Abstract

Any stimulus can be described as composed of two components—a fundamental color stimulus that controls the three cone responses and a metameric black that has no effect on cones but can drive photoreceptors other than cones [e.g., rods and melanopsin expressing retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs)]. The Cohen and Kappauf [Am. J. Psychol. 95, 537 (1982) [CrossRef]  ] method is extended to calculate the black metamer basis for a limited set of band spectra. Using seven colored LEDs, the method is exploited to produce real metamer illuminations that stimulate in parallel melanopsin expressing ipRGCs and rods, at most or at least. We have verified that the pupil diameter increases when the ipRGC and rod excitation is at a minimum. For 14 observers, the average relative increase is 12%.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011 (6)

J. al Enezi, V. Revell, T. Brown, J. Wynne, L. Schlangen, and R. Lucas, “A ‘melanopic’ spectral efficiency function predicts the sensitivity of IpRGC photoreceptors to polychromatic lights,” J. Biol. Rhythms 26, 314–323 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, W. Jagla, and H. Jägle, “A luminous efficiency function, VD65*(λ), for daylight adaptation: a correction,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 42–46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Sarkar, F. Autrusseau, F. Viénot, P. Le Callet, and L. Blondé, “From CIE 2006 physiological model to improved age-dependent and average colorimetric observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 2033–2048 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Zele, B. Feigl, S. S. Smith, and E. L. Markwell, “The circadian response of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells,” PLoS ONE 6(3), doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017860, e17860 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Correlation between color quality metric predictions and visual appreciation of light sources,” Opt. Express 19, 8151–8166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: Any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

L. Kankipati, C. A. Girkin, and P. D. Gamlin, “Post-illumination Pupil Response in Subjects without Ocular Disease,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 2764–2769 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsujimura, K. Ukai, D. Ohama, A. Nuruki, and K. Yunokuchi, “Contribution of human melanopsin retinal ganglion cells to steady-state pupil responses,” Proc. R. Soc. B 277(1693), 2485–2492 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Viénot, S. Bailacq, and J. Le Rohellec, “The effect of controlled photopigment excitations on pupil aperture,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 30, 484–491 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hoang Do and K.-W. Yau, “Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells,” Physiol. Rev. 90, 1547–1581 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Markwell, B. Feigl, and A. J. Zele, “Intrinsically photosensitive melanopsin retinal ganglion cell contributions to the pupillary light reflex and circadian rhythm,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 93, 137–149 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. H. McDougal and P. D. Gamlin, “The influence of intrinsically-photosensitive retinal ganglion cells on the spectral sensitivity and response dynamics of the human pupillary light reflex,” Vis. Res. 50, 72–87 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

L. S. Mure, P.-L. Cornut, C. Rieux, E. Drouyer, P. Denis, C. Gronfier, and H. M. Cooper, “Melanopsin bistability: a fly’s eye technology in the human retina,” PLoS ONE 4(6), e5991, 1–10 (2009), www.plosone.org .
[CrossRef]

T. M. Schmidt and P. Kofuji, “Functional and morphological differences among intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells,” J. Neurosci. 29, 476–482 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. T. H. Do, S. H. Kang, T. Xue, H. Zhong, H.-W. Liao, D. E. Bergles, and K.-W. Yau, “Photon capture and signalling by melanopsin retinal ganglion cells,” Nature 457, 281–288 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Boissard-Jost and M. Fontoynont, “Optimization of LED-based light blendings for object presentation,” Color Res. Appl. 34, 310–320 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

D. Cao, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and A. J. Zele, “Rod contributions to color perception: Linear with rod contrast,” Vis. Res. 48, 2586–2592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. S. L. Young and E. Kimura, “Pupillary correlates of light-evoked melanopsin activity in humans,” Vis. Res. 48, 862–871 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Brainard, D. Sliney, J. P. Hanifin, G. Glickman, B. Byrne, J. M. Greeson, S. Jasser, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Sensitivity of the human circadian system to short-wavelength (420-nm) light,” J. Biol. Rhythms 23, 379–386 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Hankins, S. N. Peirson, and R. G. Foster, “Melanopsin: an exciting photopigment,” Trends Neurosci. 31, 27–36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Mawad and R. N. Van Gelder, “Absence of longwavelength photic potentiation of murine intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell firing in vitro,” J. Biol. Rhythms 23, 387–391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

P. R. Jusuf, S. C. Lee, J. Hannibal, and U. Grünert, “Characterization and synaptic connectivity of ipRGC-containing ganglion cells in the primate retina,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 26, 2906–2921(2007).
[CrossRef]

P. D. R. Gamlin, D. H. McDougal, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, K. W. Yau, and D. M. Dacey, “Human and macaque pupil responses driven by melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 47, 946–954 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (7)

J. D. Bullough, M. G. Figueiro, B. P. Possidente, R. H. Parsons, and M. S. Rea, “Additivity in Murine Circadian Phototransduction,” Zool. Sci. 22, 223–227 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Dacey, H.-W. Liao, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K.-W. Yau, and P. D. Gamlin, “Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal colour and irradiance and project to the LGN,” Nature 433, 749–754 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Tu, D. Zhang, J. Demas, E. B. Slutsky, I. Provencio, T. E. Holy, and R. N. Van Gelder, “Physiologic diversity and development of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells,” Neuron 48, 987–999 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Wong, F. A. Dunn, and D. M. Berson, “Photoreceptor adaptation in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells,” Neuron 48, 1001–1010 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Panda, S. K. Nayak, B. Campo, J. R. Walker, J. B. Hogenesch, and T. Jegla, “Illumination of the IpRGC signaling pathway,” Science 307, 600–604 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fu, H. Zhong, M.-H. H. Wang, D.-G. Luo, H.-W. Liao, H. Maeda, S. Hattar, L. J. Frishman, and K.-W. Yau, “Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells detect light with a vitamin A-based photopigment, ipRGC,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 10339–10344 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Towards an improved color rendering metric,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 1G1–8 (2005).

2003 (1)

R. J. Lucas, S. Hattar, M. Takao, D. M. Berson, R. G. Foster, and K. W. Yau, “Diminished pupillary light reflex at high irradiances in melanopsin-knockout mice,” Science 299, 245–247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

D. M. Berson, F. A. Dunn, and M. Takao, “Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock,” Science 295, 1070–1073 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Hattar, H. W. Liao, M. Takao, D. M. Berson, and K. W. Yau, “Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells: architecture, projections, and intrinsic photosensitivity,” Science 295, 1065–1070 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

1982 (2)

O. Estevez and H. Spekreijse, “The ‘silent substitution’ method in visual research,” Vis. Res. 22, 681–691 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Cohen and W. E. Kappauf, “Metameric color stimuli, fundamental metamers, and Wyszecki’s metameric blacks,” Am. J. Psychol. 95, 537–564 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

1974 (1)

D. van Norren and J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vis. Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

M. Alpern and F. W. Campbell, “The behaviour of the pupil during dark-adaptation,” J. Physiol. 165 (Suppl), 5P–7P (1963).

1959 (1)

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, “N.P.L. colour-matching investigation: final report,” Opt. Acta 6, 1–26 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

1954 (1)

M. Aguilar, and W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Aguilar, M.

M. Aguilar, and W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[CrossRef]

al Enezi, J.

J. al Enezi, V. Revell, T. Brown, J. Wynne, L. Schlangen, and R. Lucas, “A ‘melanopic’ spectral efficiency function predicts the sensitivity of IpRGC photoreceptors to polychromatic lights,” J. Biol. Rhythms 26, 314–323 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern and F. W. Campbell, “The behaviour of the pupil during dark-adaptation,” J. Physiol. 165 (Suppl), 5P–7P (1963).

Attia, D.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: Any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Autrusseau, F.

Bailacq, S.

F. Viénot, S. Bailacq, and J. Le Rohellec, “The effect of controlled photopigment excitations on pupil aperture,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 30, 484–491 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barbur, J. L.

J. L. Barbur, “Learning from the pupil—studies of basic mechanisms and clinical applications,” in The Visual Neurosciences, L. M. Chalupa and J. S. Werner, eds. (MIT Press, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 641–656.

W. Bi and J. L. Barbur, “Revisiting pupil colour responses,” presented at the 21st Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society, Kongsberg, Norway, 1–5 July 2011.

Barlier-Salsi, A.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: Any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Behar-Cohen, F.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: Any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bergles, D. E.

M. T. H. Do, S. H. Kang, T. Xue, H. Zhong, H.-W. Liao, D. E. Bergles, and K.-W. Yau, “Photon capture and signalling by melanopsin retinal ganglion cells,” Nature 457, 281–288 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berson, D. M.

K. Y. Wong, F. A. Dunn, and D. M. Berson, “Photoreceptor adaptation in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells,” Neuron 48, 1001–1010 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Lucas, S. Hattar, M. Takao, D. M. Berson, R. G. Foster, and K. W. Yau, “Diminished pupillary light reflex at high irradiances in melanopsin-knockout mice,” Science 299, 245–247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Berson, F. A. Dunn, and M. Takao, “Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock,” Science 295, 1070–1073 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Hattar, H. W. Liao, M. Takao, D. M. Berson, and K. W. Yau, “Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells: architecture, projections, and intrinsic photosensitivity,” Science 295, 1065–1070 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bi, W.

W. Bi and J. L. Barbur, “Revisiting pupil colour responses,” presented at the 21st Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society, Kongsberg, Norway, 1–5 July 2011.

Blondé, L.

Boissard-Jost, S.

S. Boissard-Jost and M. Fontoynont, “Optimization of LED-based light blendings for object presentation,” Color Res. Appl. 34, 310–320 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brainard, G. C.

G. C. Brainard, D. Sliney, J. P. Hanifin, G. Glickman, B. Byrne, J. M. Greeson, S. Jasser, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Sensitivity of the human circadian system to short-wavelength (420-nm) light,” J. Biol. Rhythms 23, 379–386 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T.

J. al Enezi, V. Revell, T. Brown, J. Wynne, L. Schlangen, and R. Lucas, “A ‘melanopic’ spectral efficiency function predicts the sensitivity of IpRGC photoreceptors to polychromatic lights,” J. Biol. Rhythms 26, 314–323 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bullough, J. D.

J. D. Bullough, M. G. Figueiro, B. P. Possidente, R. H. Parsons, and M. S. Rea, “Additivity in Murine Circadian Phototransduction,” Zool. Sci. 22, 223–227 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burch, J. M.

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, “N.P.L. colour-matching investigation: final report,” Opt. Acta 6, 1–26 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, B.

G. C. Brainard, D. Sliney, J. P. Hanifin, G. Glickman, B. Byrne, J. M. Greeson, S. Jasser, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Sensitivity of the human circadian system to short-wavelength (420-nm) light,” J. Biol. Rhythms 23, 379–386 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, F. W.

M. Alpern and F. W. Campbell, “The behaviour of the pupil during dark-adaptation,” J. Physiol. 165 (Suppl), 5P–7P (1963).

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T. M. Schmidt and P. Kofuji, “Functional and morphological differences among intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells,” J. Neurosci. 29, 476–482 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, A. G.

Sharpe, L. T.

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, W. Jagla, and H. Jägle, “A luminous efficiency function, VD65*(λ), for daylight adaptation: a correction,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 42–46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Stockman and L. T. Sharpe, “Cone spectral sensitivities and color matching,” in Color Vision: From Genes to Perception, K. R. Gegenfurtner and L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 53–87, http://www.cvrl.org .

Sliney, D.

G. C. Brainard, D. Sliney, J. P. Hanifin, G. Glickman, B. Byrne, J. M. Greeson, S. Jasser, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Sensitivity of the human circadian system to short-wavelength (420-nm) light,” J. Biol. Rhythms 23, 379–386 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sliney, D. H.

D. H. Sliney, “From photobiological science to lighting applications,” in Proceedings of the 2nd CIE Expert Symposium on Lighting and Health, CIE x031:2006 (2006), pp. 1–5.

Slutsky, E. B.

D. C. Tu, D. Zhang, J. Demas, E. B. Slutsky, I. Provencio, T. E. Holy, and R. N. Van Gelder, “Physiologic diversity and development of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells,” Neuron 48, 987–999 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smet, R.

Smith, S. S.

A. J. Zele, B. Feigl, S. S. Smith, and E. L. Markwell, “The circadian response of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells,” PLoS ONE 6(3), doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017860, e17860 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Smith, V. C.

D. Cao, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and A. J. Zele, “Rod contributions to color perception: Linear with rod contrast,” Vis. Res. 48, 2586–2592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. D. R. Gamlin, D. H. McDougal, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, K. W. Yau, and D. M. Dacey, “Human and macaque pupil responses driven by melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 47, 946–954 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Dacey, H.-W. Liao, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K.-W. Yau, and P. D. Gamlin, “Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal colour and irradiance and project to the LGN,” Nature 433, 749–754 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Shapiro, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Cone-rod receptor spaces with illustrations that use CRT phosphor and light-emitting-diode spectra,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2319–2328(1996).
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O. Estevez and H. Spekreijse, “The ‘silent substitution’ method in visual research,” Vis. Res. 22, 681–691 (1982).
[CrossRef]

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W. S. Stiles, G. Wyszecki, and N. Ohta, “Counting metameric object-color stimuli using frequency-limited spectral reflectance functions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 779–784 (1977).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, “N.P.L. colour-matching investigation: final report,” Opt. Acta 6, 1–26 (1959).
[CrossRef]

M. Aguilar, and W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, A.

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, W. Jagla, and H. Jägle, “A luminous efficiency function, VD65*(λ), for daylight adaptation: a correction,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 42–46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

A. Stockman and L. T. Sharpe, “Cone spectral sensitivities and color matching,” in Color Vision: From Genes to Perception, K. R. Gegenfurtner and L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 53–87, http://www.cvrl.org .

Takao, M.

R. J. Lucas, S. Hattar, M. Takao, D. M. Berson, R. G. Foster, and K. W. Yau, “Diminished pupillary light reflex at high irradiances in melanopsin-knockout mice,” Science 299, 245–247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Hattar, H. W. Liao, M. Takao, D. M. Berson, and K. W. Yau, “Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells: architecture, projections, and intrinsic photosensitivity,” Science 295, 1065–1070 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Berson, F. A. Dunn, and M. Takao, “Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock,” Science 295, 1070–1073 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsujimura, S.

S. Tsujimura, K. Ukai, D. Ohama, A. Nuruki, and K. Yunokuchi, “Contribution of human melanopsin retinal ganglion cells to steady-state pupil responses,” Proc. R. Soc. B 277(1693), 2485–2492 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tu, D. C.

D. C. Tu, D. Zhang, J. Demas, E. B. Slutsky, I. Provencio, T. E. Holy, and R. N. Van Gelder, “Physiologic diversity and development of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells,” Neuron 48, 987–999 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ukai, K.

S. Tsujimura, K. Ukai, D. Ohama, A. Nuruki, and K. Yunokuchi, “Contribution of human melanopsin retinal ganglion cells to steady-state pupil responses,” Proc. R. Soc. B 277(1693), 2485–2492 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Van Gelder, R. N.

K. Mawad and R. N. Van Gelder, “Absence of longwavelength photic potentiation of murine intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell firing in vitro,” J. Biol. Rhythms 23, 387–391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Tu, D. Zhang, J. Demas, E. B. Slutsky, I. Provencio, T. E. Holy, and R. N. Van Gelder, “Physiologic diversity and development of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells,” Neuron 48, 987–999 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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D. van Norren and J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vis. Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
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A. Sarkar, F. Autrusseau, F. Viénot, P. Le Callet, and L. Blondé, “From CIE 2006 physiological model to improved age-dependent and average colorimetric observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 2033–2048 (2011).
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F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: Any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Viénot, S. Bailacq, and J. Le Rohellec, “The effect of controlled photopigment excitations on pupil aperture,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 30, 484–491 (2010).
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D. van Norren and J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vis. Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
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S. Panda, S. K. Nayak, B. Campo, J. R. Walker, J. B. Hogenesch, and T. Jegla, “Illumination of the IpRGC signaling pathway,” Science 307, 600–604 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.-H. H.

Y. Fu, H. Zhong, M.-H. H. Wang, D.-G. Luo, H.-W. Liao, H. Maeda, S. Hattar, L. J. Frishman, and K.-W. Yau, “Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells detect light with a vitamin A-based photopigment, ipRGC,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 10339–10344 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K. Y.

K. Y. Wong, F. A. Dunn, and D. M. Berson, “Photoreceptor adaptation in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells,” Neuron 48, 1001–1010 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wynne, J.

J. al Enezi, V. Revell, T. Brown, J. Wynne, L. Schlangen, and R. Lucas, “A ‘melanopic’ spectral efficiency function predicts the sensitivity of IpRGC photoreceptors to polychromatic lights,” J. Biol. Rhythms 26, 314–323 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wyszecki, G.

Xue, T.

M. T. H. Do, S. H. Kang, T. Xue, H. Zhong, H.-W. Liao, D. E. Bergles, and K.-W. Yau, “Photon capture and signalling by melanopsin retinal ganglion cells,” Nature 457, 281–288 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yau, K. W.

P. D. R. Gamlin, D. H. McDougal, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, K. W. Yau, and D. M. Dacey, “Human and macaque pupil responses driven by melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 47, 946–954 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Lucas, S. Hattar, M. Takao, D. M. Berson, R. G. Foster, and K. W. Yau, “Diminished pupillary light reflex at high irradiances in melanopsin-knockout mice,” Science 299, 245–247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Hattar, H. W. Liao, M. Takao, D. M. Berson, and K. W. Yau, “Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells: architecture, projections, and intrinsic photosensitivity,” Science 295, 1065–1070 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yau, K.-W.

M. T. Hoang Do and K.-W. Yau, “Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells,” Physiol. Rev. 90, 1547–1581 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. H. Do, S. H. Kang, T. Xue, H. Zhong, H.-W. Liao, D. E. Bergles, and K.-W. Yau, “Photon capture and signalling by melanopsin retinal ganglion cells,” Nature 457, 281–288 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Dacey, H.-W. Liao, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K.-W. Yau, and P. D. Gamlin, “Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal colour and irradiance and project to the LGN,” Nature 433, 749–754 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fu, H. Zhong, M.-H. H. Wang, D.-G. Luo, H.-W. Liao, H. Maeda, S. Hattar, L. J. Frishman, and K.-W. Yau, “Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells detect light with a vitamin A-based photopigment, ipRGC,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 10339–10344 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Young, R. S. L.

R. S. L. Young and E. Kimura, “Pupillary correlates of light-evoked melanopsin activity in humans,” Vis. Res. 48, 862–871 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yunokuchi, K.

S. Tsujimura, K. Ukai, D. Ohama, A. Nuruki, and K. Yunokuchi, “Contribution of human melanopsin retinal ganglion cells to steady-state pupil responses,” Proc. R. Soc. B 277(1693), 2485–2492 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zele, A. J.

A. J. Zele, B. Feigl, S. S. Smith, and E. L. Markwell, “The circadian response of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells,” PLoS ONE 6(3), doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017860, e17860 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Markwell, B. Feigl, and A. J. Zele, “Intrinsically photosensitive melanopsin retinal ganglion cell contributions to the pupillary light reflex and circadian rhythm,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 93, 137–149 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Cao, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and A. J. Zele, “Rod contributions to color perception: Linear with rod contrast,” Vis. Res. 48, 2586–2592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

D. C. Tu, D. Zhang, J. Demas, E. B. Slutsky, I. Provencio, T. E. Holy, and R. N. Van Gelder, “Physiologic diversity and development of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells,” Neuron 48, 987–999 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, H.

M. T. H. Do, S. H. Kang, T. Xue, H. Zhong, H.-W. Liao, D. E. Bergles, and K.-W. Yau, “Photon capture and signalling by melanopsin retinal ganglion cells,” Nature 457, 281–288 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fu, H. Zhong, M.-H. H. Wang, D.-G. Luo, H.-W. Liao, H. Maeda, S. Hattar, L. J. Frishman, and K.-W. Yau, “Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells detect light with a vitamin A-based photopigment, ipRGC,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 10339–10344 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zissis, G.

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: Any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
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E. L. Markwell, B. Feigl, and A. J. Zele, “Intrinsically photosensitive melanopsin retinal ganglion cell contributions to the pupillary light reflex and circadian rhythm,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 93, 137–149 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Color Res. Appl. (2)

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, W. Jagla, and H. Jägle, “A luminous efficiency function, VD65*(λ), for daylight adaptation: a correction,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 42–46 (2011).
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S. Boissard-Jost and M. Fontoynont, “Optimization of LED-based light blendings for object presentation,” Color Res. Appl. 34, 310–320 (2009).
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Eur. J. Neurosci. (1)

P. R. Jusuf, S. C. Lee, J. Hannibal, and U. Grünert, “Characterization and synaptic connectivity of ipRGC-containing ganglion cells in the primate retina,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 26, 2906–2921(2007).
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Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

L. Kankipati, C. A. Girkin, and P. D. Gamlin, “Post-illumination Pupil Response in Subjects without Ocular Disease,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51, 2764–2769 (2010).
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G. C. Brainard, D. Sliney, J. P. Hanifin, G. Glickman, B. Byrne, J. M. Greeson, S. Jasser, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Sensitivity of the human circadian system to short-wavelength (420-nm) light,” J. Biol. Rhythms 23, 379–386 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. al Enezi, V. Revell, T. Brown, J. Wynne, L. Schlangen, and R. Lucas, “A ‘melanopic’ spectral efficiency function predicts the sensitivity of IpRGC photoreceptors to polychromatic lights,” J. Biol. Rhythms 26, 314–323 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Mawad and R. N. Van Gelder, “Absence of longwavelength photic potentiation of murine intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell firing in vitro,” J. Biol. Rhythms 23, 387–391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosci. (1)

T. M. Schmidt and P. Kofuji, “Functional and morphological differences among intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells,” J. Neurosci. 29, 476–482 (2009).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

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Nature (2)

M. T. H. Do, S. H. Kang, T. Xue, H. Zhong, H.-W. Liao, D. E. Bergles, and K.-W. Yau, “Photon capture and signalling by melanopsin retinal ganglion cells,” Nature 457, 281–288 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Dacey, H.-W. Liao, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K.-W. Yau, and P. D. Gamlin, “Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal colour and irradiance and project to the LGN,” Nature 433, 749–754 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Neuron (2)

K. Y. Wong, F. A. Dunn, and D. M. Berson, “Photoreceptor adaptation in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells,” Neuron 48, 1001–1010 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Tu, D. Zhang, J. Demas, E. B. Slutsky, I. Provencio, T. E. Holy, and R. N. Van Gelder, “Physiologic diversity and development of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells,” Neuron 48, 987–999 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. (1)

F. Viénot, S. Bailacq, and J. Le Rohellec, “The effect of controlled photopigment excitations on pupil aperture,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 30, 484–491 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (2)

M. Aguilar, and W. S. Stiles, “Saturation of the rod mechanism of the retina at high levels of stimulation,” Opt. Acta 1, 59–65 (1954).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, “N.P.L. colour-matching investigation: final report,” Opt. Acta 6, 1–26 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Physiol. Rev. (1)

M. T. Hoang Do and K.-W. Yau, “Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells,” Physiol. Rev. 90, 1547–1581 (2010).
[CrossRef]

PLoS ONE (2)

L. S. Mure, P.-L. Cornut, C. Rieux, E. Drouyer, P. Denis, C. Gronfier, and H. M. Cooper, “Melanopsin bistability: a fly’s eye technology in the human retina,” PLoS ONE 4(6), e5991, 1–10 (2009), www.plosone.org .
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A. J. Zele, B. Feigl, S. S. Smith, and E. L. Markwell, “The circadian response of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells,” PLoS ONE 6(3), doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017860, e17860 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

Y. Fu, H. Zhong, M.-H. H. Wang, D.-G. Luo, H.-W. Liao, H. Maeda, S. Hattar, L. J. Frishman, and K.-W. Yau, “Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells detect light with a vitamin A-based photopigment, ipRGC,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 10339–10344 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. B (1)

S. Tsujimura, K. Ukai, D. Ohama, A. Nuruki, and K. Yunokuchi, “Contribution of human melanopsin retinal ganglion cells to steady-state pupil responses,” Proc. R. Soc. B 277(1693), 2485–2492 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Towards an improved color rendering metric,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 1G1–8 (2005).

Prog. Retin. Eye Res. (1)

F. Behar-Cohen, C. Martinsons, F. Viénot, G. Zissis, A. Barlier-Salsi, J. P. Cesarini, O. Enouf, M. Garcia, S. Picaud, and D. Attia, “Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: Any risks for the eye?” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30, 239–257 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Science (4)

S. Panda, S. K. Nayak, B. Campo, J. R. Walker, J. B. Hogenesch, and T. Jegla, “Illumination of the IpRGC signaling pathway,” Science 307, 600–604 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Berson, F. A. Dunn, and M. Takao, “Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock,” Science 295, 1070–1073 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Hattar, H. W. Liao, M. Takao, D. M. Berson, and K. W. Yau, “Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells: architecture, projections, and intrinsic photosensitivity,” Science 295, 1065–1070 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Lucas, S. Hattar, M. Takao, D. M. Berson, R. G. Foster, and K. W. Yau, “Diminished pupillary light reflex at high irradiances in melanopsin-knockout mice,” Science 299, 245–247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trends Neurosci. (1)

M. W. Hankins, S. N. Peirson, and R. G. Foster, “Melanopsin: an exciting photopigment,” Trends Neurosci. 31, 27–36 (2008).
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Vis. Res. (6)

D. H. McDougal and P. D. Gamlin, “The influence of intrinsically-photosensitive retinal ganglion cells on the spectral sensitivity and response dynamics of the human pupillary light reflex,” Vis. Res. 50, 72–87 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. D. R. Gamlin, D. H. McDougal, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, K. W. Yau, and D. M. Dacey, “Human and macaque pupil responses driven by melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 47, 946–954 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. S. L. Young and E. Kimura, “Pupillary correlates of light-evoked melanopsin activity in humans,” Vis. Res. 48, 862–871 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Cao, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and A. J. Zele, “Rod contributions to color perception: Linear with rod contrast,” Vis. Res. 48, 2586–2592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. van Norren and J. J. Vos, “Spectral transmission of the human ocular media,” Vis. Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974).
[CrossRef]

O. Estevez and H. Spekreijse, “The ‘silent substitution’ method in visual research,” Vis. Res. 22, 681–691 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Zool. Sci. (1)

J. D. Bullough, M. G. Figueiro, B. P. Possidente, R. H. Parsons, and M. S. Rea, “Additivity in Murine Circadian Phototransduction,” Zool. Sci. 22, 223–227 (2005).
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Other (10)

Colorimetry tables were downloaded at http://www.cvrl.org .

Y. Le Grand, Light, Color and Vision, 2nd ed. (Chapman and Hall, 1968), p. 86, Eq. 59.

D. H. Sliney, “From photobiological science to lighting applications,” in Proceedings of the 2nd CIE Expert Symposium on Lighting and Health, CIE x031:2006 (2006), pp. 1–5.

A. Stockman and L. T. Sharpe, “Cone spectral sensitivities and color matching,” in Color Vision: From Genes to Perception, K. R. Gegenfurtner and L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 53–87, http://www.cvrl.org .

CIE, “Fundamental chromaticity diagram with physiological axes—part 1,” CIE Publ.170-1:2006 (CIE, 2006).

CIE, “International electrotechnical vocabulary,” CIE Publ. 17.4 (CIE, 1987), 845-01-22, http://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/index?openform&part=845.

J. L. Barbur, “Learning from the pupil—studies of basic mechanisms and clinical applications,” in The Visual Neurosciences, L. M. Chalupa and J. S. Werner, eds. (MIT Press, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 641–656.

W. Bi and J. L. Barbur, “Revisiting pupil colour responses,” presented at the 21st Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society, Kongsberg, Norway, 1–5 July 2011.

ANSES, “Health effects of lighting systems using light-emitting diodes (LEDs),” opinion of the French agency for food, environmental and occupational health and safety in response to the internally solicited request (ANSES, 2010).

CIE, “Method of measuring and specifying color rendering properties of light sources, CIE Publ. 13.2 (CIE, 1995).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Spectral power distribution of the light emitted by the color LEDs. Peak wavelength as indicated in the inset, in nm. LED spectra ranging from short to long wavelengths correspond to labels listed top to bottom.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Bar chart of each black metamer expressed in terms of seven-color LED components.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Relative color-stimulus function of each black metamer.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Bar graph of the multicolour LED illuminations that would produce the fundamental metamer of the 5350 K white and that excite melanopsin and rods at most and at least, expressed in terms of seven-color LED components.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Rod excitation versus ipRGC excitation achieved by every black metamer. Arbitrary units: rod and ipRGC excitations have been calculated using an action spectrum normalized to unity at peak wavelength and multiplied by 683.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Fundamental metamer and multicolor LED illuminations that excite melanopsin and rods at most (thick blue line) and at least (broken orange line), respectively. The thin black line represents the fundamental metamer. Measurements were taken at the wall of the light booth facing the observer.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Prediction of receptor relative excitations obtained from the multicolor LED illuminations that excite melanopsin and rods at most (thick blue line) and at least (thick orange line), respectively. Arbitrary units: All receptor excitations have been calculated using an action spectrum normalized to unity at peak wavelength and multiplied by 683.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Ratio of pupil-to-iris diameter. Left panel: Measurements obtained under Mel Rod Low illumination. Right panel: Measurements obtained under Mel Rod High illumination. Symbols identify the measurements on which the average pupil-to-diameter ratio is calculated. Thin lines show the iris diameter in kilopixels. Example for observer #1.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Ratio and standard deviation of pupil-to-iris diameter measured in the melanopsin and rods minimum excitation condition and maximum excitation condition, for 14 observers, and average ratio.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Spectral radiance of a commercial white LED (thick line) and the fundamental metamer of natural daylight at 5350 K (thin line).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Prediction of the Receptor Excitations Corresponding to the Fundamental Metamer and Black Metamer Components of the Seven-Color LED Illuminations That Excite ipRGC and Rods at Most (Mel Rod High) or at Least (Mel Rod Low), in Arbitrary Units: All Excitations Calculated Using an Action Spectrum Normalized to Unity at Peak Wavelength and Multiplied by 683

Tables Icon

Table 2. Predicted and Experimental Photometric Quantities and Receptor Excitation Values Corresponding to the “Mel Rod High” and “Mel Rod Low” Configurations: Retinal Irradiance Values Calculated Using the Average Diameter of the Observer Pupils

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N=N*+B,
N=[Nλ1Nλ2Nλk].
T=AN.
A=[X10Y10Z10],
AB=[000].
Pi=[Pi,λ1Pi,λ2Pi,λ3Pi,λk]i=1,,7,
N=L1P1+L2P2+L3P3+L4P4+L5P5+L6P6+L7P7.
N=PL.
A7=PA.
R7=A7(A7A7)A7.
L*=R7L.
N*=PL*.
B7=I7R7.
Ep=0.36Lp(λ)Sτ(λ)dλ

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