Abstract

In a color naming task from 0° to 55° eccentricity, we found that red/green performance (n=10 subjects) declines around 40° eccentricity, 5° earlier than does tritan performance (main effect of color, p=0.009; eccentricity, p<0.001; interaction, p=0.005). In a feature visual search task (e.g., red target dot among green distractor dots; twelve 2.5° diameter dots; 0, 20, and 45° eccentricity; 12 subjects), performance was significantly more impaired for red/green than for tritan stimuli, especially in the periphery (main effect of color, p=0.007; eccentricity, p<0.001; interaction, p=0.003). This effect occurred even following a rod bleach. Our results are consistent with influences from both the retina (especially random rather than selective peripheral cone input to midget ganglion cells for red/green perception, and selective cone input to small bistratified cells for tritan perception) and the cortex (differential cortical magnification across the two chromatic axes).

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  35. A. Panorgias, N. R. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, J. J. Kulikowski, and I. J. Murray, “Nasal-temporal differences in cone-opponency in the near peripheral retina,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 29, 375–381 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  36. D. I. MacLeod and R. M. Boynton, “Chromaticity diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1183–1186 (1979).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  47. S. L. Buck, R. F. Knight, and J. Bechtold, “Opponent-color models and the influence of rod signals on the loci of unique hues,” Vision Res. 40, 3333–3344 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  48. J. L. Nerger, V. J. Volbrecht, C. J. Ayde, and S. M. Imhoff, “Effect of the S-cone mosaic and rods on red/green equilibria,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2816–2826 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  49. S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, and M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red-green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” Neurorep. 9, 1963–1967 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  50. D. J. Calkins, “Seeing with S cones,” Progr. Retinal Eye Res. 20, 255–287 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  51. A. Vassilev, I. Ivanov, M. B. Zlatkova, and R. S. Anderson, “Human S-cone vision: Relationship between perceptive field and ganglion cell dendritic field,” J. Vis. 5(10), 6 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  56. V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012

2011

J. D. Crook, M. B. Manookin, O. S. Packer, and D. M. Dacey, “Horizontal cell feedback without cone type-selective inhibition mediates “red-green” color opponency in midget ganglion cells of the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 31, 1762–1772 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and U. Grünert, “Retinal connectivity and primate vision,” Progr. Retinal Eye Res. 29, 622–639 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

T. Hansen, L. Pracejus, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Color perception in the intermediate periphery of the visual field,” J. Vis. 9(4), 26 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Panorgias, N. R. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, J. J. Kulikowski, and I. J. Murray, “Nasal-temporal differences in cone-opponency in the near peripheral retina,” Ophthalmic Physiolog. Opt. 29, 375–381 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue-yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

G. D. Field, A. Sher, J. L. Gauthier, M. Greschner, J. Shlens, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “Spatial properties and functional organization of small bistratified ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 27, 13261–13272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. J. McKeefry, I. J. Murray, and N. R. Parry, “Perceived shifts in saturation and hue of chromatic stimuli in the near peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3168–3179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

I. J. Murray, N. R. A. Parry, and D. J. McKeefry, “Cone opponency in the near peripheral retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 503–507 (2006).

P. R. Jusuf, P. R. Martin, and U. Grunert, “Random wiring in the midget pathway of primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 26, 3908–3917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Vanni, L. Henriksson, M. Viikari, and A. C. James, “Retinotopic distribution of chromatic responses in human primary visual cortex,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 24, 1821–1831 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

C. Vakrou, D. Whitaker, P. V. McGraw, and D. McKeefry, “Functional evidence for cone-specific connectivity in the human retina,” J. Physiol. 566, 93–102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Vassilev, I. Ivanov, M. B. Zlatkova, and R. S. Anderson, “Human S-cone vision: Relationship between perceptive field and ganglion cell dendritic field,” J. Vis. 5(10), 6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

L. Diller, O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, M. J. McMahon, D. R. Williams, and D. M. Dacey, “L and M cone contributions to the midget and parasol ganglion cell receptive fields of macaque monkey retina,” J. Neurosci. 24, 1079–1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. R. Newton and R. T. Eskew, “Chromatic detection and discrimination in the periphery: A postreceptoral loss of color sensitivity,” Vis. Neurosci. 20, 511–521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Gunther and K. R. Dobkins, “Independence of mechanisms tuned along cardinal and non-cardinal axes of color space: evidence from factor analysis,” Vision Res. 43, 683–696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Effects of rod activity on color perception with light adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1249–1258 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Carroll, J. Neitz, and M. Neitz, “Estimates of L∶M cone ratio from ERG flicker photometry and genetics,” J. Vis. 2(8), 1(2002).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Mullen and F. A. Kingdom, “Differential distributions of red-green and blue-yellow cone opponency across the visual field,” Vis. Neurosci. 19, 109–118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Reid and R. M. Shapley, “Space and time maps of cone photoreceptor signals in macaque lateral geniculate nucleus,” J. Neurosci. 22, 6158–6175 (2002).

K. L. Gunther and K. R. Dobkins, “Individual differences in chromatic (red/green) contrast sensitivity are constrained by the relative number of L- versus M-cones in the eye,” Vision Res. 42, 1367–1378 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. R. Martin, B. B. Lee, A. J. White, S. G. Solomon, and L. Ruttiger, “Chromatic sensitivity of ganglion cells in the peripheral primate retina,” Nature 410, 933–936 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Calkins, “Seeing with S cones,” Progr. Retinal Eye Res. 20, 255–287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. L. Buck, R. F. Knight, and J. Bechtold, “Opponent-color models and the influence of rod signals on the loci of unique hues,” Vision Res. 40, 3333–3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

E. J. Chichilnisky and D. A. Baylor, “Receptive-field microstructure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 2, 889–893 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Dacey, “Primate retina: Cell types, circuits and color opponency,” Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 18, 737–763 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

B. B. Lee, J. Kremers, and T. Yeh, “Receptive fields of primate retinal ganglion cells studied with a novel technique,” Vis. Neurosci. 15, 161–175 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Calkins, Y. Tsukamoto, and P. Sterling, “Microcircuitry and mosaic of a blue-yellow ganglion cell in the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 18, 3373–3385 (1998).

J. L. Nerger, V. J. Volbrecht, C. J. Ayde, and S. M. Imhoff, “Effect of the S-cone mosaic and rods on red/green equilibria,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2816–2826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, and M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red-green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” Neurorep. 9, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 37, 2813–2828 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision: Effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vision Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Goodchild, K. K. Ghosh, and P. R. Martin, “Comparison of photoreceptor spatial density and ganglion cell morphology in the retina of human, macaque monkey, cat, and the marmoset Callithrix jacchus,” J. Comp. Neurol. 366, 55–75 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Mullen and F. A. Kingdom, “Losses in peripheral colour sensitivity predicted from “hit and miss” post-receptoral cone connections,” Vision Res. 36, 1995–2000 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

L. J. Croner and E. Kaplan, “Receptive fields of P and M ganglion cells across the primate retina,” Vision Res. 35, 7–24 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

D. M. Dacey and B. B. Lee, “The ‘blue-on’ opponent pathway in primate retina originates from a distinct bistratified ganglion cell type,” Nature 367, 731–735 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Ahnelt and H. Kolb, “Horizontal cells and cone photoreceptors in human retina: A Golgi-electron microscopic study of spectral connectivity,” J. Comp. Neurol. 343, 406–427 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. M. Dacey, “The mosaic of midget ganglion cells in the human retina,” J. Neurosci. 13, 5334–5355 (1993).

D. M. Dacey, “Morphology of a small-field bistratified ganglion cell type in the macaque and human retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 10, 1081–1098 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Nagy and J. A. Doyal, “Red-green color discrimination as a function of stimulus field size in peripheral vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1147–1156 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

R. C. Reid and R. M. Shapley, “Spatial structure of cone inputs to receptive fields in primate lateral geniculate nucleus,” Nature 356, 716–718 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

H. Kolb and L. Dekorver, “Midget ganglion cells of the parafovea of the human retina: A study by electron microscopy and serial section reconstructions,” J. Comp. Neurol. 303, 617–636(1991).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Mullen, “Colour vision as a post-receptoral specialization of the central visual field,” Vision Res. 31, 119–130 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987

1986

A. Valberg, B. B. Lee, and D. A. Tigwell, “Neurones with strong inhibitory S-cone inputs in the macaque lateral geniculate nucleus,” Vision Res. 26, 1061–1064 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1979

1976

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Rod and cone contribution to peripheral colour vision,” Vision Res. 16, 1099–1104 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975

F. M. deMonasterio, P. Gouras, and D. J. Tolhurst, “Trichromatic colour opponency in ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,” J. Physiol. 251, 197–216 (1975).

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef]

F. M. deMonasterio and P. Gouras, “Functional properties of ganglion cells of the rhesus monkey retina,” J. Physiol. 251, 167–195 (1975).

1964

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. E. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relation measured by color-naming method for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1912

H. E. Ives, “Studies in the photometry of lights of different colours—IV. The addition of luminosities of different colour,” Philos. Mag. 24, 845–853 (1912).

Ahnelt, P.

P. Ahnelt and H. Kolb, “Horizontal cells and cone photoreceptors in human retina: A Golgi-electron microscopic study of spectral connectivity,” J. Comp. Neurol. 343, 406–427 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R. S.

A. Vassilev, I. Ivanov, M. B. Zlatkova, and R. S. Anderson, “Human S-cone vision: Relationship between perceptive field and ganglion cell dendritic field,” J. Vis. 5(10), 6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ayde, C. J.

Baylor, D. A.

E. J. Chichilnisky and D. A. Baylor, “Receptive-field microstructure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 2, 889–893 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bechtold, J.

S. L. Buck, R. F. Knight, and J. Bechtold, “Opponent-color models and the influence of rod signals on the loci of unique hues,” Vision Res. 40, 3333–3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boynton, R. M.

D. I. MacLeod and R. M. Boynton, “Chromaticity diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1183–1186 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. E. Neun, “Hue-wavelength relation measured by color-naming method for three retinal locations,” Science 146, 666–668 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Buck, S. L.

S. L. Buck, R. F. Knight, and J. Bechtold, “Opponent-color models and the influence of rod signals on the loci of unique hues,” Vision Res. 40, 3333–3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Calkins, D. J.

D. J. Calkins, “Seeing with S cones,” Progr. Retinal Eye Res. 20, 255–287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Calkins, Y. Tsukamoto, and P. Sterling, “Microcircuitry and mosaic of a blue-yellow ganglion cell in the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 18, 3373–3385 (1998).

Carroll, J.

J. Carroll, J. Neitz, and M. Neitz, “Estimates of L∶M cone ratio from ERG flicker photometry and genetics,” J. Vis. 2(8), 1(2002).
[CrossRef]

Chichilnisky, E. J.

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue-yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Field, A. Sher, J. L. Gauthier, M. Greschner, J. Shlens, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “Spatial properties and functional organization of small bistratified ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 27, 13261–13272 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Chichilnisky and D. A. Baylor, “Receptive-field microstructure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 2, 889–893 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Croner, L. J.

L. J. Croner and E. Kaplan, “Receptive fields of P and M ganglion cells across the primate retina,” Vision Res. 35, 7–24 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Crook, J. D.

J. D. Crook, M. B. Manookin, O. S. Packer, and D. M. Dacey, “Horizontal cell feedback without cone type-selective inhibition mediates “red-green” color opponency in midget ganglion cells of the primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 31, 1762–1772 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Color naming experiment results: Shown are the color naming results averaged across 10 subjects. The data in this and the remaining figures are presented as percent hit minus percent false alarm to correct for guessing. LVF=left visual field presentation; RVF=right. Error bars show ±SEM.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Results from visual search: Shown are visual search results by chromatic axis (red/green versus tritan), averaged across the 12 subjects. LVF=left visual field presentation; RVF=right visual field. Error bars show ±SEM.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Results for visual search, four colors separately: The data from Fig. 2 are replotted here, separated out by target color. Error bars show ±SEM.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Results from rod bleach control: Shown are the average results from the six subjects in the rod bleach control experiment. Removing rod vision did not abolish our effect. Error bars show ±SEM.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. MacLeod-Boynton Color Space Coordinates of Stimulus Dots

Tables Icon

Table 2. Data from Detection Threshold Comparison

Tables Icon

Table 3. Comparisons Between Anatomical Predictions and Psychophysical Results

Metrics