Abstract

The purpose of the study was to analyze chromatic visual evoked potential (VEP) responses to isoluminant red–green (R–G) and blue–yellow (B–Y) stimuli in 30 preschool children (1.5–6  years). The predominant part of the response consisted of a positive (P) wave, which showed age-related latency changes (linear decrease). P wave latency was shorter when using 21° compared to 7° R–G (p=0.004) and B–Y (p=0.044) stimulus and also when using 21° R–G compared to 21° B–Y stimulus (P=0.000). P wave amplitude did not show age-related changes. However, a lower amplitude was recorded when using 7° R–G stimulus (p=0.0013) and also when using B–Y compared to R–G stimulus. We may conclude that chromatic VEP to R–G and B–Y stimuli is reliably recorded in preschool children and that P wave to R–G stimulation shows a higher amplitude and shorter latency than to B–Y stimulus.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Murray, N. R. A. Parry, D. Carden, and J. J. Kulikowski, “Human visual evoked potentials to chromatic and achromatic gratings,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 1, 231–244 (1986).
  2. T. A. Berninger, G. B. Arden, C. R. Hogg, and T. Frumkes, “Separable evoked retinal and cortical potentials from each major visual pathway: preliminary results,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 73, 502–511 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Rabin, E. Switkes, M. Crognale, M. E. Schneck, and A. J. Adams, “Visual evoked potentials in three-dimensional colour space: correlates of spatio-chromatic processing,” Vis. Res. 34, 2657–2671 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. J. Kulikowski, A. G. Robson, and D. J. McKeefry, “Specificity and selectivity of chromatic visual evoked potentials,” Vis. Res. 36, 3397–3401 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. J. McKeefry, I. J. Murray, and J. J. Kulikowski, “Pattern ERG from isoluminant gratings; poor selectivity compared with VEPS,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17, 499–508 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. M. Suttle and G. F. A. Harding, “Morphology of transient VEPs to luminance and chromatic pattern onset and offset,” Vis. Res. 39, 1577–1584 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Porciatti and F. Sartucci, “Normative data for onset VEPs to red–green and blue–yellow chromatic contrast,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 110, 722–781 (1999).
  8. M. C. Morrone, A. Fiorentini, and D. C. Burr, “Development of the temporal properties of visual evoked potentials to luminance and colour contrasts in infants,” Vis. Res. 36, 3141–3155(1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. A. Crognale, J. P. Kelly, A. H. Weiss, and D. Y. Teller, “Development of the spatio-chromatic visual evoked potential (VEP): a longitudinal study,” Vis. Res. 38, 3283–3292(1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. E. Gordon and D. McCulloch, “A VEP investigation of parallel visual pathway development in primary school age children,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 99, 1–10 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Madrid and M. A. Crognale, “Long-term maturation of visual pathways,” Vis. Neurosci. 17, 831–837 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. A. Crognale, “Development, maturation and aging of chromatic visual pathways: VEP results,” J. Vis. 2, 438–450(2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. T. Elia, D. Daneman, J. Rovet, M. Abdolell, W. C. Lam, C. Till, V. Erraguntla, S. Rubab, N. Lodba, and C. A. Westall, “Color visual evoked potentials in children with type 1 diabetes: relationship to metabolic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 4107–4113 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. T. Pompe, B. Stirn Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Visual evoked potentials to red–green stimulation in schoolchildren,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 447–451 (2006).
  15. M. Y. Boon, C. M. Suttle, and S. J. Dain, “Transient VEP and psychophysical chromatic contrast thresholds in children and adults,” Vis. Res. 47, 2124–2133 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Y. Boon, C. M. Suttle, B. I. Henry, and S. J. Dain, “Dynamics of chromatic visual system processing differ in complexity between children and adults,” J. Vis. 22, 1–17 (2009).
  17. M. Tekavčič Pompe, B. Stirn Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Chromatic VEP in children with congenital colour vision deficiency,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 693–698 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Carden, J. J. Kulikowski, I. J. Murray, and N. R. A. Parry, “Human occipital potentials evoked by the onset of equiluminant chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. 369, 44 (1985).
  19. F. H. Previc, “Visual evoked potentials to luminance and chromatic contrast in rhesus monkeys,” Vis. Res. 26, 1897–1907 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  20. N. R. A. Parry and I. J. Murray, “Electrophysiological investigation of adult and infant colour vision deficiencies,” in John Dalton’s Colour Vision Legacy: Selected Proceedings of the International Conference, C. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, and D. Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 1997), pp. 349–357.
  21. F. Sharbrough, G.-E. Chatrian, R. P. Lesser, H. Lüders, M. Nuwer, and T. W. Picton, “American Encephalographic Society guidelines for standard electrode placement nomenclature,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 8, 200–202 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. J. Kulikowski, I. J. Murray, and M. H. A. Russell, “Effects of stimulus size on chromatic and achromatic VEPs,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XB. Drum, J. D. Moreland, and A. Serra, eds. (Kluwer, 1991), pp. 51–66.
  23. G. Robson, G. E. Holder, J. D. Moreland, and J. J. Kulikowski, “Chromatic VEP assessment of human macular pigment: comparison with minimum motion and minimum flicker profiles,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 275–283 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, and S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

2010

M. Tekavčič Pompe, B. Stirn Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Chromatic VEP in children with congenital colour vision deficiency,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 693–698 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. Y. Boon, C. M. Suttle, B. I. Henry, and S. J. Dain, “Dynamics of chromatic visual system processing differ in complexity between children and adults,” J. Vis. 22, 1–17 (2009).

2007

M. Y. Boon, C. M. Suttle, and S. J. Dain, “Transient VEP and psychophysical chromatic contrast thresholds in children and adults,” Vis. Res. 47, 2124–2133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. T. Pompe, B. Stirn Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Visual evoked potentials to red–green stimulation in schoolchildren,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 447–451 (2006).

G. Robson, G. E. Holder, J. D. Moreland, and J. J. Kulikowski, “Chromatic VEP assessment of human macular pigment: comparison with minimum motion and minimum flicker profiles,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 275–283 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. T. Elia, D. Daneman, J. Rovet, M. Abdolell, W. C. Lam, C. Till, V. Erraguntla, S. Rubab, N. Lodba, and C. A. Westall, “Color visual evoked potentials in children with type 1 diabetes: relationship to metabolic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 4107–4113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. A. Crognale, “Development, maturation and aging of chromatic visual pathways: VEP results,” J. Vis. 2, 438–450(2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Madrid and M. A. Crognale, “Long-term maturation of visual pathways,” Vis. Neurosci. 17, 831–837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

G. E. Gordon and D. McCulloch, “A VEP investigation of parallel visual pathway development in primary school age children,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 99, 1–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Suttle and G. F. A. Harding, “Morphology of transient VEPs to luminance and chromatic pattern onset and offset,” Vis. Res. 39, 1577–1584 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Porciatti and F. Sartucci, “Normative data for onset VEPs to red–green and blue–yellow chromatic contrast,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 110, 722–781 (1999).

1998

M. A. Crognale, J. P. Kelly, A. H. Weiss, and D. Y. Teller, “Development of the spatio-chromatic visual evoked potential (VEP): a longitudinal study,” Vis. Res. 38, 3283–3292(1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. J. McKeefry, I. J. Murray, and J. J. Kulikowski, “Pattern ERG from isoluminant gratings; poor selectivity compared with VEPS,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17, 499–508 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. C. Morrone, A. Fiorentini, and D. C. Burr, “Development of the temporal properties of visual evoked potentials to luminance and colour contrasts in infants,” Vis. Res. 36, 3141–3155(1996).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Kulikowski, A. G. Robson, and D. J. McKeefry, “Specificity and selectivity of chromatic visual evoked potentials,” Vis. Res. 36, 3397–3401 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. Rabin, E. Switkes, M. Crognale, M. E. Schneck, and A. J. Adams, “Visual evoked potentials in three-dimensional colour space: correlates of spatio-chromatic processing,” Vis. Res. 34, 2657–2671 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

F. Sharbrough, G.-E. Chatrian, R. P. Lesser, H. Lüders, M. Nuwer, and T. W. Picton, “American Encephalographic Society guidelines for standard electrode placement nomenclature,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 8, 200–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

T. A. Berninger, G. B. Arden, C. R. Hogg, and T. Frumkes, “Separable evoked retinal and cortical potentials from each major visual pathway: preliminary results,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 73, 502–511 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, and S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

1986

F. H. Previc, “Visual evoked potentials to luminance and chromatic contrast in rhesus monkeys,” Vis. Res. 26, 1897–1907 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Murray, N. R. A. Parry, D. Carden, and J. J. Kulikowski, “Human visual evoked potentials to chromatic and achromatic gratings,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 1, 231–244 (1986).

1985

D. Carden, J. J. Kulikowski, I. J. Murray, and N. R. A. Parry, “Human occipital potentials evoked by the onset of equiluminant chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. 369, 44 (1985).

Tekavcic Pompe, M.

M. Tekavčič Pompe, B. Stirn Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Chromatic VEP in children with congenital colour vision deficiency,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 693–698 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Abdolell, M.

Y. T. Elia, D. Daneman, J. Rovet, M. Abdolell, W. C. Lam, C. Till, V. Erraguntla, S. Rubab, N. Lodba, and C. A. Westall, “Color visual evoked potentials in children with type 1 diabetes: relationship to metabolic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 4107–4113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adams, A. J.

J. Rabin, E. Switkes, M. Crognale, M. E. Schneck, and A. J. Adams, “Visual evoked potentials in three-dimensional colour space: correlates of spatio-chromatic processing,” Vis. Res. 34, 2657–2671 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Arden, G. B.

T. A. Berninger, G. B. Arden, C. R. Hogg, and T. Frumkes, “Separable evoked retinal and cortical potentials from each major visual pathway: preliminary results,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 73, 502–511 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Berninger, T. A.

T. A. Berninger, G. B. Arden, C. R. Hogg, and T. Frumkes, “Separable evoked retinal and cortical potentials from each major visual pathway: preliminary results,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 73, 502–511 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bone, R. A.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, and S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

Boon, M. Y.

M. Y. Boon, C. M. Suttle, B. I. Henry, and S. J. Dain, “Dynamics of chromatic visual system processing differ in complexity between children and adults,” J. Vis. 22, 1–17 (2009).

M. Y. Boon, C. M. Suttle, and S. J. Dain, “Transient VEP and psychophysical chromatic contrast thresholds in children and adults,” Vis. Res. 47, 2124–2133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brecelj, J.

M. Tekavčič Pompe, B. Stirn Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Chromatic VEP in children with congenital colour vision deficiency,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 693–698 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Pompe, B. Stirn Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Visual evoked potentials to red–green stimulation in schoolchildren,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 447–451 (2006).

Burr, D. C.

M. C. Morrone, A. Fiorentini, and D. C. Burr, “Development of the temporal properties of visual evoked potentials to luminance and colour contrasts in infants,” Vis. Res. 36, 3141–3155(1996).
[CrossRef]

Carden, D.

J. Murray, N. R. A. Parry, D. Carden, and J. J. Kulikowski, “Human visual evoked potentials to chromatic and achromatic gratings,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 1, 231–244 (1986).

D. Carden, J. J. Kulikowski, I. J. Murray, and N. R. A. Parry, “Human occipital potentials evoked by the onset of equiluminant chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. 369, 44 (1985).

N. R. A. Parry and I. J. Murray, “Electrophysiological investigation of adult and infant colour vision deficiencies,” in John Dalton’s Colour Vision Legacy: Selected Proceedings of the International Conference, C. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, and D. Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 1997), pp. 349–357.

Chatrian, G.-E.

F. Sharbrough, G.-E. Chatrian, R. P. Lesser, H. Lüders, M. Nuwer, and T. W. Picton, “American Encephalographic Society guidelines for standard electrode placement nomenclature,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 8, 200–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Crognale, M.

J. Rabin, E. Switkes, M. Crognale, M. E. Schneck, and A. J. Adams, “Visual evoked potentials in three-dimensional colour space: correlates of spatio-chromatic processing,” Vis. Res. 34, 2657–2671 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Crognale, M. A.

M. A. Crognale, “Development, maturation and aging of chromatic visual pathways: VEP results,” J. Vis. 2, 438–450(2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Madrid and M. A. Crognale, “Long-term maturation of visual pathways,” Vis. Neurosci. 17, 831–837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Crognale, J. P. Kelly, A. H. Weiss, and D. Y. Teller, “Development of the spatio-chromatic visual evoked potential (VEP): a longitudinal study,” Vis. Res. 38, 3283–3292(1998).
[CrossRef]

Dain, S. J.

M. Y. Boon, C. M. Suttle, B. I. Henry, and S. J. Dain, “Dynamics of chromatic visual system processing differ in complexity between children and adults,” J. Vis. 22, 1–17 (2009).

M. Y. Boon, C. M. Suttle, and S. J. Dain, “Transient VEP and psychophysical chromatic contrast thresholds in children and adults,” Vis. Res. 47, 2124–2133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Daneman, D.

Y. T. Elia, D. Daneman, J. Rovet, M. Abdolell, W. C. Lam, C. Till, V. Erraguntla, S. Rubab, N. Lodba, and C. A. Westall, “Color visual evoked potentials in children with type 1 diabetes: relationship to metabolic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 4107–4113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dickinson, C.

N. R. A. Parry and I. J. Murray, “Electrophysiological investigation of adult and infant colour vision deficiencies,” in John Dalton’s Colour Vision Legacy: Selected Proceedings of the International Conference, C. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, and D. Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 1997), pp. 349–357.

Drum, B.

J. J. Kulikowski, I. J. Murray, and M. H. A. Russell, “Effects of stimulus size on chromatic and achromatic VEPs,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XB. Drum, J. D. Moreland, and A. Serra, eds. (Kluwer, 1991), pp. 51–66.

Elia, Y. T.

Y. T. Elia, D. Daneman, J. Rovet, M. Abdolell, W. C. Lam, C. Till, V. Erraguntla, S. Rubab, N. Lodba, and C. A. Westall, “Color visual evoked potentials in children with type 1 diabetes: relationship to metabolic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 4107–4113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Erraguntla, V.

Y. T. Elia, D. Daneman, J. Rovet, M. Abdolell, W. C. Lam, C. Till, V. Erraguntla, S. Rubab, N. Lodba, and C. A. Westall, “Color visual evoked potentials in children with type 1 diabetes: relationship to metabolic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 4107–4113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, L.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, and S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

Fiorentini, A.

M. C. Morrone, A. Fiorentini, and D. C. Burr, “Development of the temporal properties of visual evoked potentials to luminance and colour contrasts in infants,” Vis. Res. 36, 3141–3155(1996).
[CrossRef]

Frumkes, T.

T. A. Berninger, G. B. Arden, C. R. Hogg, and T. Frumkes, “Separable evoked retinal and cortical potentials from each major visual pathway: preliminary results,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 73, 502–511 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, G. E.

G. E. Gordon and D. McCulloch, “A VEP investigation of parallel visual pathway development in primary school age children,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 99, 1–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harding, G. F. A.

C. M. Suttle and G. F. A. Harding, “Morphology of transient VEPs to luminance and chromatic pattern onset and offset,” Vis. Res. 39, 1577–1584 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Henry, B. I.

M. Y. Boon, C. M. Suttle, B. I. Henry, and S. J. Dain, “Dynamics of chromatic visual system processing differ in complexity between children and adults,” J. Vis. 22, 1–17 (2009).

Hogg, C. R.

T. A. Berninger, G. B. Arden, C. R. Hogg, and T. Frumkes, “Separable evoked retinal and cortical potentials from each major visual pathway: preliminary results,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 73, 502–511 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Holder, G. E.

G. Robson, G. E. Holder, J. D. Moreland, and J. J. Kulikowski, “Chromatic VEP assessment of human macular pigment: comparison with minimum motion and minimum flicker profiles,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 275–283 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, J. P.

M. A. Crognale, J. P. Kelly, A. H. Weiss, and D. Y. Teller, “Development of the spatio-chromatic visual evoked potential (VEP): a longitudinal study,” Vis. Res. 38, 3283–3292(1998).
[CrossRef]

Kranjc, B. Stirn

M. Tekavčič Pompe, B. Stirn Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Chromatic VEP in children with congenital colour vision deficiency,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 693–698 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Pompe, B. Stirn Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Visual evoked potentials to red–green stimulation in schoolchildren,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 447–451 (2006).

Kulikowski, J. J.

G. Robson, G. E. Holder, J. D. Moreland, and J. J. Kulikowski, “Chromatic VEP assessment of human macular pigment: comparison with minimum motion and minimum flicker profiles,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 275–283 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. J. McKeefry, I. J. Murray, and J. J. Kulikowski, “Pattern ERG from isoluminant gratings; poor selectivity compared with VEPS,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17, 499–508 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Kulikowski, A. G. Robson, and D. J. McKeefry, “Specificity and selectivity of chromatic visual evoked potentials,” Vis. Res. 36, 3397–3401 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Murray, N. R. A. Parry, D. Carden, and J. J. Kulikowski, “Human visual evoked potentials to chromatic and achromatic gratings,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 1, 231–244 (1986).

D. Carden, J. J. Kulikowski, I. J. Murray, and N. R. A. Parry, “Human occipital potentials evoked by the onset of equiluminant chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. 369, 44 (1985).

J. J. Kulikowski, I. J. Murray, and M. H. A. Russell, “Effects of stimulus size on chromatic and achromatic VEPs,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XB. Drum, J. D. Moreland, and A. Serra, eds. (Kluwer, 1991), pp. 51–66.

Lam, W. C.

Y. T. Elia, D. Daneman, J. Rovet, M. Abdolell, W. C. Lam, C. Till, V. Erraguntla, S. Rubab, N. Lodba, and C. A. Westall, “Color visual evoked potentials in children with type 1 diabetes: relationship to metabolic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 4107–4113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Landrum, J. T.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, and S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

Lesser, R. P.

F. Sharbrough, G.-E. Chatrian, R. P. Lesser, H. Lüders, M. Nuwer, and T. W. Picton, “American Encephalographic Society guidelines for standard electrode placement nomenclature,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 8, 200–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lodba, N.

Y. T. Elia, D. Daneman, J. Rovet, M. Abdolell, W. C. Lam, C. Till, V. Erraguntla, S. Rubab, N. Lodba, and C. A. Westall, “Color visual evoked potentials in children with type 1 diabetes: relationship to metabolic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 4107–4113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lüders, H.

F. Sharbrough, G.-E. Chatrian, R. P. Lesser, H. Lüders, M. Nuwer, and T. W. Picton, “American Encephalographic Society guidelines for standard electrode placement nomenclature,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 8, 200–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Madrid, M.

M. Madrid and M. A. Crognale, “Long-term maturation of visual pathways,” Vis. Neurosci. 17, 831–837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McCulloch, D.

G. E. Gordon and D. McCulloch, “A VEP investigation of parallel visual pathway development in primary school age children,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 99, 1–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McKeefry, D. J.

D. J. McKeefry, I. J. Murray, and J. J. Kulikowski, “Pattern ERG from isoluminant gratings; poor selectivity compared with VEPS,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17, 499–508 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Kulikowski, A. G. Robson, and D. J. McKeefry, “Specificity and selectivity of chromatic visual evoked potentials,” Vis. Res. 36, 3397–3401 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moreland, J. D.

G. Robson, G. E. Holder, J. D. Moreland, and J. J. Kulikowski, “Chromatic VEP assessment of human macular pigment: comparison with minimum motion and minimum flicker profiles,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 275–283 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Kulikowski, I. J. Murray, and M. H. A. Russell, “Effects of stimulus size on chromatic and achromatic VEPs,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XB. Drum, J. D. Moreland, and A. Serra, eds. (Kluwer, 1991), pp. 51–66.

Morrone, M. C.

M. C. Morrone, A. Fiorentini, and D. C. Burr, “Development of the temporal properties of visual evoked potentials to luminance and colour contrasts in infants,” Vis. Res. 36, 3141–3155(1996).
[CrossRef]

Murray, I. J.

D. J. McKeefry, I. J. Murray, and J. J. Kulikowski, “Pattern ERG from isoluminant gratings; poor selectivity compared with VEPS,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17, 499–508 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Carden, J. J. Kulikowski, I. J. Murray, and N. R. A. Parry, “Human occipital potentials evoked by the onset of equiluminant chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. 369, 44 (1985).

N. R. A. Parry and I. J. Murray, “Electrophysiological investigation of adult and infant colour vision deficiencies,” in John Dalton’s Colour Vision Legacy: Selected Proceedings of the International Conference, C. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, and D. Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 1997), pp. 349–357.

N. R. A. Parry and I. J. Murray, “Electrophysiological investigation of adult and infant colour vision deficiencies,” in John Dalton’s Colour Vision Legacy: Selected Proceedings of the International Conference, C. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, and D. Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 1997), pp. 349–357.

J. J. Kulikowski, I. J. Murray, and M. H. A. Russell, “Effects of stimulus size on chromatic and achromatic VEPs,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XB. Drum, J. D. Moreland, and A. Serra, eds. (Kluwer, 1991), pp. 51–66.

Murray, J.

J. Murray, N. R. A. Parry, D. Carden, and J. J. Kulikowski, “Human visual evoked potentials to chromatic and achromatic gratings,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 1, 231–244 (1986).

Nuwer, M.

F. Sharbrough, G.-E. Chatrian, R. P. Lesser, H. Lüders, M. Nuwer, and T. W. Picton, “American Encephalographic Society guidelines for standard electrode placement nomenclature,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 8, 200–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Parry, N. R. A.

J. Murray, N. R. A. Parry, D. Carden, and J. J. Kulikowski, “Human visual evoked potentials to chromatic and achromatic gratings,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 1, 231–244 (1986).

D. Carden, J. J. Kulikowski, I. J. Murray, and N. R. A. Parry, “Human occipital potentials evoked by the onset of equiluminant chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. 369, 44 (1985).

N. R. A. Parry and I. J. Murray, “Electrophysiological investigation of adult and infant colour vision deficiencies,” in John Dalton’s Colour Vision Legacy: Selected Proceedings of the International Conference, C. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, and D. Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 1997), pp. 349–357.

Picton, T. W.

F. Sharbrough, G.-E. Chatrian, R. P. Lesser, H. Lüders, M. Nuwer, and T. W. Picton, “American Encephalographic Society guidelines for standard electrode placement nomenclature,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 8, 200–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pompe, M. T.

M. T. Pompe, B. Stirn Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Visual evoked potentials to red–green stimulation in schoolchildren,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 447–451 (2006).

Porciatti, V.

V. Porciatti and F. Sartucci, “Normative data for onset VEPs to red–green and blue–yellow chromatic contrast,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 110, 722–781 (1999).

Previc, F. H.

F. H. Previc, “Visual evoked potentials to luminance and chromatic contrast in rhesus monkeys,” Vis. Res. 26, 1897–1907 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rabin, J.

J. Rabin, E. Switkes, M. Crognale, M. E. Schneck, and A. J. Adams, “Visual evoked potentials in three-dimensional colour space: correlates of spatio-chromatic processing,” Vis. Res. 34, 2657–2671 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Robson, A. G.

J. J. Kulikowski, A. G. Robson, and D. J. McKeefry, “Specificity and selectivity of chromatic visual evoked potentials,” Vis. Res. 36, 3397–3401 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Robson, G.

G. Robson, G. E. Holder, J. D. Moreland, and J. J. Kulikowski, “Chromatic VEP assessment of human macular pigment: comparison with minimum motion and minimum flicker profiles,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 275–283 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rovet, J.

Y. T. Elia, D. Daneman, J. Rovet, M. Abdolell, W. C. Lam, C. Till, V. Erraguntla, S. Rubab, N. Lodba, and C. A. Westall, “Color visual evoked potentials in children with type 1 diabetes: relationship to metabolic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 4107–4113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rubab, S.

Y. T. Elia, D. Daneman, J. Rovet, M. Abdolell, W. C. Lam, C. Till, V. Erraguntla, S. Rubab, N. Lodba, and C. A. Westall, “Color visual evoked potentials in children with type 1 diabetes: relationship to metabolic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 4107–4113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Russell, M. H. A.

J. J. Kulikowski, I. J. Murray, and M. H. A. Russell, “Effects of stimulus size on chromatic and achromatic VEPs,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XB. Drum, J. D. Moreland, and A. Serra, eds. (Kluwer, 1991), pp. 51–66.

Sartucci, F.

V. Porciatti and F. Sartucci, “Normative data for onset VEPs to red–green and blue–yellow chromatic contrast,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 110, 722–781 (1999).

Schneck, M. E.

J. Rabin, E. Switkes, M. Crognale, M. E. Schneck, and A. J. Adams, “Visual evoked potentials in three-dimensional colour space: correlates of spatio-chromatic processing,” Vis. Res. 34, 2657–2671 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Serra, A.

J. J. Kulikowski, I. J. Murray, and M. H. A. Russell, “Effects of stimulus size on chromatic and achromatic VEPs,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XB. Drum, J. D. Moreland, and A. Serra, eds. (Kluwer, 1991), pp. 51–66.

Sharbrough, F.

F. Sharbrough, G.-E. Chatrian, R. P. Lesser, H. Lüders, M. Nuwer, and T. W. Picton, “American Encephalographic Society guidelines for standard electrode placement nomenclature,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 8, 200–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Suttle, C. M.

M. Y. Boon, C. M. Suttle, B. I. Henry, and S. J. Dain, “Dynamics of chromatic visual system processing differ in complexity between children and adults,” J. Vis. 22, 1–17 (2009).

M. Y. Boon, C. M. Suttle, and S. J. Dain, “Transient VEP and psychophysical chromatic contrast thresholds in children and adults,” Vis. Res. 47, 2124–2133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Suttle and G. F. A. Harding, “Morphology of transient VEPs to luminance and chromatic pattern onset and offset,” Vis. Res. 39, 1577–1584 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Switkes, E.

J. Rabin, E. Switkes, M. Crognale, M. E. Schneck, and A. J. Adams, “Visual evoked potentials in three-dimensional colour space: correlates of spatio-chromatic processing,” Vis. Res. 34, 2657–2671 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tarsis, S. L.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, and S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

Teller, D. Y.

M. A. Crognale, J. P. Kelly, A. H. Weiss, and D. Y. Teller, “Development of the spatio-chromatic visual evoked potential (VEP): a longitudinal study,” Vis. Res. 38, 3283–3292(1998).
[CrossRef]

Till, C.

Y. T. Elia, D. Daneman, J. Rovet, M. Abdolell, W. C. Lam, C. Till, V. Erraguntla, S. Rubab, N. Lodba, and C. A. Westall, “Color visual evoked potentials in children with type 1 diabetes: relationship to metabolic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 4107–4113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, A. H.

M. A. Crognale, J. P. Kelly, A. H. Weiss, and D. Y. Teller, “Development of the spatio-chromatic visual evoked potential (VEP): a longitudinal study,” Vis. Res. 38, 3283–3292(1998).
[CrossRef]

Westall, C. A.

Y. T. Elia, D. Daneman, J. Rovet, M. Abdolell, W. C. Lam, C. Till, V. Erraguntla, S. Rubab, N. Lodba, and C. A. Westall, “Color visual evoked potentials in children with type 1 diabetes: relationship to metabolic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 4107–4113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Br. J. Ophthalmol.

T. A. Berninger, G. B. Arden, C. R. Hogg, and T. Frumkes, “Separable evoked retinal and cortical potentials from each major visual pathway: preliminary results,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 73, 502–511 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Neurophysiol.

V. Porciatti and F. Sartucci, “Normative data for onset VEPs to red–green and blue–yellow chromatic contrast,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 110, 722–781 (1999).

Clin. Vis. Sci.

J. Murray, N. R. A. Parry, D. Carden, and J. J. Kulikowski, “Human visual evoked potentials to chromatic and achromatic gratings,” Clin. Vis. Sci. 1, 231–244 (1986).

Doc. Ophthalmol.

G. E. Gordon and D. McCulloch, “A VEP investigation of parallel visual pathway development in primary school age children,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 99, 1–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, L. Fernandez, and S. L. Tarsis, “Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 843–849 (1988).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

Y. T. Elia, D. Daneman, J. Rovet, M. Abdolell, W. C. Lam, C. Till, V. Erraguntla, S. Rubab, N. Lodba, and C. A. Westall, “Color visual evoked potentials in children with type 1 diabetes: relationship to metabolic control,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 4107–4113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Clin. Neurophysiol.

F. Sharbrough, G.-E. Chatrian, R. P. Lesser, H. Lüders, M. Nuwer, and T. W. Picton, “American Encephalographic Society guidelines for standard electrode placement nomenclature,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 8, 200–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Physiol.

D. Carden, J. J. Kulikowski, I. J. Murray, and N. R. A. Parry, “Human occipital potentials evoked by the onset of equiluminant chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. 369, 44 (1985).

J. Vis.

M. Y. Boon, C. M. Suttle, B. I. Henry, and S. J. Dain, “Dynamics of chromatic visual system processing differ in complexity between children and adults,” J. Vis. 22, 1–17 (2009).

M. A. Crognale, “Development, maturation and aging of chromatic visual pathways: VEP results,” J. Vis. 2, 438–450(2002).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.

M. Tekavčič Pompe, B. Stirn Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Chromatic VEP in children with congenital colour vision deficiency,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 693–698 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. McKeefry, I. J. Murray, and J. J. Kulikowski, “Pattern ERG from isoluminant gratings; poor selectivity compared with VEPS,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17, 499–508 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Neurosci.

M. Madrid and M. A. Crognale, “Long-term maturation of visual pathways,” Vis. Neurosci. 17, 831–837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Pompe, B. Stirn Kranjc, and J. Brecelj, “Visual evoked potentials to red–green stimulation in schoolchildren,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 447–451 (2006).

G. Robson, G. E. Holder, J. D. Moreland, and J. J. Kulikowski, “Chromatic VEP assessment of human macular pigment: comparison with minimum motion and minimum flicker profiles,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 275–283 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Res.

M. Y. Boon, C. M. Suttle, and S. J. Dain, “Transient VEP and psychophysical chromatic contrast thresholds in children and adults,” Vis. Res. 47, 2124–2133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Previc, “Visual evoked potentials to luminance and chromatic contrast in rhesus monkeys,” Vis. Res. 26, 1897–1907 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Morrone, A. Fiorentini, and D. C. Burr, “Development of the temporal properties of visual evoked potentials to luminance and colour contrasts in infants,” Vis. Res. 36, 3141–3155(1996).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Crognale, J. P. Kelly, A. H. Weiss, and D. Y. Teller, “Development of the spatio-chromatic visual evoked potential (VEP): a longitudinal study,” Vis. Res. 38, 3283–3292(1998).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Suttle and G. F. A. Harding, “Morphology of transient VEPs to luminance and chromatic pattern onset and offset,” Vis. Res. 39, 1577–1584 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Rabin, E. Switkes, M. Crognale, M. E. Schneck, and A. J. Adams, “Visual evoked potentials in three-dimensional colour space: correlates of spatio-chromatic processing,” Vis. Res. 34, 2657–2671 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Kulikowski, A. G. Robson, and D. J. McKeefry, “Specificity and selectivity of chromatic visual evoked potentials,” Vis. Res. 36, 3397–3401 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

N. R. A. Parry and I. J. Murray, “Electrophysiological investigation of adult and infant colour vision deficiencies,” in John Dalton’s Colour Vision Legacy: Selected Proceedings of the International Conference, C. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, and D. Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 1997), pp. 349–357.

J. J. Kulikowski, I. J. Murray, and M. H. A. Russell, “Effects of stimulus size on chromatic and achromatic VEPs,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies XB. Drum, J. D. Moreland, and A. Serra, eds. (Kluwer, 1991), pp. 51–66.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Chromatic VEP waveforms to R–G (left traces) and B–Y (right traces) stimuli in preschool children. P wave is marked. The age (in years) of each child is indicated to the left of the corresponding waveform.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

N and P wave latency changes with increasing age in preschool children to R–G (left) and B–Y (right) stimulation. Both stimulus sizes are shown (filled squares for 7° and open squares for 21°). A 95% confidence fit of the best-fit line is also indicated.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

N and P wave amplitude for R–G (left) and B–Y (right) stimulation. Both stimulus sizes are shown (filled squares for 7° and open squares for 21°). Median value is indicated. The data are spread out on the x axis to reveal overlaps.

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