacing and cone photopigment density difference: objective measurements in the same subjects,” Vis. Res. 37, 1909–1915 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O’Regan, J. K.

A. Bompas and J. K. O’Regan, “Evidence for a role of action in colour perception,” Perception 35, 65–78 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Packer, O. S.

L. Diller, O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, M. J. McMahon, D. R. Williams, and D. M. Dacey, “L and M cone contributions to the midget and parasol ganglion receptive fields of macaque monkey retina,” J. Neurosci. 24, 1079–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Panorgias, A.

A. Panorgias, J. J. Kulikowski, N. R. A. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and I. J. Murray, “Cone contrasts and peripheral colour matching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29 (this issue), (2012).

Parry, N. R. A.

A. Panorgias, J. J. Kulikowski, N. R. A. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and I. J. Murray, “Cone contrasts and peripheral colour matching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29 (this issue), (2012).

D. J. McKeefry, I. J. Murray, and N. R. A. Parry, “Perceived shifts in saturation and hue of chromatic stimuli in the near peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3168–3179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Murray, N. R. A. Parry, and D. J. McKeefry, “Cone opponency in the near peripheral retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 2, 503–507 (2006).

N. R. A. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and I. J. Murray, “Variant and invariant color perception in the near peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1586–1597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pokorny, J.

Rüttiger, L.

S. G. Solomon, B. B. Lee, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and P. R. Martin, “Chromatic organization of ganglion receptive fields in peripheral retina,” J. Neurosci. 25, 4527–4539 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sakurai, M.

K. T. Mullen, M. Sakurai, and W. Chu, “Does L/M cone opponency disappear in the human periphery?” Perception 34, 951–959 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Ayama and M. Sakurai, “Changes in hue and saturation of chromatic lights in the peripheral visual field,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 413–424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Smith, V. C.

Snodderly, D. M.

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. Delori, and J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. I. Absorbance spectra, localization, and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).

Solomon, S. G.

S. G. Solomon, B. B. Lee, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and P. R. Martin, “Chromatic organization of ganglion receptive fields in peripheral retina,” J. Neurosci. 25, 4527–4539 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spillmann, L.

S. Magnussen, L. Spillmann, F. Stürzel, and J. S. Werner, “Unveiling the foveal blue scotoma through an afterimage,” Vis. Res. 44, 377–383 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stabell, B.

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extra-foveal retina,” Vis. Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
[CrossRef]

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Color vision in the peripheral retina under photopic conditions,” Vis. Res. 22, 839–844 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Stabell, U.

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extra-foveal retina,” Vis. Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
[CrossRef]

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Color vision in the peripheral retina under photopic conditions,” Vis. Res. 22, 839–844 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Stürzel, F.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Radiance of the filtered light sources in the 3-projector system, normalized to maximum value in the range 380–710 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Construction of the color wheel device, showing (a) the backboard with the two color wheels in situ, (b) the front panel in position showing the 3 deg and 1 deg target apertures, (c) the sector shutter, and (d) the geared motor mounted on the rear.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Main graph: CIE 1931 coordinates of the 16 printed probe hues and the Munsell hues they were based on. For clarity, the 24 intermediate hues are omitted from the graph, although all these were available for the match. Inset: expanded portion showing the coordinates of the printed probe hues, the pivot point, and the zero degree stimulus. Also highlighted are the hues most closely approximating the cardinal axes.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Left column: CRT spectral emissions of the three hues chosen to best match the Munsell reflectances, and spectral reflectances of the three papers themselves viewed under natural daylight and under the 3-projector system. The spectra of the backgrounds are also plotted. Right column: CIE chromaticity coordinates of averaged matches made under the three conditions. Data for the CRT monitor matches have been replotted from Parry et al. [8].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Results of Experiment 1, showing hue rotations required to match three selected Munsell hues (5P, 7.5BG, 10GY) under real and simulated daylight. Mean±95% CIs, with overlapping error bars omitted. The CRT data (shaded curves) have been replotted from Parry et al. [8] and show mean±95% CIs.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Mean±95% CIs for hue matching performed by 10 subjects using the color wheel in natural daylight (solid line), compared with nine subjects on the CRT device (shaded curve=mean±95% CIs).

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