Abstract

Hue-scaling data were collected from three observers using the “4+1” color-naming procedure for circular (0.25°–5°), monochromatic (440–660 nm) stimuli. Stimuli were presented at ±10° along the vertical and horizontal meridians under conditions chosen to include both rod and cone signals (no bleach) and to minimize rod contribution (bleach). All color-naming data were analyzed and compared using uniform appearance diagrams. Smaller stimuli appear more desaturated under both bleach conditions. This effect is particularly detrimental for the perception of green and is influenced by retinal location and exacerbated with rod input. As stimulus size increases and perceptive field sizes are filled for all four elemental hues, the differences in hue perception among the four peripheral locations and the two bleach conditions are attenuated. Results are consistent with predictions based on known differences in the underlying retinal mosaic among the four locations.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, and R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. A. Curcio and K. A. Allen, “Topography of ganglion cells in human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 300, 5–25 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Dacey, “The mosaic of midget ganglion cells in the human retina,” J. Neurosci. 13, 5334–5355 (1993).
  6. M. M. Connors and P. A. Kelsey, “Shape of the red and green color zone gradients,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 874–877 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. O. Weitzman and J. A. S. Kinney, “Effect of stimulus size, duration, and retinal location upon the appearance of color,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 640–643 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Gordon and I. Abramov, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. II. Hue and saturation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 202–207 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance across the retina: Effects of a white surround,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 195–202 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. J. Volbrecht, C. L. Clark, J. L. Nerger, and C. E. Randell, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes measured at 10° along the horizontal and vertical meridians,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1167–1177(2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to change in hue with eccentricity,” Vis. Res. 19, 1121–1125 (1979).
  13. B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision: Effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vis. Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).
  14. N. R. A. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and I. J. Murray, “Variant and invariant color perception in the near peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1586–1597 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. J. McKeefry, I. J. Murray, and N. R. A. Parry, “Perceived shifts in saturation and hue of chromatic stimuli in the near peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3168–3179 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. A. Pitts, L. J. Troup, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes change with retinal illuminance,” J. Vision 5, 435–443 (2005).
  17. L. J. Troup, M. A. Pitts, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Effect of stimulus intensity on the sizes of chromatic perceptive fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2137–2142 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, “Fixation-light bias: An unwanted by-product of fixation control,” Vis. Res. 7, 805–809 (1967).
  19. M. Alpern, “Rhodopsin kinetics in the human eye,” J. Physiol. 217, 447–471.
  20. W. A. H. Rushton and D. Spitzer Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vis. Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).
  21. G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vis. Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).
  22. J. Gordon, I. Abramov, and H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: Hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  23. I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance: Properties of the uniform appearance diagram derived from hue and saturation scaling,” Att. Percept. Psychophys. 71, 632–643 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Rod-cone mixture: Effect of size and exposure time,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2638–2642(1999).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. Lange, N. Denny, and T. E. Frumkes, “Suppressive rod-cone interactions: Evidence for separate retinal (temporal) and extraretinal (spatial) mechanisms in achromatic vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2487–2498 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  26. V. Virsu and B. B. Lee, “Light adaptation in cells of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus and its relation to human light adaptation,” J. Neurophysiol. 50, 864–878 (1983).
  27. V. Virsu, B. B. Lee, and D. Creutzfeldt, “Mesopic spectral responses and the Purkinje shift of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus cells,” Vis. Res. 27, 191–200 (1987).
  28. K. Purpura, E. Kaplan, and R. M. Shapley, “Background light and the contrast gain of primate P and M retinal ganglion cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 4534–4537 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  29. B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 37, 2813–2828(1997).
  30. K. R. Alexander and G. A. Fishman, “Rod-cone interaction in flicker perimetry: evidence of a distal retinal locus,” Documenta Ophthalmologica 60, 3–36 (1985).
  31. T. E. Frumkes and T. Eysteinsson, “The cellular basis for suppressive rod-cone interation,” Vis. Neurosci. 1, 263–273 (1988).
  32. G. Wyszecki and W. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, NY, 1982).
  33. C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, “Chromatic threshold of sensation from center to periphery of the retina and their bearing on color theory. Part I,” Psychol. Rev. 26, 16–41 (1919).
  34. C. E. Stromeyer, J. Lee, and R. T. Eskew, “Peripheral chromatic sensitivity for flashes: A post-receptor red-green asymmetry,” Vis. Res. 32, 1865–1873 (1992).
  35. F. M. DeMonasterio, P. Gouras, and D. J. Tolhurst, “Concealed colour opponency in ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,” J. Physiol. 251, 217–229 (1975).
  36. E. Zrenner and P. Gouras, “Cone opponency in tonic ganglion cells and its variation with eccentricity in the rhesus monkey,” in Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon and L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic , 1983), pp. 211–223.
  37. R. Shapley and H. Perry, “Cat and monkey retinal ganglion cells and their functional roles,” Trends Neurosci. 9, 229–235 (1986).
  38. K. T. Mullen and F. A. A. Kingdom, “Losses in peripheral colour sensitivity predicted from “Hit and Miss” post-receptoral cone connections,” Vis. Res. 36, 1995–2000 (1996).
  39. K. T. Mullen and F. A. A. Kingdom, “Differential distributions of red-green and blue-yellow cone opponency across the visual field,” Vis. Neurosci. 19, 109–118 (2002).
  40. C. Vakrou, D. Whitaker, P. V. McGraw, and D. McKeefry, “Functional evidence for cone-specific connectivity in the human retina,” J. Physiol. 566, 93–102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  41. L. Diller, O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, M. J. McMahon, D. R. Williams, and D. M. Dacey, “L and M cone contributions to the midget and parasol ganglion cell receptive fields of macaque monkey retina,” J. Neurosci. 24, 1079–1088 (2004).
  42. P. R. Martin, B. B. Lee, A. J. R. White, S. G. Solomon, and L. Rüttiger, “Chromatic sensitivity of ganglion cells in the peripheral primate retina,” Nature 410, 933–936 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  43. S. G. Solomon, B. B. Lee, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and P. R. Martin, “Chromatic organization of ganglion cell receptive fields in the peripheral retina,” J. Neurosci. 25, 4527–4539(2005).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance: Properties of the uniform appearance diagram derived from hue and saturation scaling,” Att. Percept. Psychophys. 71, 632–643 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Volbrecht, C. L. Clark, J. L. Nerger, and C. E. Randell, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes measured at 10° along the horizontal and vertical meridians,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1167–1177(2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (4)

L. J. Troup, M. A. Pitts, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Effect of stimulus intensity on the sizes of chromatic perceptive fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2137–2142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Solomon, B. B. Lee, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and P. R. Martin, “Chromatic organization of ganglion cell receptive fields in the peripheral retina,” J. Neurosci. 25, 4527–4539(2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Pitts, L. J. Troup, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes change with retinal illuminance,” J. Vision 5, 435–443 (2005).

C. Vakrou, D. Whitaker, P. V. McGraw, and D. McKeefry, “Functional evidence for cone-specific connectivity in the human retina,” J. Physiol. 566, 93–102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

L. Diller, O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, M. J. McMahon, D. R. Williams, and D. M. Dacey, “L and M cone contributions to the midget and parasol ganglion cell receptive fields of macaque monkey retina,” J. Neurosci. 24, 1079–1088 (2004).

2002 (1)

K. T. Mullen and F. A. A. Kingdom, “Differential distributions of red-green and blue-yellow cone opponency across the visual field,” Vis. Neurosci. 19, 109–118 (2002).

2001 (1)

P. R. Martin, B. B. Lee, A. J. R. White, S. G. Solomon, and L. Rüttiger, “Chromatic sensitivity of ganglion cells in the peripheral primate retina,” Nature 410, 933–936 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (2)

1996 (2)

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision: Effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vis. Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).

K. T. Mullen and F. A. A. Kingdom, “Losses in peripheral colour sensitivity predicted from “Hit and Miss” post-receptoral cone connections,” Vis. Res. 36, 1995–2000 (1996).

1994 (1)

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, and H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: Hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. Dacey, “The mosaic of midget ganglion cells in the human retina,” J. Neurosci. 13, 5334–5355 (1993).

1992 (2)

C. E. Stromeyer, J. Lee, and R. T. Eskew, “Peripheral chromatic sensitivity for flashes: A post-receptor red-green asymmetry,” Vis. Res. 32, 1865–1873 (1992).

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance across the retina: Effects of a white surround,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 195–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

C. A. Curcio and K. A. Allen, “Topography of ganglion cells in human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 300, 5–25 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

T. E. Frumkes and T. Eysteinsson, “The cellular basis for suppressive rod-cone interation,” Vis. Neurosci. 1, 263–273 (1988).

K. Purpura, E. Kaplan, and R. M. Shapley, “Background light and the contrast gain of primate P and M retinal ganglion cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 4534–4537 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, and R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef]

V. Virsu, B. B. Lee, and D. Creutzfeldt, “Mesopic spectral responses and the Purkinje shift of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus cells,” Vis. Res. 27, 191–200 (1987).

1986 (1)

R. Shapley and H. Perry, “Cat and monkey retinal ganglion cells and their functional roles,” Trends Neurosci. 9, 229–235 (1986).

1985 (1)

K. R. Alexander and G. A. Fishman, “Rod-cone interaction in flicker perimetry: evidence of a distal retinal locus,” Documenta Ophthalmologica 60, 3–36 (1985).

1983 (1)

V. Virsu and B. B. Lee, “Light adaptation in cells of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus and its relation to human light adaptation,” J. Neurophysiol. 50, 864–878 (1983).

1979 (1)

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to change in hue with eccentricity,” Vis. Res. 19, 1121–1125 (1979).

1977 (1)

1975 (1)

F. M. DeMonasterio, P. Gouras, and D. J. Tolhurst, “Concealed colour opponency in ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,” J. Physiol. 251, 217–229 (1975).

1972 (1)

W. A. H. Rushton and D. Spitzer Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vis. Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).

1969 (1)

1967 (1)

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, “Fixation-light bias: An unwanted by-product of fixation control,” Vis. Res. 7, 805–809 (1967).

1966 (1)

G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vis. Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).

1961 (1)

1919 (1)

C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, “Chromatic threshold of sensation from center to periphery of the retina and their bearing on color theory. Part I,” Psychol. Rev. 26, 16–41 (1919).

Abramov, I.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance: Properties of the uniform appearance diagram derived from hue and saturation scaling,” Att. Percept. Psychophys. 71, 632–643 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, and H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: Hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance across the retina: Effects of a white surround,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 195–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Gordon and I. Abramov, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. II. Hue and saturation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 202–207 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ahnelt, P. K.

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, and R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, K. R.

K. R. Alexander and G. A. Fishman, “Rod-cone interaction in flicker perimetry: evidence of a distal retinal locus,” Documenta Ophthalmologica 60, 3–36 (1985).

Allen, K. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Curcio and K. A. Allen, “Topography of ganglion cells in human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 300, 5–25 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern, “Rhodopsin kinetics in the human eye,” J. Physiol. 217, 447–471.

Chan, H.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance: Properties of the uniform appearance diagram derived from hue and saturation scaling,” Att. Percept. Psychophys. 71, 632–643 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, and H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: Hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance across the retina: Effects of a white surround,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 195–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Clark, C. L.

Connors, M. M.

Creutzfeldt, D.

V. Virsu, B. B. Lee, and D. Creutzfeldt, “Mesopic spectral responses and the Purkinje shift of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus cells,” Vis. Res. 27, 191–200 (1987).

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Curcio and K. A. Allen, “Topography of ganglion cells in human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 300, 5–25 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dacey, D.

D. Dacey, “The mosaic of midget ganglion cells in the human retina,” J. Neurosci. 13, 5334–5355 (1993).

Dacey, D. M.

L. Diller, O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, M. J. McMahon, D. R. Williams, and D. M. Dacey, “L and M cone contributions to the midget and parasol ganglion cell receptive fields of macaque monkey retina,” J. Neurosci. 24, 1079–1088 (2004).

DeMonasterio, F. M.

F. M. DeMonasterio, P. Gouras, and D. J. Tolhurst, “Concealed colour opponency in ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,” J. Physiol. 251, 217–229 (1975).

Denny, N.

Diller, L.

L. Diller, O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, M. J. McMahon, D. R. Williams, and D. M. Dacey, “L and M cone contributions to the midget and parasol ganglion cell receptive fields of macaque monkey retina,” J. Neurosci. 24, 1079–1088 (2004).

Eskew, R. T.

C. E. Stromeyer, J. Lee, and R. T. Eskew, “Peripheral chromatic sensitivity for flashes: A post-receptor red-green asymmetry,” Vis. Res. 32, 1865–1873 (1992).

Eysteinsson, T.

T. E. Frumkes and T. Eysteinsson, “The cellular basis for suppressive rod-cone interation,” Vis. Neurosci. 1, 263–273 (1988).

Ferree, C. E.

C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, “Chromatic threshold of sensation from center to periphery of the retina and their bearing on color theory. Part I,” Psychol. Rev. 26, 16–41 (1919).

Fishman, G. A.

K. R. Alexander and G. A. Fishman, “Rod-cone interaction in flicker perimetry: evidence of a distal retinal locus,” Documenta Ophthalmologica 60, 3–36 (1985).

Frumkes, T. E.

Gordon, J.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance: Properties of the uniform appearance diagram derived from hue and saturation scaling,” Att. Percept. Psychophys. 71, 632–643 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, and H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: Hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance across the retina: Effects of a white surround,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 195–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Gordon and I. Abramov, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. II. Hue and saturation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 202–207 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Gouras, P.

F. M. DeMonasterio, P. Gouras, and D. J. Tolhurst, “Concealed colour opponency in ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,” J. Physiol. 251, 217–229 (1975).

E. Zrenner and P. Gouras, “Cone opponency in tonic ganglion cells and its variation with eccentricity in the rhesus monkey,” in Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon and L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic , 1983), pp. 211–223.

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hurley, J. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hurvich, L. M.

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, “Fixation-light bias: An unwanted by-product of fixation control,” Vis. Res. 7, 805–809 (1967).

Jameson, D.

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, “Fixation-light bias: An unwanted by-product of fixation control,” Vis. Res. 7, 805–809 (1967).

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, E.

K. Purpura, E. Kaplan, and R. M. Shapley, “Background light and the contrast gain of primate P and M retinal ganglion cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 4534–4537 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kelsey, P. A.

Kingdom, F. A. A.

K. T. Mullen and F. A. A. Kingdom, “Differential distributions of red-green and blue-yellow cone opponency across the visual field,” Vis. Neurosci. 19, 109–118 (2002).

K. T. Mullen and F. A. A. Kingdom, “Losses in peripheral colour sensitivity predicted from “Hit and Miss” post-receptoral cone connections,” Vis. Res. 36, 1995–2000 (1996).

Kinney, J. A. S.

Klock, I. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kolb, H.

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, and R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kremers, J.

B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 37, 2813–2828(1997).

Lange, G.

Lee, B. B.

S. G. Solomon, B. B. Lee, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and P. R. Martin, “Chromatic organization of ganglion cell receptive fields in the peripheral retina,” J. Neurosci. 25, 4527–4539(2005).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Martin, B. B. Lee, A. J. R. White, S. G. Solomon, and L. Rüttiger, “Chromatic sensitivity of ganglion cells in the peripheral primate retina,” Nature 410, 933–936 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 37, 2813–2828(1997).

V. Virsu, B. B. Lee, and D. Creutzfeldt, “Mesopic spectral responses and the Purkinje shift of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus cells,” Vis. Res. 27, 191–200 (1987).

V. Virsu and B. B. Lee, “Light adaptation in cells of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus and its relation to human light adaptation,” J. Neurophysiol. 50, 864–878 (1983).

Lee, J.

C. E. Stromeyer, J. Lee, and R. T. Eskew, “Peripheral chromatic sensitivity for flashes: A post-receptor red-green asymmetry,” Vis. Res. 32, 1865–1873 (1992).

Lerea, C. L.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. R.

S. G. Solomon, B. B. Lee, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and P. R. Martin, “Chromatic organization of ganglion cell receptive fields in the peripheral retina,” J. Neurosci. 25, 4527–4539(2005).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Martin, B. B. Lee, A. J. R. White, S. G. Solomon, and L. Rüttiger, “Chromatic sensitivity of ganglion cells in the peripheral primate retina,” Nature 410, 933–936 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McGraw, P. V.

C. Vakrou, D. Whitaker, P. V. McGraw, and D. McKeefry, “Functional evidence for cone-specific connectivity in the human retina,” J. Physiol. 566, 93–102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McKeefry, D.

C. Vakrou, D. Whitaker, P. V. McGraw, and D. McKeefry, “Functional evidence for cone-specific connectivity in the human retina,” J. Physiol. 566, 93–102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McKeefry, D. J.

McMahon, M. J.

L. Diller, O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, M. J. McMahon, D. R. Williams, and D. M. Dacey, “L and M cone contributions to the midget and parasol ganglion cell receptive fields of macaque monkey retina,” J. Neurosci. 24, 1079–1088 (2004).

Milam, H.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mullen, K. T.

K. T. Mullen and F. A. A. Kingdom, “Differential distributions of red-green and blue-yellow cone opponency across the visual field,” Vis. Neurosci. 19, 109–118 (2002).

K. T. Mullen and F. A. A. Kingdom, “Losses in peripheral colour sensitivity predicted from “Hit and Miss” post-receptoral cone connections,” Vis. Res. 36, 1995–2000 (1996).

Murray, I. J.

Nerger, J. L.

Packer, O. S.

L. Diller, O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, M. J. McMahon, D. R. Williams, and D. M. Dacey, “L and M cone contributions to the midget and parasol ganglion cell receptive fields of macaque monkey retina,” J. Neurosci. 24, 1079–1088 (2004).

Parry, N. R. A.

Perry, H.

R. Shapley and H. Perry, “Cat and monkey retinal ganglion cells and their functional roles,” Trends Neurosci. 9, 229–235 (1986).

Pflug, R.

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, and R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pitts, M. A.

M. A. Pitts, L. J. Troup, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes change with retinal illuminance,” J. Vision 5, 435–443 (2005).

L. J. Troup, M. A. Pitts, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Effect of stimulus intensity on the sizes of chromatic perceptive fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2137–2142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pokorny, J.

B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 37, 2813–2828(1997).

Purpura, K.

K. Purpura, E. Kaplan, and R. M. Shapley, “Background light and the contrast gain of primate P and M retinal ganglion cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 4534–4537 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rand, G.

C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, “Chromatic threshold of sensation from center to periphery of the retina and their bearing on color theory. Part I,” Psychol. Rev. 26, 16–41 (1919).

Randell, C. E.

Rushton, W. A. H.

W. A. H. Rushton and D. Spitzer Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vis. Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).

Rüttiger, L.

S. G. Solomon, B. B. Lee, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and P. R. Martin, “Chromatic organization of ganglion cell receptive fields in the peripheral retina,” J. Neurosci. 25, 4527–4539(2005).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Martin, B. B. Lee, A. J. R. White, S. G. Solomon, and L. Rüttiger, “Chromatic sensitivity of ganglion cells in the peripheral primate retina,” Nature 410, 933–936 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shapley, R.

R. Shapley and H. Perry, “Cat and monkey retinal ganglion cells and their functional roles,” Trends Neurosci. 9, 229–235 (1986).

Shapley, R. M.

K. Purpura, E. Kaplan, and R. M. Shapley, “Background light and the contrast gain of primate P and M retinal ganglion cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 4534–4537 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Smith, V. C.

B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 37, 2813–2828(1997).

Solomon, S. G.

S. G. Solomon, B. B. Lee, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and P. R. Martin, “Chromatic organization of ganglion cell receptive fields in the peripheral retina,” J. Neurosci. 25, 4527–4539(2005).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Martin, B. B. Lee, A. J. R. White, S. G. Solomon, and L. Rüttiger, “Chromatic sensitivity of ganglion cells in the peripheral primate retina,” Nature 410, 933–936 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spitzer Powell, D.

W. A. H. Rushton and D. Spitzer Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vis. Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).

Stabell, B.

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Rod-cone mixture: Effect of size and exposure time,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2638–2642(1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision: Effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vis. Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to change in hue with eccentricity,” Vis. Res. 19, 1121–1125 (1979).

Stabell, U.

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Rod-cone mixture: Effect of size and exposure time,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2638–2642(1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision: Effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vis. Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to change in hue with eccentricity,” Vis. Res. 19, 1121–1125 (1979).

Stiles, W.

G. Wyszecki and W. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, NY, 1982).

Stromeyer, C. E.

C. E. Stromeyer, J. Lee, and R. T. Eskew, “Peripheral chromatic sensitivity for flashes: A post-receptor red-green asymmetry,” Vis. Res. 32, 1865–1873 (1992).

Tolhurst, D. J.

F. M. DeMonasterio, P. Gouras, and D. J. Tolhurst, “Concealed colour opponency in ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,” J. Physiol. 251, 217–229 (1975).

Troup, L. J.

L. J. Troup, M. A. Pitts, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Effect of stimulus intensity on the sizes of chromatic perceptive fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2137–2142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Pitts, L. J. Troup, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes change with retinal illuminance,” J. Vision 5, 435–443 (2005).

Vakrou, C.

C. Vakrou, D. Whitaker, P. V. McGraw, and D. McKeefry, “Functional evidence for cone-specific connectivity in the human retina,” J. Physiol. 566, 93–102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Verweij, J.

L. Diller, O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, M. J. McMahon, D. R. Williams, and D. M. Dacey, “L and M cone contributions to the midget and parasol ganglion cell receptive fields of macaque monkey retina,” J. Neurosci. 24, 1079–1088 (2004).

Virsu, V.

V. Virsu, B. B. Lee, and D. Creutzfeldt, “Mesopic spectral responses and the Purkinje shift of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus cells,” Vis. Res. 27, 191–200 (1987).

V. Virsu and B. B. Lee, “Light adaptation in cells of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus and its relation to human light adaptation,” J. Neurophysiol. 50, 864–878 (1983).

Volbrecht, V. J.

Weitzman, D. O.

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vis. Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).

Whitaker, D.

C. Vakrou, D. Whitaker, P. V. McGraw, and D. McKeefry, “Functional evidence for cone-specific connectivity in the human retina,” J. Physiol. 566, 93–102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

White, A. J. R.

S. G. Solomon, B. B. Lee, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and P. R. Martin, “Chromatic organization of ganglion cell receptive fields in the peripheral retina,” J. Neurosci. 25, 4527–4539(2005).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Martin, B. B. Lee, A. J. R. White, S. G. Solomon, and L. Rüttiger, “Chromatic sensitivity of ganglion cells in the peripheral primate retina,” Nature 410, 933–936 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. R.

L. Diller, O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, M. J. McMahon, D. R. Williams, and D. M. Dacey, “L and M cone contributions to the midget and parasol ganglion cell receptive fields of macaque monkey retina,” J. Neurosci. 24, 1079–1088 (2004).

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki and W. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, NY, 1982).

Zrenner, E.

E. Zrenner and P. Gouras, “Cone opponency in tonic ganglion cells and its variation with eccentricity in the rhesus monkey,” in Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon and L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic , 1983), pp. 211–223.

Att. Percept. Psychophys. (1)

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance: Properties of the uniform appearance diagram derived from hue and saturation scaling,” Att. Percept. Psychophys. 71, 632–643 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Documenta Ophthalmologica (1)

K. R. Alexander and G. A. Fishman, “Rod-cone interaction in flicker perimetry: evidence of a distal retinal locus,” Documenta Ophthalmologica 60, 3–36 (1985).

J. Comp. Neurol. (4)

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, and R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Curcio and K. A. Allen, “Topography of ganglion cells in human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 300, 5–25 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

V. Virsu and B. B. Lee, “Light adaptation in cells of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus and its relation to human light adaptation,” J. Neurophysiol. 50, 864–878 (1983).

J. Neurosci. (3)

D. Dacey, “The mosaic of midget ganglion cells in the human retina,” J. Neurosci. 13, 5334–5355 (1993).

L. Diller, O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, M. J. McMahon, D. R. Williams, and D. M. Dacey, “L and M cone contributions to the midget and parasol ganglion cell receptive fields of macaque monkey retina,” J. Neurosci. 24, 1079–1088 (2004).

S. G. Solomon, B. B. Lee, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and P. R. Martin, “Chromatic organization of ganglion cell receptive fields in the peripheral retina,” J. Neurosci. 25, 4527–4539(2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (8)

J. Physiol. (3)

M. Alpern, “Rhodopsin kinetics in the human eye,” J. Physiol. 217, 447–471.

F. M. DeMonasterio, P. Gouras, and D. J. Tolhurst, “Concealed colour opponency in ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,” J. Physiol. 251, 217–229 (1975).

C. Vakrou, D. Whitaker, P. V. McGraw, and D. McKeefry, “Functional evidence for cone-specific connectivity in the human retina,” J. Physiol. 566, 93–102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Vision (1)

M. A. Pitts, L. J. Troup, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes change with retinal illuminance,” J. Vision 5, 435–443 (2005).

Nature (1)

P. R. Martin, B. B. Lee, A. J. R. White, S. G. Solomon, and L. Rüttiger, “Chromatic sensitivity of ganglion cells in the peripheral primate retina,” Nature 410, 933–936 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, and H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: Hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

K. Purpura, E. Kaplan, and R. M. Shapley, “Background light and the contrast gain of primate P and M retinal ganglion cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 4534–4537 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Psychol. Rev. (1)

C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, “Chromatic threshold of sensation from center to periphery of the retina and their bearing on color theory. Part I,” Psychol. Rev. 26, 16–41 (1919).

Trends Neurosci. (1)

R. Shapley and H. Perry, “Cat and monkey retinal ganglion cells and their functional roles,” Trends Neurosci. 9, 229–235 (1986).

Vis. Neurosci. (2)

K. T. Mullen and F. A. A. Kingdom, “Differential distributions of red-green and blue-yellow cone opponency across the visual field,” Vis. Neurosci. 19, 109–118 (2002).

T. E. Frumkes and T. Eysteinsson, “The cellular basis for suppressive rod-cone interation,” Vis. Neurosci. 1, 263–273 (1988).

Vis. Res. (9)

B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 37, 2813–2828(1997).

C. E. Stromeyer, J. Lee, and R. T. Eskew, “Peripheral chromatic sensitivity for flashes: A post-receptor red-green asymmetry,” Vis. Res. 32, 1865–1873 (1992).

W. A. H. Rushton and D. Spitzer Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vis. Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).

G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vis. Res. 6, 669–682 (1966).

V. Virsu, B. B. Lee, and D. Creutzfeldt, “Mesopic spectral responses and the Purkinje shift of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus cells,” Vis. Res. 27, 191–200 (1987).

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, “Fixation-light bias: An unwanted by-product of fixation control,” Vis. Res. 7, 805–809 (1967).

K. T. Mullen and F. A. A. Kingdom, “Losses in peripheral colour sensitivity predicted from “Hit and Miss” post-receptoral cone connections,” Vis. Res. 36, 1995–2000 (1996).

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to change in hue with eccentricity,” Vis. Res. 19, 1121–1125 (1979).

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision: Effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vis. Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).

Other (2)

E. Zrenner and P. Gouras, “Cone opponency in tonic ganglion cells and its variation with eccentricity in the rhesus monkey,” in Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon and L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic , 1983), pp. 211–223.

G. Wyszecki and W. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, NY, 1982).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Left panel: Mean hue-naming data obtained with a 3° stimulus at 10° temporal retinal eccentricity are plotted as a function of wavelength. Error bars denote ±1 SEM. Right panel: Hue-naming data replotted in a UAD (B: percent blue, G: percent green, Y: percent yellow, R: percent red). The solid line is a cubic-spline fit to the data following a smoothing procedure (see text).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Percent hue (B: blue, G: green, Y: yellow, R: red) presented in UADs for the various stimulus sizes (solid and dashed lines) from the bleach (right panels) and the no-bleach conditions (left panels) in the temporal retina (upper panels) and the nasal retina (lower panels).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Same as Fig. 2, except for the superior retina (upper panels) and the inferior retina (lower panels).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

UADs comparing hue perception (B: percent blue, G: percent green, Y: percent yellow, R: percent red) from the four retinal locations (solid and dashed lines) for the bleach condition. Each panel denotes a different stimulus size.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Same as Fig. 4, except for the no-bleach condition.

Metrics