Abstract

Studies of rod hue biases using monochromatic stimuli have shown that rod stimulation can shift the balance of hues at mesopic light levels. We found that the CRT display produced all three previously identified rod hue biases, which shifted the loci of all four unique hues at low mesopic light levels. Rod hue biases occurred at 2.6cd/m2 for some observers but not at 26cd/m2. At optimal light levels below 0.5cd/m2, rod hue biases varied among observers but generally (1) enhanced green versus red at unique yellow and sometimes at unique blue, (2) enhanced blue versus yellow at both unique green and unique red, and (3) enhanced red versus green at unique blue. Rod hue biases persisted for some observers even for smaller foveal stimuli.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. L. Thomas and S. L. Buck, “Generality of rod hue biases with smaller, brighter, and photopically specified stimuli,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 257–262 (2004).
  24. R. Knight and S. L. Buck, “Rod influences on hue perception: Effect of background light level,” Color Res. Appl. 26, Suppl., S60–S64 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. Knight and S. L. Buck, “Time-dependent changes of rod influence on hue perception,” Vis. Res. 42, 1651–1662 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. L. Buck and R. Knight, “Stimulus duration affects rod influence on hue perception,” in Normal and Defective Colour VisionJ. D. Mollon, J. Pokorny, and K. Knobluach, ed. (Oxford, 2003), pp. 177–184.
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  28. S. L. Buck, “What is the hue of rod vision?” Color Res. Appl. 26, Suppl., S57–S59 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  29. L. Thomas and S. L. Buck, “Foveal vs. extra-foveal contributions to rod hue biases,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 539–542 (2006).
  30. S. L. Buck, L. Thomas, N. Hillyer, and E. Samuelson, “Do rods influence the hue of foveal stimuli?” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 519–523 (2006).
  31. S. L. Buck and C. Cunningham, “Rod influence on desaturated color mixtures,” [Abstract]. J. Vis. 9, 55 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  32. S. L. Buck and R. DeWenter, “Rod influence on complex backgrounds [Abstract].J. Vis. 10, 50 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  33. A. L. Nagy and J. A. Doyal, “Red-green color discrimination as a function of stimulus field size in peripheral vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1147–1156 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  34. H. C. Walkey, J. L. Barbur, J. A. Harlow, and W. Makous, “Measurements of chromatic sensitivity in the mesopic range,” Color Res. Appl. 26, Suppl., S36–S42 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  37. J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  38. L. M. Hurvich, Color Vision (Sinauer, 1981).
  39. R. L. DeValois and K. K. DeValois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vis. Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  40. R. Knight, S. L. Buck, and M. Pereverzeva, “Stimulus size affects rod influence on tritan chromatic discrimination,” Color Res. Appl. 26, Suppl., S65–S68 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  41. A. J. Shepherd and G. Wyatt, “Changes in induced hues at low luminance and following dark adaptation suggest rod-cone interactions may differ for luminance increments and decrements,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 387–394 (2008).

2010 (3)

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, L. S. Baker, A. R. Trujillo, and K. Youngpeter, “Unique hue loci differ with methodology,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 545–552 (2010).

N. D. Douda, V. J. Volbrecht, K. A. Godwin, A. D. Miller, and J. L. Nerger, “Scotopically equated stimuli versus photopically equated stimuli in unique hue judgments,” J. Vis. 10, 36(2010).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck and R. DeWenter, “Rod influence on complex backgrounds [Abstract].J. Vis. 10, 50 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

S. L. Buck and C. Cunningham, “Rod influence on desaturated color mixtures,” [Abstract]. J. Vis. 9, 55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue-yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Volbrecht, C. L. Clark, J. L. Nerger, and C. E. Randell, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes measured at 10 degrees eccentricity along the horizontal and vertical meridians,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1167–1177 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

D. Cao, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and A. J. Zele, “Rod contributions to color perception: linear with rod contrast,” Vis. Res. 48, 2586–2592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny, M. Lutze, D. Cao, and A. J. Zele, “The color of night: surface color categorization by color defective observers under dim illuminations,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 475–480 (2008).

S. L. Buck, L. Thomas, C. Connor, K. Green, and T. Quintana, “Time-course of rod influences on hue perception,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 517–520 (2008).

A. J. Shepherd and G. Wyatt, “Changes in induced hues at low luminance and following dark adaptation suggest rod-cone interactions may differ for luminance increments and decrements,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 387–394 (2008).

2006 (3)

L. Thomas and S. L. Buck, “Foveal vs. extra-foveal contributions to rod hue biases,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 539–542 (2006).

S. L. Buck, L. Thomas, N. Hillyer, and E. Samuelson, “Do rods influence the hue of foveal stimuli?” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 519–523 (2006).

J. Pokorny, M. Lutze, D. Cao, and A. J. Zele, “The color of night: Surface color perception under dim illuminations,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 525–530 (2006).

2005 (2)

M. A. Pitts, L. J. Troup, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes change with retinal illuminance,” J. Vis. 5, 435–443 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Cao, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Matching rod percepts with cone stimuli,” Vis. Res. 45, 2119–2128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

S. M. Imhoff, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “A new look at the Bezold-Brücke hue shift in the peripheral retina,” Vis. Res. 44, 1891–1906 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Thomas and S. L. Buck, “Generality of rod hue biases with smaller, brighter, and photopically specified stimuli,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 257–262 (2004).

2002 (1)

R. Knight and S. L. Buck, “Time-dependent changes of rod influence on hue perception,” Vis. Res. 42, 1651–1662 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

S. L. Buck, “What is the hue of rod vision?” Color Res. Appl. 26, Suppl., S57–S59 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Knight and S. L. Buck, “Rod influences on hue perception: Effect of background light level,” Color Res. Appl. 26, Suppl., S60–S64 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Walkey, J. L. Barbur, J. A. Harlow, and W. Makous, “Measurements of chromatic sensitivity in the mesopic range,” Color Res. Appl. 26, Suppl., S36–S42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Knight, S. L. Buck, and M. Pereverzeva, “Stimulus size affects rod influence on tritan chromatic discrimination,” Color Res. Appl. 26, Suppl., S65–S68 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, and J. Bechtold, “Opponent-color models and the influence of rod signals on the loci of unique hues,” Vis. Res. 40, 3333–3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, S. M. Imhoff, and C. J. Ayde, “Effect of the short-wavelength-sensitive-cone mosaic and rods on the locus of unique green,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 628–634 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Mechanisms of chromatic rod vision in scotopic illumination,” Vis. Res. 34, 1019–1027 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Shapiro, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Rod contribution to large-field color matching,” Color Res. Appl. 19, 236–245 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

1979 (1)

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to change in hue with eccentricity,” Vis. Res. 19, 1121–1125 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

B. A. Ambler, “Hue discrimination in peripheral vision under conditions of dark and light adaptation,” Percept. Psychophys. 15, 586–590 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

P. Trezona, “Rod participation in the “blue” mechanism and its effect on color matching,” Vis. Res. 10, 317–332 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ambler, B. A.

B. A. Ambler, “Hue discrimination in peripheral vision under conditions of dark and light adaptation,” Percept. Psychophys. 15, 586–590 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ayde, C. J.

Baker, L. S.

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, L. S. Baker, A. R. Trujillo, and K. Youngpeter, “Unique hue loci differ with methodology,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 545–552 (2010).

Barbur, J. L.

H. C. Walkey, J. L. Barbur, J. A. Harlow, and W. Makous, “Measurements of chromatic sensitivity in the mesopic range,” Color Res. Appl. 26, Suppl., S36–S42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bechtold, J.

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, and J. Bechtold, “Opponent-color models and the influence of rod signals on the loci of unique hues,” Vis. Res. 40, 3333–3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, and J. Bechtold, “Effect of rod stimulation on unique and binary hue judgments,” in IS&T/OSA Optics in the Information Age (IS&T, 1997), pp. 11–15.

Buck, S. L.

S. L. Buck and R. DeWenter, “Rod influence on complex backgrounds [Abstract].J. Vis. 10, 50 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck and C. Cunningham, “Rod influence on desaturated color mixtures,” [Abstract]. J. Vis. 9, 55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, L. Thomas, C. Connor, K. Green, and T. Quintana, “Time-course of rod influences on hue perception,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 517–520 (2008).

L. Thomas and S. L. Buck, “Foveal vs. extra-foveal contributions to rod hue biases,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 539–542 (2006).

S. L. Buck, L. Thomas, N. Hillyer, and E. Samuelson, “Do rods influence the hue of foveal stimuli?” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 519–523 (2006).

L. Thomas and S. L. Buck, “Generality of rod hue biases with smaller, brighter, and photopically specified stimuli,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 257–262 (2004).

R. Knight and S. L. Buck, “Time-dependent changes of rod influence on hue perception,” Vis. Res. 42, 1651–1662 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Knight and S. L. Buck, “Rod influences on hue perception: Effect of background light level,” Color Res. Appl. 26, Suppl., S60–S64 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, “What is the hue of rod vision?” Color Res. Appl. 26, Suppl., S57–S59 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Knight, S. L. Buck, and M. Pereverzeva, “Stimulus size affects rod influence on tritan chromatic discrimination,” Color Res. Appl. 26, Suppl., S65–S68 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, and J. Bechtold, “Opponent-color models and the influence of rod signals on the loci of unique hues,” Vis. Res. 40, 3333–3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, G. Fowler, and B. Hunt, “Rod influence on hue-scaling functions,” Vis. Res. 38, 3259–3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, and J. Bechtold, “Effect of rod stimulation on unique and binary hue judgments,” in IS&T/OSA Optics in the Information Age (IS&T, 1997), pp. 11–15.

S. L. Buck and R. Knight, “Stimulus duration affects rod influence on hue perception,” in Normal and Defective Colour VisionJ. D. Mollon, J. Pokorny, and K. Knobluach, ed. (Oxford, 2003), pp. 177–184.

Cao, D.

J. Pokorny, M. Lutze, D. Cao, and A. J. Zele, “The color of night: surface color categorization by color defective observers under dim illuminations,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 475–480 (2008).

D. Cao, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and A. J. Zele, “Rod contributions to color perception: linear with rod contrast,” Vis. Res. 48, 2586–2592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny, M. Lutze, D. Cao, and A. J. Zele, “The color of night: Surface color perception under dim illuminations,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 525–530 (2006).

D. Cao, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Matching rod percepts with cone stimuli,” Vis. Res. 45, 2119–2128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chichilnisky, E. J.

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue-yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Clark, C. L.

Connor, C.

S. L. Buck, L. Thomas, C. Connor, K. Green, and T. Quintana, “Time-course of rod influences on hue perception,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 517–520 (2008).

Crook, J. D.

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, C.

S. L. Buck and C. Cunningham, “Rod influence on desaturated color mixtures,” [Abstract]. J. Vis. 9, 55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dacey, D. M.

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Davenport, C. M.

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Detwiler, P. B.

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DeValois, K. K.

R. L. DeValois and K. K. DeValois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vis. Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
[CrossRef]

DeValois, R. L.

R. L. DeValois and K. K. DeValois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vis. Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
[CrossRef]

DeWenter, R.

S. L. Buck and R. DeWenter, “Rod influence on complex backgrounds [Abstract].J. Vis. 10, 50 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Douda, N. D.

N. D. Douda, V. J. Volbrecht, K. A. Godwin, A. D. Miller, and J. L. Nerger, “Scotopically equated stimuli versus photopically equated stimuli in unique hue judgments,” J. Vis. 10, 36(2010).
[CrossRef]

Doyal, J. A.

Field, G. D.

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue-yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fowler, G.

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, G. Fowler, and B. Hunt, “Rod influence on hue-scaling functions,” Vis. Res. 38, 3259–3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, J. L.

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue-yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Godwin, K. A.

N. D. Douda, V. J. Volbrecht, K. A. Godwin, A. D. Miller, and J. L. Nerger, “Scotopically equated stimuli versus photopically equated stimuli in unique hue judgments,” J. Vis. 10, 36(2010).
[CrossRef]

Green, K.

S. L. Buck, L. Thomas, C. Connor, K. Green, and T. Quintana, “Time-course of rod influences on hue perception,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 517–520 (2008).

Greschner, M.

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue-yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harlow, J. A.

H. C. Walkey, J. L. Barbur, J. A. Harlow, and W. Makous, “Measurements of chromatic sensitivity in the mesopic range,” Color Res. Appl. 26, Suppl., S36–S42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hillyer, N.

S. L. Buck, L. Thomas, N. Hillyer, and E. Samuelson, “Do rods influence the hue of foveal stimuli?” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 519–523 (2006).

Hunt, B.

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, G. Fowler, and B. Hunt, “Rod influence on hue-scaling functions,” Vis. Res. 38, 3259–3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hurvich, L. M.

L. M. Hurvich, Color Vision (Sinauer, 1981).

Imhoff, S. M.

Knight, R.

R. Knight and S. L. Buck, “Time-dependent changes of rod influence on hue perception,” Vis. Res. 42, 1651–1662 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Knight and S. L. Buck, “Rod influences on hue perception: Effect of background light level,” Color Res. Appl. 26, Suppl., S60–S64 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Knight, S. L. Buck, and M. Pereverzeva, “Stimulus size affects rod influence on tritan chromatic discrimination,” Color Res. Appl. 26, Suppl., S65–S68 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, and J. Bechtold, “Opponent-color models and the influence of rod signals on the loci of unique hues,” Vis. Res. 40, 3333–3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, G. Fowler, and B. Hunt, “Rod influence on hue-scaling functions,” Vis. Res. 38, 3259–3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, and J. Bechtold, “Effect of rod stimulation on unique and binary hue judgments,” in IS&T/OSA Optics in the Information Age (IS&T, 1997), pp. 11–15.

S. L. Buck and R. Knight, “Stimulus duration affects rod influence on hue perception,” in Normal and Defective Colour VisionJ. D. Mollon, J. Pokorny, and K. Knobluach, ed. (Oxford, 2003), pp. 177–184.

Litke, A. M.

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue-yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lutze, M.

J. Pokorny, M. Lutze, D. Cao, and A. J. Zele, “The color of night: surface color categorization by color defective observers under dim illuminations,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 475–480 (2008).

J. Pokorny, M. Lutze, D. Cao, and A. J. Zele, “The color of night: Surface color perception under dim illuminations,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 525–530 (2006).

Makous, W.

H. C. Walkey, J. L. Barbur, J. A. Harlow, and W. Makous, “Measurements of chromatic sensitivity in the mesopic range,” Color Res. Appl. 26, Suppl., S36–S42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marshak, D. W.

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue-yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A. D.

N. D. Douda, V. J. Volbrecht, K. A. Godwin, A. D. Miller, and J. L. Nerger, “Scotopically equated stimuli versus photopically equated stimuli in unique hue judgments,” J. Vis. 10, 36(2010).
[CrossRef]

Nagy, A. L.

Nerger, J. L.

N. D. Douda, V. J. Volbrecht, K. A. Godwin, A. D. Miller, and J. L. Nerger, “Scotopically equated stimuli versus photopically equated stimuli in unique hue judgments,” J. Vis. 10, 36(2010).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, L. S. Baker, A. R. Trujillo, and K. Youngpeter, “Unique hue loci differ with methodology,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 545–552 (2010).

V. J. Volbrecht, C. L. Clark, J. L. Nerger, and C. E. Randell, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes measured at 10 degrees eccentricity along the horizontal and vertical meridians,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1167–1177 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Pitts, L. J. Troup, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes change with retinal illuminance,” J. Vis. 5, 435–443 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Imhoff, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “A new look at the Bezold-Brücke hue shift in the peripheral retina,” Vis. Res. 44, 1891–1906 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, S. M. Imhoff, and C. J. Ayde, “Effect of the short-wavelength-sensitive-cone mosaic and rods on the locus of unique green,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 628–634 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Nerger, V. J. Volbrecht, C. J. Ayde, and S. M. Imhoff, “Effect of the S-cone mosaic and rods on red/green equilibria,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2816–2826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Nerger, V. J. Volbrecht, and C. J. Ayde, “Unique hue judgments as a function of test size in the fovea and at 20-deg temporal eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1225–1232 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Volbrecht and J. L. Nerger, “Color appearance at ±10° along the vertical and horizontal meridians,” presented at the Colour Vision Symposium, Kongsberg, Norway, 2011.

Packer, O. S.

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pereverzeva, M.

R. Knight, S. L. Buck, and M. Pereverzeva, “Stimulus size affects rod influence on tritan chromatic discrimination,” Color Res. Appl. 26, Suppl., S65–S68 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, B. B.

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pitts, M. A.

M. A. Pitts, L. J. Troup, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes change with retinal illuminance,” J. Vis. 5, 435–443 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pokorny, J.

D. Cao, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and A. J. Zele, “Rod contributions to color perception: linear with rod contrast,” Vis. Res. 48, 2586–2592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny, M. Lutze, D. Cao, and A. J. Zele, “The color of night: surface color categorization by color defective observers under dim illuminations,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 475–480 (2008).

J. Pokorny, M. Lutze, D. Cao, and A. J. Zele, “The color of night: Surface color perception under dim illuminations,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 525–530 (2006).

D. Cao, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Matching rod percepts with cone stimuli,” Vis. Res. 45, 2119–2128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Shapiro, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Rod contribution to large-field color matching,” Color Res. Appl. 19, 236–245 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Quintana, T.

S. L. Buck, L. Thomas, C. Connor, K. Green, and T. Quintana, “Time-course of rod influences on hue perception,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 517–520 (2008).

Randell, C. E.

Rangel, C.

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue-yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Samuelson, E.

S. L. Buck, L. Thomas, N. Hillyer, and E. Samuelson, “Do rods influence the hue of foveal stimuli?” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 519–523 (2006).

Shapiro, A. G.

A. G. Shapiro, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Rod contribution to large-field color matching,” Color Res. Appl. 19, 236–245 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, A. J.

A. J. Shepherd and G. Wyatt, “Changes in induced hues at low luminance and following dark adaptation suggest rod-cone interactions may differ for luminance increments and decrements,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 387–394 (2008).

Sher, A.

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue-yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shlens, J.

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue-yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, V. C.

D. Cao, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and A. J. Zele, “Rod contributions to color perception: linear with rod contrast,” Vis. Res. 48, 2586–2592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Cao, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Matching rod percepts with cone stimuli,” Vis. Res. 45, 2119–2128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Shapiro, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Rod contribution to large-field color matching,” Color Res. Appl. 19, 236–245 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stabell, B.

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Chromatic rod-cone interaction during dark adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2809–2815 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Mechanisms of chromatic rod vision in scotopic illumination,” Vis. Res. 34, 1019–1027 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to change in hue with eccentricity,” Vis. Res. 19, 1121–1125 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Stabell, U.

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Chromatic rod-cone interaction during dark adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2809–2815 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Mechanisms of chromatic rod vision in scotopic illumination,” Vis. Res. 34, 1019–1027 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to change in hue with eccentricity,” Vis. Res. 19, 1121–1125 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Stiles, W.

G. Wyszecki and W. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed.(Wiley, 1982).

Thomas, L.

S. L. Buck, L. Thomas, C. Connor, K. Green, and T. Quintana, “Time-course of rod influences on hue perception,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 517–520 (2008).

S. L. Buck, L. Thomas, N. Hillyer, and E. Samuelson, “Do rods influence the hue of foveal stimuli?” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 519–523 (2006).

L. Thomas and S. L. Buck, “Foveal vs. extra-foveal contributions to rod hue biases,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 539–542 (2006).

L. Thomas and S. L. Buck, “Generality of rod hue biases with smaller, brighter, and photopically specified stimuli,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 257–262 (2004).

Trezona, P.

P. Trezona, “Rod participation in the “blue” mechanism and its effect on color matching,” Vis. Res. 10, 317–332 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Troup, L. J.

M. A. Pitts, L. J. Troup, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes change with retinal illuminance,” J. Vis. 5, 435–443 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Trujillo, A. R.

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, L. S. Baker, A. R. Trujillo, and K. Youngpeter, “Unique hue loci differ with methodology,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 545–552 (2010).

Volbrecht, V. J.

N. D. Douda, V. J. Volbrecht, K. A. Godwin, A. D. Miller, and J. L. Nerger, “Scotopically equated stimuli versus photopically equated stimuli in unique hue judgments,” J. Vis. 10, 36(2010).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, L. S. Baker, A. R. Trujillo, and K. Youngpeter, “Unique hue loci differ with methodology,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 545–552 (2010).

V. J. Volbrecht, C. L. Clark, J. L. Nerger, and C. E. Randell, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes measured at 10 degrees eccentricity along the horizontal and vertical meridians,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1167–1177 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Pitts, L. J. Troup, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes change with retinal illuminance,” J. Vis. 5, 435–443 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Imhoff, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “A new look at the Bezold-Brücke hue shift in the peripheral retina,” Vis. Res. 44, 1891–1906 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, S. M. Imhoff, and C. J. Ayde, “Effect of the short-wavelength-sensitive-cone mosaic and rods on the locus of unique green,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 628–634 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Nerger, V. J. Volbrecht, C. J. Ayde, and S. M. Imhoff, “Effect of the S-cone mosaic and rods on red/green equilibria,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2816–2826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Nerger, V. J. Volbrecht, and C. J. Ayde, “Unique hue judgments as a function of test size in the fovea and at 20-deg temporal eccentricity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1225–1232 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Volbrecht and J. L. Nerger, “Color appearance at ±10° along the vertical and horizontal meridians,” presented at the Colour Vision Symposium, Kongsberg, Norway, 2011.

Walkey, H. C.

H. C. Walkey, J. L. Barbur, J. A. Harlow, and W. Makous, “Measurements of chromatic sensitivity in the mesopic range,” Color Res. Appl. 26, Suppl., S36–S42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, G.

A. J. Shepherd and G. Wyatt, “Changes in induced hues at low luminance and following dark adaptation suggest rod-cone interactions may differ for luminance increments and decrements,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 387–394 (2008).

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki and W. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed.(Wiley, 1982).

Youngpeter, K.

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, L. S. Baker, A. R. Trujillo, and K. Youngpeter, “Unique hue loci differ with methodology,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 545–552 (2010).

Zele, A. J.

J. Pokorny, M. Lutze, D. Cao, and A. J. Zele, “The color of night: surface color categorization by color defective observers under dim illuminations,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 475–480 (2008).

D. Cao, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and A. J. Zele, “Rod contributions to color perception: linear with rod contrast,” Vis. Res. 48, 2586–2592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny, M. Lutze, D. Cao, and A. J. Zele, “The color of night: Surface color perception under dim illuminations,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 525–530 (2006).

Color Res. Appl. (5)

A. G. Shapiro, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Rod contribution to large-field color matching,” Color Res. Appl. 19, 236–245 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Knight and S. L. Buck, “Rod influences on hue perception: Effect of background light level,” Color Res. Appl. 26, Suppl., S60–S64 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, “What is the hue of rod vision?” Color Res. Appl. 26, Suppl., S57–S59 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Walkey, J. L. Barbur, J. A. Harlow, and W. Makous, “Measurements of chromatic sensitivity in the mesopic range,” Color Res. Appl. 26, Suppl., S36–S42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Knight, S. L. Buck, and M. Pereverzeva, “Stimulus size affects rod influence on tritan chromatic discrimination,” Color Res. Appl. 26, Suppl., S65–S68 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosci. (1)

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (6)

J. Vis. (4)

N. D. Douda, V. J. Volbrecht, K. A. Godwin, A. D. Miller, and J. L. Nerger, “Scotopically equated stimuli versus photopically equated stimuli in unique hue judgments,” J. Vis. 10, 36(2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Pitts, L. J. Troup, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes change with retinal illuminance,” J. Vis. 5, 435–443 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck and C. Cunningham, “Rod influence on desaturated color mixtures,” [Abstract]. J. Vis. 9, 55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck and R. DeWenter, “Rod influence on complex backgrounds [Abstract].J. Vis. 10, 50 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Neurosci. (1)

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue-yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. (1)

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, L. S. Baker, A. R. Trujillo, and K. Youngpeter, “Unique hue loci differ with methodology,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 545–552 (2010).

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

B. A. Ambler, “Hue discrimination in peripheral vision under conditions of dark and light adaptation,” Percept. Psychophys. 15, 586–590 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Neurosci. (7)

J. Pokorny, M. Lutze, D. Cao, and A. J. Zele, “The color of night: Surface color perception under dim illuminations,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 525–530 (2006).

J. Pokorny, M. Lutze, D. Cao, and A. J. Zele, “The color of night: surface color categorization by color defective observers under dim illuminations,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 475–480 (2008).

L. Thomas and S. L. Buck, “Foveal vs. extra-foveal contributions to rod hue biases,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 539–542 (2006).

S. L. Buck, L. Thomas, N. Hillyer, and E. Samuelson, “Do rods influence the hue of foveal stimuli?” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 519–523 (2006).

L. Thomas and S. L. Buck, “Generality of rod hue biases with smaller, brighter, and photopically specified stimuli,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 257–262 (2004).

S. L. Buck, L. Thomas, C. Connor, K. Green, and T. Quintana, “Time-course of rod influences on hue perception,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 517–520 (2008).

A. J. Shepherd and G. Wyatt, “Changes in induced hues at low luminance and following dark adaptation suggest rod-cone interactions may differ for luminance increments and decrements,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 387–394 (2008).

Vis. Res. (10)

R. L. DeValois and K. K. DeValois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vis. Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Knight and S. L. Buck, “Time-dependent changes of rod influence on hue perception,” Vis. Res. 42, 1651–1662 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, G. Fowler, and B. Hunt, “Rod influence on hue-scaling functions,” Vis. Res. 38, 3259–3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, and J. Bechtold, “Opponent-color models and the influence of rod signals on the loci of unique hues,” Vis. Res. 40, 3333–3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Trezona, “Rod participation in the “blue” mechanism and its effect on color matching,” Vis. Res. 10, 317–332 (1970).
[CrossRef]

D. Cao, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and A. J. Zele, “Rod contributions to color perception: linear with rod contrast,” Vis. Res. 48, 2586–2592 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contributions to change in hue with eccentricity,” Vis. Res. 19, 1121–1125 (1979).
[CrossRef]

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Mechanisms of chromatic rod vision in scotopic illumination,” Vis. Res. 34, 1019–1027 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Cao, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Matching rod percepts with cone stimuli,” Vis. Res. 45, 2119–2128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Imhoff, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “A new look at the Bezold-Brücke hue shift in the peripheral retina,” Vis. Res. 44, 1891–1906 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

V. J. Volbrecht and J. L. Nerger, “Color appearance at ±10° along the vertical and horizontal meridians,” presented at the Colour Vision Symposium, Kongsberg, Norway, 2011.

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, and J. Bechtold, “Effect of rod stimulation on unique and binary hue judgments,” in IS&T/OSA Optics in the Information Age (IS&T, 1997), pp. 11–15.

S. L. Buck and R. Knight, “Stimulus duration affects rod influence on hue perception,” in Normal and Defective Colour VisionJ. D. Mollon, J. Pokorny, and K. Knobluach, ed. (Oxford, 2003), pp. 177–184.

L. M. Hurvich, Color Vision (Sinauer, 1981).

G. Wyszecki and W. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed.(Wiley, 1982).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

CIE 1964 chromaticity space showing position of the 308 color steps formed by mixtures of pairs R, G, and B phosphors. Step numbers (italics) are shown at 40 step intervals, progressing counterclockwise starting from 1 at the B phosphor. Equal-energy white plots at x.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Extrafoveal rod hue biases measured at four unique-hue loci (blue, diamonds; green, squares; yellow, circles; red, triangles) as differences in color step between DA and BL conditions at all light levels (CIE 1964) for all observers (a-e). Positive and negative rod hue biases indicate clockwise and counterclockwise rotations in CIE color space, respectively, as shown in (a). Note different vertical scaling for (a) than for other panels.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Foveal rod hue biases measured at four unique-hue loci (details as for Fig. 2) for both 1°- and 2°-diameter test stimuli for observers SB (a), RJ (b), and KF (c) at 0.17 (SB) or 0.05 (RJ and KF) cd/m2 (CIE 1931).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Color Step Numbers and CIE Coordinates for Foveal and Extrafoveal Conditions

Tables Icon

Table 2. Step Numbers for All Extrafoveal Unique-Hue Conditions and Pupil Sizes for All Observers

Metrics