Abstract

The purpose of this study was to obtain additional information about the health of the retina (HR) by measuring the rate of loss of chromatic sensitivity with decreasing light level. The HRindex is introduced to separate the effects of normal aging from early stage disease. For normal subjects the HRindex is largely independent of age (r20.1), but 11% of clinically normal, asymptomatic, older subjects exhibit values below the 2σ limit. The HRindex provides a single number that captures how light level affects chromatic sensitivity irrespective of age and can be used to screen for preclinical signs of retinal disease.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  28. P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, and R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  29. E. Alexandridis, J. A. Leendertz, and J. L. Barbur, “Methods of studying the behaviour of the pupil,” J. Psychophysiol. 5, 223–239 (1992).
  30. J. L. Barbur and W. D. Thomson, “Pupil response as an objective measure of visual acuity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 7, 425–429 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. L. Barbur, E. Konstantakopoulou, M. Rodriguez-Carmona, J. A. Harlow, A. G. Robson, and J. D. Moreland, “The Macular Assessment Profile test—a new VDU-based technique for measuring the spatial distribution of the macular pigment, lens density and rapid flicker sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 470–483 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  32. T. T. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment shows ringlike structures,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 709–714 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  33. D. M. Snodderly, J. A. Mares, B. R. Wooten, L. Oxton, M. Gruber, and T. Ficek, “Macular pigment measurement by heterochromatic flicker photometry in older subjects: the carotenoids and age-related eye disease study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 531–538 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  35. G. Westheimer, “Directional sensitivity of the retina: 75 years of Stiles-Crawford effect,” Proc. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 275, 2777–2786 (2008).
  36. G. Westheimer, “Dependence of the magnitude of the Stiles-Crawford effect on retinal location,” J. Physiol. 192, 309–315 (1967).
  37. R. A. Applegate and V. Lakshminarayanan, “Parametric representation of Stiles-Crawford functions: normal variation of peak location and directionality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1611–1623 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  38. J. L. Barbur, M. L. Rodriguez-Carmona, S. Evans, and N. Milburn, “Minimum colour vision requirements for professional flight crew. Recommendations for new colour vision standards,” Paper 04/2009 (Civil Aviation Authority, UK, 2009), http://www.caa.co.uk/caapaper200904 .
  39. M. Rodriguez-Carmona and J. L. Barbur, “Assessing the severity of color vision loss with implications for aviation and other occupational environments,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 83, 19–29 (2011).
  40. J. L. Barbur and A. Stockman, “Photopic, mesopic and scotopic vision and changes in visual performance,” in Encyclopedia of the Eye, D. Dartt, J. C. Besharse, and R. Dana, eds. (Elsevier, 2010), pp. 323–331.
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  42. H. C. Walkey, J. L. Barbur, A. Harlow, and W. Makous, “Measurements of chromatic sensitivity in the mesopic range,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S36–S42 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  43. K. Knoblauch, F. Saunders, M. Kusuda, R. Hynes, M. Podgor, K. E. Higgens, and M. deMosasterio, “Age and illuminance effects in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1441–1448 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  44. E. H. Bárány, “A theory of binocular visual acuity and an analysis of the variability of visual acuity,” Acta Ophthalmol. 27, 63–92 (1946).
  45. C. Owsley, “Aging and vision,” Vision Res. 51, 1610–1622 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  46. V. C. Smith, J. T. Ernest, and J. Pokorny, “Effect of hypoxia on FM100-Hue test performance,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 248–256 (1975).
  47. D. M. Connolly, “Oxygenation state and twilight vision at 2438 m,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 82, 2–8 (2011).

2011 (5)

B. Feigl, D. Cao, C. P. Morris, and A. J. Zele, “Persons with age-related maculopathy risk genotypes and clinically normal eyes have reduced mesopic vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, 1145–1150 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Barbur and D. M. Connolly, “Effects of hypoxia on colour vision with emphasis on the mesopic range,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 6, 409–420(2011).

M. Rodriguez-Carmona and J. L. Barbur, “Assessing the severity of color vision loss with implications for aviation and other occupational environments,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 83, 19–29 (2011).

C. Owsley, “Aging and vision,” Vision Res. 51, 1610–1622 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Connolly, “Oxygenation state and twilight vision at 2438 m,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 82, 2–8 (2011).

2010 (4)

M. O’Neill-Biba, S. Sivaprasad, M. Rodriguez-Carmona, J. E. Wolf, and J. L. Barbur, “Loss of chromatic sensitivity in AMD and diabetes: a comparative study,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 705–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Barbur, E. Konstantakopoulou, M. Rodriguez-Carmona, J. A. Harlow, A. G. Robson, and J. D. Moreland, “The Macular Assessment Profile test—a new VDU-based technique for measuring the spatial distribution of the macular pigment, lens density and rapid flicker sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 470–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Elliott and J. S. Werner, “Age-related changes in contrast gain related to the M and P pathways,” J. Vis. 10, 4(2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Owsley and G. McGwin, “Vision and driving,” Vision Res. 50, 2348–2361 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

D. M. Connolly and J. L. Barbur, “Low contrast acuity at photopic and mesopic luminance under mild hypoxia, normoxia, and hyperoxia,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 80, 933–940 (2009).

S. L. Elliott, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, J. W. Evans, and J. S. Werner, “Role of high-order aberrations in senescent changes in spatial vision,” J. Vis. 9, 24(2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

D. M. Connolly, J. L. Barbur, S. L. Hosking, and I. R. Moorhead, “Mild hypoxia impairs chromatic sensitivity in the mesopic range,” Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 820–827 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Westheimer, “Directional sensitivity of the retina: 75 years of Stiles-Crawford effect,” Proc. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 275, 2777–2786 (2008).

2006 (4)

T. T. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment shows ringlike structures,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 709–714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez-Carmona, J. Kvansakul, J. A. Harlow, W. Kopcke, W. Schalch, and J. L. Barbur, “The effects of supplementation with lutein and/or zeaxanthin on human macular pigment density and colour vision,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 137–147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Petzold and G. T. Plant, “Clinical disorders affecting mesopic vision,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 326–341 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Owsley, G. McGwin, K. Scilley, and K. Kallies, “Development of a questionnaire to assess vision problems under low luminance in age-related maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 528–535 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. M. Snodderly, J. A. Mares, B. R. Wooten, L. Oxton, M. Gruber, and T. Ficek, “Macular pigment measurement by heterochromatic flicker photometry in older subjects: the carotenoids and age-related eye disease study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 531–538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, P. Piers, and S. Norrby, “Optical aberrations and the aging eye,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clinics 43, 63–77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

K. Shinomori, B. E. Schefrin, and J. S. Werner, “Age-related changes in wavelength discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 310–318 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Knoblauch, F. Vital-Durand, and J. L. Barbur, “Variation of chromatic sensitivity across the life span,” Vision Res. 41, 23–36 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Walkey, J. L. Barbur, A. Harlow, and W. Makous, “Measurements of chromatic sensitivity in the mesopic range,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S36–S42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (2)

C. A. Curcio, C. L. Millican, K. A. Allen, and R. E. Kalina, “Aging of the human photoreceptor mosaic: evidence for selective vulnerability of rods in central retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 3278–3296 (1993).

R. A. Applegate and V. Lakshminarayanan, “Parametric representation of Stiles-Crawford functions: normal variation of peak location and directionality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1611–1623 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

D. W. Kline, T. J. Kline, J. L. Fozard, W. Kosnik, F. Schieber, and R. Sekuler, “Vision, aging, and driving: the problems of older drivers,” J. Gerontol. 47, 27–34 (1992).

E. Alexandridis, J. A. Leendertz, and J. L. Barbur, “Methods of studying the behaviour of the pupil,” J. Psychophysiol. 5, 223–239 (1992).

1988 (2)

P. A. Sample, F. D. Esterson, R. N. Weinreb, and R. M. Boynton, “The aging lens: in vivo assessment of light absorption in 84 human eyes,” Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 1306–1311 (1988).

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, “Short-wavelength-sensitive-cone sensitivity loss with aging: a protective role for macular pigment?,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 2140–2144 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (4)

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and M. Lutze, “Aging of the human lens,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1437–1440 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, and R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Barbur and W. D. Thomson, “Pupil response as an objective measure of visual acuity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 7, 425–429 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Knoblauch, F. Saunders, M. Kusuda, R. Hynes, M. Podgor, K. E. Higgens, and M. deMosasterio, “Age and illuminance effects in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1441–1448 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

C. E. Wright and N. Drasdo, “The influence of age on the spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity function,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 59, 385–395 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

G. Verriest, J. v. Laethem, and A. Uvijls, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test scores,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 635–642 (1982).

1975 (1)

V. C. Smith, J. T. Ernest, and J. Pokorny, “Effect of hypoxia on FM100-Hue test performance,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 248–256 (1975).

1972 (1)

F. S. Said and W. S. Sawires, “Age dependence of changes in pupil diameter in the dark,” Opt. Acta 19, 359–361 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

G. Westheimer, “Dependence of the magnitude of the Stiles-Crawford effect on retinal location,” J. Physiol. 192, 309–315 (1967).

1946 (1)

E. H. Bárány, “A theory of binocular visual acuity and an analysis of the variability of visual acuity,” Acta Ophthalmol. 27, 63–92 (1946).

1933 (1)

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points,” Proc. R. Soc. London B 112, 428–450 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Ahnelt, P. K.

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, and R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Alexandridis, E.

E. Alexandridis, J. A. Leendertz, and J. L. Barbur, “Methods of studying the behaviour of the pupil,” J. Psychophysiol. 5, 223–239 (1992).

Allen, K. A.

C. A. Curcio, C. L. Millican, K. A. Allen, and R. E. Kalina, “Aging of the human photoreceptor mosaic: evidence for selective vulnerability of rods in central retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 3278–3296 (1993).

Applegate, R. A.

Artal, P.

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, P. Piers, and S. Norrby, “Optical aberrations and the aging eye,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clinics 43, 63–77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bárány, E. H.

E. H. Bárány, “A theory of binocular visual acuity and an analysis of the variability of visual acuity,” Acta Ophthalmol. 27, 63–92 (1946).

Barbur, J. L.

M. Rodriguez-Carmona and J. L. Barbur, “Assessing the severity of color vision loss with implications for aviation and other occupational environments,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 83, 19–29 (2011).

J. L. Barbur and D. M. Connolly, “Effects of hypoxia on colour vision with emphasis on the mesopic range,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 6, 409–420(2011).

J. L. Barbur, E. Konstantakopoulou, M. Rodriguez-Carmona, J. A. Harlow, A. G. Robson, and J. D. Moreland, “The Macular Assessment Profile test—a new VDU-based technique for measuring the spatial distribution of the macular pigment, lens density and rapid flicker sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 470–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. O’Neill-Biba, S. Sivaprasad, M. Rodriguez-Carmona, J. E. Wolf, and J. L. Barbur, “Loss of chromatic sensitivity in AMD and diabetes: a comparative study,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 705–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Connolly and J. L. Barbur, “Low contrast acuity at photopic and mesopic luminance under mild hypoxia, normoxia, and hyperoxia,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 80, 933–940 (2009).

D. M. Connolly, J. L. Barbur, S. L. Hosking, and I. R. Moorhead, “Mild hypoxia impairs chromatic sensitivity in the mesopic range,” Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 820–827 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez-Carmona, J. Kvansakul, J. A. Harlow, W. Kopcke, W. Schalch, and J. L. Barbur, “The effects of supplementation with lutein and/or zeaxanthin on human macular pigment density and colour vision,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 137–147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Walkey, J. L. Barbur, A. Harlow, and W. Makous, “Measurements of chromatic sensitivity in the mesopic range,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S36–S42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Knoblauch, F. Vital-Durand, and J. L. Barbur, “Variation of chromatic sensitivity across the life span,” Vision Res. 41, 23–36 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Alexandridis, J. A. Leendertz, and J. L. Barbur, “Methods of studying the behaviour of the pupil,” J. Psychophysiol. 5, 223–239 (1992).

J. L. Barbur and W. D. Thomson, “Pupil response as an objective measure of visual acuity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 7, 425–429 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Barbur, M. L. Rodriguez-Carmona, S. Evans, and N. Milburn, “Minimum colour vision requirements for professional flight crew. Recommendations for new colour vision standards,” Paper 04/2009 (Civil Aviation Authority, UK, 2009), http://www.caa.co.uk/caapaper200904 .

J. L. Barbur and A. Stockman, “Photopic, mesopic and scotopic vision and changes in visual performance,” in Encyclopedia of the Eye, D. Dartt, J. C. Besharse, and R. Dana, eds. (Elsevier, 2010), pp. 323–331.

J. L. Barbur, M. Rodriguez-Carmona, and A. J. Harlow, “Establishing the statistical limits of “normal” chromatic sensitivity,” publication CIE x030:2006 (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 2006).

Berendschot, T. T.

T. T. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment shows ringlike structures,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 709–714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Berrio, E.

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, P. Piers, and S. Norrby, “Optical aberrations and the aging eye,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clinics 43, 63–77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boynton, R. M.

P. A. Sample, F. D. Esterson, R. N. Weinreb, and R. M. Boynton, “The aging lens: in vivo assessment of light absorption in 84 human eyes,” Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 1306–1311 (1988).

Cao, D.

B. Feigl, D. Cao, C. P. Morris, and A. J. Zele, “Persons with age-related maculopathy risk genotypes and clinically normal eyes have reduced mesopic vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, 1145–1150 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. S.

S. L. Elliott, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, J. W. Evans, and J. S. Werner, “Role of high-order aberrations in senescent changes in spatial vision,” J. Vis. 9, 24(2009).
[CrossRef]

Connolly, D. M.

J. L. Barbur and D. M. Connolly, “Effects of hypoxia on colour vision with emphasis on the mesopic range,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 6, 409–420(2011).

D. M. Connolly, “Oxygenation state and twilight vision at 2438 m,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 82, 2–8 (2011).

D. M. Connolly and J. L. Barbur, “Low contrast acuity at photopic and mesopic luminance under mild hypoxia, normoxia, and hyperoxia,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 80, 933–940 (2009).

D. M. Connolly, J. L. Barbur, S. L. Hosking, and I. R. Moorhead, “Mild hypoxia impairs chromatic sensitivity in the mesopic range,” Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 820–827 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, B. H.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points,” Proc. R. Soc. London B 112, 428–450 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, C. L. Millican, K. A. Allen, and R. E. Kalina, “Aging of the human photoreceptor mosaic: evidence for selective vulnerability of rods in central retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 3278–3296 (1993).

deMosasterio, M.

Doble, N.

S. L. Elliott, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, J. W. Evans, and J. S. Werner, “Role of high-order aberrations in senescent changes in spatial vision,” J. Vis. 9, 24(2009).
[CrossRef]

Drasdo, N.

C. E. Wright and N. Drasdo, “The influence of age on the spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity function,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 59, 385–395 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, S. L.

S. L. Elliott and J. S. Werner, “Age-related changes in contrast gain related to the M and P pathways,” J. Vis. 10, 4(2010).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Elliott, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, J. W. Evans, and J. S. Werner, “Role of high-order aberrations in senescent changes in spatial vision,” J. Vis. 9, 24(2009).
[CrossRef]

Ernest, J. T.

V. C. Smith, J. T. Ernest, and J. Pokorny, “Effect of hypoxia on FM100-Hue test performance,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 248–256 (1975).

Esterson, F. D.

P. A. Sample, F. D. Esterson, R. N. Weinreb, and R. M. Boynton, “The aging lens: in vivo assessment of light absorption in 84 human eyes,” Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 1306–1311 (1988).

Evans, J. W.

S. L. Elliott, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, J. W. Evans, and J. S. Werner, “Role of high-order aberrations in senescent changes in spatial vision,” J. Vis. 9, 24(2009).
[CrossRef]

Evans, S.

J. L. Barbur, M. L. Rodriguez-Carmona, S. Evans, and N. Milburn, “Minimum colour vision requirements for professional flight crew. Recommendations for new colour vision standards,” Paper 04/2009 (Civil Aviation Authority, UK, 2009), http://www.caa.co.uk/caapaper200904 .

Feigl, B.

B. Feigl, D. Cao, C. P. Morris, and A. J. Zele, “Persons with age-related maculopathy risk genotypes and clinically normal eyes have reduced mesopic vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, 1145–1150 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ficek, T.

D. M. Snodderly, J. A. Mares, B. R. Wooten, L. Oxton, M. Gruber, and T. Ficek, “Macular pigment measurement by heterochromatic flicker photometry in older subjects: the carotenoids and age-related eye disease study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 531–538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fozard, J. L.

D. W. Kline, T. J. Kline, J. L. Fozard, W. Kosnik, F. Schieber, and R. Sekuler, “Vision, aging, and driving: the problems of older drivers,” J. Gerontol. 47, 27–34 (1992).

Gruber, M.

D. M. Snodderly, J. A. Mares, B. R. Wooten, L. Oxton, M. Gruber, and T. Ficek, “Macular pigment measurement by heterochromatic flicker photometry in older subjects: the carotenoids and age-related eye disease study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 531–538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guirao, A.

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, P. Piers, and S. Norrby, “Optical aberrations and the aging eye,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clinics 43, 63–77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Haegerstrom-Portnoy, G.

Hardy, J. L.

S. L. Elliott, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, J. W. Evans, and J. S. Werner, “Role of high-order aberrations in senescent changes in spatial vision,” J. Vis. 9, 24(2009).
[CrossRef]

Harlow, A.

H. C. Walkey, J. L. Barbur, A. Harlow, and W. Makous, “Measurements of chromatic sensitivity in the mesopic range,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S36–S42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harlow, A. J.

J. L. Barbur, M. Rodriguez-Carmona, and A. J. Harlow, “Establishing the statistical limits of “normal” chromatic sensitivity,” publication CIE x030:2006 (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 2006).

Harlow, J. A.

J. L. Barbur, E. Konstantakopoulou, M. Rodriguez-Carmona, J. A. Harlow, A. G. Robson, and J. D. Moreland, “The Macular Assessment Profile test—a new VDU-based technique for measuring the spatial distribution of the macular pigment, lens density and rapid flicker sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 470–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez-Carmona, J. Kvansakul, J. A. Harlow, W. Kopcke, W. Schalch, and J. L. Barbur, “The effects of supplementation with lutein and/or zeaxanthin on human macular pigment density and colour vision,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 137–147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Higgens, K. E.

Hosking, S. L.

D. M. Connolly, J. L. Barbur, S. L. Hosking, and I. R. Moorhead, “Mild hypoxia impairs chromatic sensitivity in the mesopic range,” Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 820–827 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hynes, R.

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, C. L. Millican, K. A. Allen, and R. E. Kalina, “Aging of the human photoreceptor mosaic: evidence for selective vulnerability of rods in central retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 3278–3296 (1993).

Kallies, K.

C. Owsley, G. McGwin, K. Scilley, and K. Kallies, “Development of a questionnaire to assess vision problems under low luminance in age-related maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 528–535 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kline, D. W.

D. W. Kline, T. J. Kline, J. L. Fozard, W. Kosnik, F. Schieber, and R. Sekuler, “Vision, aging, and driving: the problems of older drivers,” J. Gerontol. 47, 27–34 (1992).

Kline, T. J.

D. W. Kline, T. J. Kline, J. L. Fozard, W. Kosnik, F. Schieber, and R. Sekuler, “Vision, aging, and driving: the problems of older drivers,” J. Gerontol. 47, 27–34 (1992).

Knoblauch, K.

Kolb, H.

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, and R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Konstantakopoulou, E.

J. L. Barbur, E. Konstantakopoulou, M. Rodriguez-Carmona, J. A. Harlow, A. G. Robson, and J. D. Moreland, “The Macular Assessment Profile test—a new VDU-based technique for measuring the spatial distribution of the macular pigment, lens density and rapid flicker sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 470–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kopcke, W.

M. Rodriguez-Carmona, J. Kvansakul, J. A. Harlow, W. Kopcke, W. Schalch, and J. L. Barbur, “The effects of supplementation with lutein and/or zeaxanthin on human macular pigment density and colour vision,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 137–147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kosnik, W.

D. W. Kline, T. J. Kline, J. L. Fozard, W. Kosnik, F. Schieber, and R. Sekuler, “Vision, aging, and driving: the problems of older drivers,” J. Gerontol. 47, 27–34 (1992).

Kusuda, M.

Kvansakul, J.

M. Rodriguez-Carmona, J. Kvansakul, J. A. Harlow, W. Kopcke, W. Schalch, and J. L. Barbur, “The effects of supplementation with lutein and/or zeaxanthin on human macular pigment density and colour vision,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 137–147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laethem, J. v.

G. Verriest, J. v. Laethem, and A. Uvijls, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test scores,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 635–642 (1982).

Lakshminarayanan, V.

Leendertz, J. A.

E. Alexandridis, J. A. Leendertz, and J. L. Barbur, “Methods of studying the behaviour of the pupil,” J. Psychophysiol. 5, 223–239 (1992).

Loewenfeld, I. E.

I. E. Loewenfeld, “Pupillary changes related to age,” in Topics in Neuro-ophthalmology, H. S. Thompson, R. Daroff, L. Frisén, J. S. Glaser, and M. D. Sanders, eds. (Williams and Wilkins, 1972), pp. 124–150.

I. E. Loewenfeld, The Pupil: Anatomy, Physiology, and Clinical Applications (Butterworth and Heinemann, 1999).

Lutze, M.

Makous, W.

H. C. Walkey, J. L. Barbur, A. Harlow, and W. Makous, “Measurements of chromatic sensitivity in the mesopic range,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S36–S42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mares, J. A.

D. M. Snodderly, J. A. Mares, B. R. Wooten, L. Oxton, M. Gruber, and T. Ficek, “Macular pigment measurement by heterochromatic flicker photometry in older subjects: the carotenoids and age-related eye disease study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 531–538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McGwin, G.

C. Owsley and G. McGwin, “Vision and driving,” Vision Res. 50, 2348–2361 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Owsley, G. McGwin, K. Scilley, and K. Kallies, “Development of a questionnaire to assess vision problems under low luminance in age-related maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 528–535 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Milburn, N.

J. L. Barbur, M. L. Rodriguez-Carmona, S. Evans, and N. Milburn, “Minimum colour vision requirements for professional flight crew. Recommendations for new colour vision standards,” Paper 04/2009 (Civil Aviation Authority, UK, 2009), http://www.caa.co.uk/caapaper200904 .

Millican, C. L.

C. A. Curcio, C. L. Millican, K. A. Allen, and R. E. Kalina, “Aging of the human photoreceptor mosaic: evidence for selective vulnerability of rods in central retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 3278–3296 (1993).

Moorhead, I. R.

D. M. Connolly, J. L. Barbur, S. L. Hosking, and I. R. Moorhead, “Mild hypoxia impairs chromatic sensitivity in the mesopic range,” Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 820–827 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moreland, J. D.

J. L. Barbur, E. Konstantakopoulou, M. Rodriguez-Carmona, J. A. Harlow, A. G. Robson, and J. D. Moreland, “The Macular Assessment Profile test—a new VDU-based technique for measuring the spatial distribution of the macular pigment, lens density and rapid flicker sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 470–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morris, C. P.

B. Feigl, D. Cao, C. P. Morris, and A. J. Zele, “Persons with age-related maculopathy risk genotypes and clinically normal eyes have reduced mesopic vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, 1145–1150 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Norrby, S.

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, P. Piers, and S. Norrby, “Optical aberrations and the aging eye,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clinics 43, 63–77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O’Neill-Biba, M.

M. O’Neill-Biba, S. Sivaprasad, M. Rodriguez-Carmona, J. E. Wolf, and J. L. Barbur, “Loss of chromatic sensitivity in AMD and diabetes: a comparative study,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 705–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Owsley, C.

C. Owsley, “Aging and vision,” Vision Res. 51, 1610–1622 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Owsley and G. McGwin, “Vision and driving,” Vision Res. 50, 2348–2361 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Owsley, G. McGwin, K. Scilley, and K. Kallies, “Development of a questionnaire to assess vision problems under low luminance in age-related maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 528–535 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oxton, L.

D. M. Snodderly, J. A. Mares, B. R. Wooten, L. Oxton, M. Gruber, and T. Ficek, “Macular pigment measurement by heterochromatic flicker photometry in older subjects: the carotenoids and age-related eye disease study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 531–538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petzold, A.

A. Petzold and G. T. Plant, “Clinical disorders affecting mesopic vision,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 326–341 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pflug, R.

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, and R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Piers, P.

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, P. Piers, and S. Norrby, “Optical aberrations and the aging eye,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clinics 43, 63–77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Plant, G. T.

A. Petzold and G. T. Plant, “Clinical disorders affecting mesopic vision,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 326–341 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Podgor, M.

Pokorny, J.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and M. Lutze, “Aging of the human lens,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1437–1440 (1987).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith, J. T. Ernest, and J. Pokorny, “Effect of hypoxia on FM100-Hue test performance,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 248–256 (1975).

Robson, A. G.

J. L. Barbur, E. Konstantakopoulou, M. Rodriguez-Carmona, J. A. Harlow, A. G. Robson, and J. D. Moreland, “The Macular Assessment Profile test—a new VDU-based technique for measuring the spatial distribution of the macular pigment, lens density and rapid flicker sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 470–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez-Carmona, M.

M. Rodriguez-Carmona and J. L. Barbur, “Assessing the severity of color vision loss with implications for aviation and other occupational environments,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 83, 19–29 (2011).

J. L. Barbur, E. Konstantakopoulou, M. Rodriguez-Carmona, J. A. Harlow, A. G. Robson, and J. D. Moreland, “The Macular Assessment Profile test—a new VDU-based technique for measuring the spatial distribution of the macular pigment, lens density and rapid flicker sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 470–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. O’Neill-Biba, S. Sivaprasad, M. Rodriguez-Carmona, J. E. Wolf, and J. L. Barbur, “Loss of chromatic sensitivity in AMD and diabetes: a comparative study,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 705–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez-Carmona, J. Kvansakul, J. A. Harlow, W. Kopcke, W. Schalch, and J. L. Barbur, “The effects of supplementation with lutein and/or zeaxanthin on human macular pigment density and colour vision,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 137–147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Barbur, M. Rodriguez-Carmona, and A. J. Harlow, “Establishing the statistical limits of “normal” chromatic sensitivity,” publication CIE x030:2006 (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 2006).

M. Rodriguez-Carmona, “Variability of chromatic sensitivity: fundamental studies and clinical applications,” Ph.D. dissertation (City University London, 2006).

Rodriguez-Carmona, M. L.

J. L. Barbur, M. L. Rodriguez-Carmona, S. Evans, and N. Milburn, “Minimum colour vision requirements for professional flight crew. Recommendations for new colour vision standards,” Paper 04/2009 (Civil Aviation Authority, UK, 2009), http://www.caa.co.uk/caapaper200904 .

Said, F. S.

F. S. Said and W. S. Sawires, “Age dependence of changes in pupil diameter in the dark,” Opt. Acta 19, 359–361 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Sample, P. A.

P. A. Sample, F. D. Esterson, R. N. Weinreb, and R. M. Boynton, “The aging lens: in vivo assessment of light absorption in 84 human eyes,” Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 1306–1311 (1988).

Saunders, F.

Sawires, W. S.

F. S. Said and W. S. Sawires, “Age dependence of changes in pupil diameter in the dark,” Opt. Acta 19, 359–361 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Schalch, W.

M. Rodriguez-Carmona, J. Kvansakul, J. A. Harlow, W. Kopcke, W. Schalch, and J. L. Barbur, “The effects of supplementation with lutein and/or zeaxanthin on human macular pigment density and colour vision,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 137–147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schefrin, B. E.

Schieber, F.

D. W. Kline, T. J. Kline, J. L. Fozard, W. Kosnik, F. Schieber, and R. Sekuler, “Vision, aging, and driving: the problems of older drivers,” J. Gerontol. 47, 27–34 (1992).

Scilley, K.

C. Owsley, G. McGwin, K. Scilley, and K. Kallies, “Development of a questionnaire to assess vision problems under low luminance in age-related maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 528–535 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sekuler, R.

D. W. Kline, T. J. Kline, J. L. Fozard, W. Kosnik, F. Schieber, and R. Sekuler, “Vision, aging, and driving: the problems of older drivers,” J. Gerontol. 47, 27–34 (1992).

Shinomori, K.

Sivaprasad, S.

M. O’Neill-Biba, S. Sivaprasad, M. Rodriguez-Carmona, J. E. Wolf, and J. L. Barbur, “Loss of chromatic sensitivity in AMD and diabetes: a comparative study,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 705–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smith, V. C.

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and M. Lutze, “Aging of the human lens,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1437–1440 (1987).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith, J. T. Ernest, and J. Pokorny, “Effect of hypoxia on FM100-Hue test performance,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 248–256 (1975).

Snodderly, D. M.

D. M. Snodderly, J. A. Mares, B. R. Wooten, L. Oxton, M. Gruber, and T. Ficek, “Macular pigment measurement by heterochromatic flicker photometry in older subjects: the carotenoids and age-related eye disease study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 531–538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points,” Proc. R. Soc. London B 112, 428–450 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, A.

J. L. Barbur and A. Stockman, “Photopic, mesopic and scotopic vision and changes in visual performance,” in Encyclopedia of the Eye, D. Dartt, J. C. Besharse, and R. Dana, eds. (Elsevier, 2010), pp. 323–331.

Thomson, W. D.

J. L. Barbur and W. D. Thomson, “Pupil response as an objective measure of visual acuity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 7, 425–429 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Uvijls, A.

G. Verriest, J. v. Laethem, and A. Uvijls, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test scores,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 635–642 (1982).

van Norren, D.

T. T. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment shows ringlike structures,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 709–714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Verriest, G.

G. Verriest, J. v. Laethem, and A. Uvijls, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test scores,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 635–642 (1982).

Vital-Durand, F.

K. Knoblauch, F. Vital-Durand, and J. L. Barbur, “Variation of chromatic sensitivity across the life span,” Vision Res. 41, 23–36 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walkey, H. C.

H. C. Walkey, J. L. Barbur, A. Harlow, and W. Makous, “Measurements of chromatic sensitivity in the mesopic range,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S36–S42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, “Senile ocular changes, cell death, and vision,” in Aging and Human Visual Function, R. Sekuler, D. Kline, and K. Dismukes, eds. (Liss, 1982), pp. 161–171.

Weinreb, R. N.

P. A. Sample, F. D. Esterson, R. N. Weinreb, and R. M. Boynton, “The aging lens: in vivo assessment of light absorption in 84 human eyes,” Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 1306–1311 (1988).

Werner, J. S.

S. L. Elliott and J. S. Werner, “Age-related changes in contrast gain related to the M and P pathways,” J. Vis. 10, 4(2010).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Elliott, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, J. W. Evans, and J. S. Werner, “Role of high-order aberrations in senescent changes in spatial vision,” J. Vis. 9, 24(2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Shinomori, B. E. Schefrin, and J. S. Werner, “Age-related changes in wavelength discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 310–318 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Schefrin, K. Shinomori, and J. S. Werner, “Contributions of neural pathways to age-related losses in chromatic discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1233–1241 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, “Directional sensitivity of the retina: 75 years of Stiles-Crawford effect,” Proc. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 275, 2777–2786 (2008).

G. Westheimer, “Dependence of the magnitude of the Stiles-Crawford effect on retinal location,” J. Physiol. 192, 309–315 (1967).

Wolf, J. E.

M. O’Neill-Biba, S. Sivaprasad, M. Rodriguez-Carmona, J. E. Wolf, and J. L. Barbur, “Loss of chromatic sensitivity in AMD and diabetes: a comparative study,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 705–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wooten, B. R.

D. M. Snodderly, J. A. Mares, B. R. Wooten, L. Oxton, M. Gruber, and T. Ficek, “Macular pigment measurement by heterochromatic flicker photometry in older subjects: the carotenoids and age-related eye disease study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 531–538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wright, C. E.

C. E. Wright and N. Drasdo, “The influence of age on the spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity function,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 59, 385–395 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Zele, A. J.

B. Feigl, D. Cao, C. P. Morris, and A. J. Zele, “Persons with age-related maculopathy risk genotypes and clinically normal eyes have reduced mesopic vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, 1145–1150 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Acta Ophthalmol. (1)

E. H. Bárány, “A theory of binocular visual acuity and an analysis of the variability of visual acuity,” Acta Ophthalmol. 27, 63–92 (1946).

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

G. Verriest, J. v. Laethem, and A. Uvijls, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test scores,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 93, 635–642 (1982).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Aviat. Space Environ. Med. (3)

M. Rodriguez-Carmona and J. L. Barbur, “Assessing the severity of color vision loss with implications for aviation and other occupational environments,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 83, 19–29 (2011).

D. M. Connolly, “Oxygenation state and twilight vision at 2438 m,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 82, 2–8 (2011).

D. M. Connolly and J. L. Barbur, “Low contrast acuity at photopic and mesopic luminance under mild hypoxia, normoxia, and hyperoxia,” Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 80, 933–940 (2009).

Color Res. Appl. (1)

H. C. Walkey, J. L. Barbur, A. Harlow, and W. Makous, “Measurements of chromatic sensitivity in the mesopic range,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S36–S42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Doc. Ophthalmol. (1)

C. E. Wright and N. Drasdo, “The influence of age on the spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity function,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 59, 385–395 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. L. Barbur and D. M. Connolly, “Effects of hypoxia on colour vision with emphasis on the mesopic range,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 6, 409–420(2011).

Int. Ophthalmol. Clinics (1)

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, P. Piers, and S. Norrby, “Optical aberrations and the aging eye,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clinics 43, 63–77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2)

P. A. Sample, F. D. Esterson, R. N. Weinreb, and R. M. Boynton, “The aging lens: in vivo assessment of light absorption in 84 human eyes,” Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 1306–1311 (1988).

D. M. Connolly, J. L. Barbur, S. L. Hosking, and I. R. Moorhead, “Mild hypoxia impairs chromatic sensitivity in the mesopic range,” Invest Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 820–827 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (5)

B. Feigl, D. Cao, C. P. Morris, and A. J. Zele, “Persons with age-related maculopathy risk genotypes and clinically normal eyes have reduced mesopic vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, 1145–1150 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Owsley, G. McGwin, K. Scilley, and K. Kallies, “Development of a questionnaire to assess vision problems under low luminance in age-related maculopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 528–535 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Curcio, C. L. Millican, K. A. Allen, and R. E. Kalina, “Aging of the human photoreceptor mosaic: evidence for selective vulnerability of rods in central retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 3278–3296 (1993).

T. T. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment shows ringlike structures,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 709–714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Snodderly, J. A. Mares, B. R. Wooten, L. Oxton, M. Gruber, and T. Ficek, “Macular pigment measurement by heterochromatic flicker photometry in older subjects: the carotenoids and age-related eye disease study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 531–538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Comp. Neurol. (1)

P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, and R. Pflug, “Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18–34 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Gerontol. (1)

D. W. Kline, T. J. Kline, J. L. Fozard, W. Kosnik, F. Schieber, and R. Sekuler, “Vision, aging, and driving: the problems of older drivers,” J. Gerontol. 47, 27–34 (1992).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

J. Physiol. (1)

G. Westheimer, “Dependence of the magnitude of the Stiles-Crawford effect on retinal location,” J. Physiol. 192, 309–315 (1967).

J. Psychophysiol. (1)

E. Alexandridis, J. A. Leendertz, and J. L. Barbur, “Methods of studying the behaviour of the pupil,” J. Psychophysiol. 5, 223–239 (1992).

J. Vis. (2)

S. L. Elliott and J. S. Werner, “Age-related changes in contrast gain related to the M and P pathways,” J. Vis. 10, 4(2010).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Elliott, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, J. W. Evans, and J. S. Werner, “Role of high-order aberrations in senescent changes in spatial vision,” J. Vis. 9, 24(2009).
[CrossRef]

Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. (1)

V. C. Smith, J. T. Ernest, and J. Pokorny, “Effect of hypoxia on FM100-Hue test performance,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 17, 248–256 (1975).

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (5)

A. Petzold and G. T. Plant, “Clinical disorders affecting mesopic vision,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 326–341 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Barbur and W. D. Thomson, “Pupil response as an objective measure of visual acuity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 7, 425–429 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Barbur, E. Konstantakopoulou, M. Rodriguez-Carmona, J. A. Harlow, A. G. Robson, and J. D. Moreland, “The Macular Assessment Profile test—a new VDU-based technique for measuring the spatial distribution of the macular pigment, lens density and rapid flicker sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 470–483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. O’Neill-Biba, S. Sivaprasad, M. Rodriguez-Carmona, J. E. Wolf, and J. L. Barbur, “Loss of chromatic sensitivity in AMD and diabetes: a comparative study,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 705–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez-Carmona, J. Kvansakul, J. A. Harlow, W. Kopcke, W. Schalch, and J. L. Barbur, “The effects of supplementation with lutein and/or zeaxanthin on human macular pigment density and colour vision,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 137–147 (2006).
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J. L. Barbur, M. L. Rodriguez-Carmona, S. Evans, and N. Milburn, “Minimum colour vision requirements for professional flight crew. Recommendations for new colour vision standards,” Paper 04/2009 (Civil Aviation Authority, UK, 2009), http://www.caa.co.uk/caapaper200904 .

J. L. Barbur and A. Stockman, “Photopic, mesopic and scotopic vision and changes in visual performance,” in Encyclopedia of the Eye, D. Dartt, J. C. Besharse, and R. Dana, eds. (Elsevier, 2010), pp. 323–331.

R. A. Weale, “Senile ocular changes, cell death, and vision,” in Aging and Human Visual Function, R. Sekuler, D. Kline, and K. Dismukes, eds. (Liss, 1982), pp. 161–171.

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I. E. Loewenfeld, The Pupil: Anatomy, Physiology, and Clinical Applications (Butterworth and Heinemann, 1999).

M. Rodriguez-Carmona, “Variability of chromatic sensitivity: fundamental studies and clinical applications,” Ph.D. dissertation (City University London, 2006).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Measurements of lens absorption of short wavelength light as a function of age for the group of subjects investigated in this study (age range: 16 to 79 years). The age distribution of the subjects is shown as an inset in Fig. 3(a). The optical density in Fig. 1(a) describes the average absorption of short wavelength light by the lens [as given by Eq. (1)] when referenced to young subjects (i.e., <24years) for light of spectral radiance equivalent to that employed in the MAP test. The latter peaks at 450nm and has a half-maximum spectral width of ±28nm [27]. The integration is carried out over the wavelength range of 380 to 780 nm. The dotted curve in (a) represents a second-order polynomial fit that accounts for 40% of the measured variability. Panel (b) shows the average pupil size as a function of age when viewing monocularly the visual display for a screen luminance of 26cd/m2, under conditions identical to those employed in the CAD test. The dotted curve shows the best linear fit and is given by: y=5.960.0315*x, r2=0.47. Unless otherwise stated, a least-squares, straight line was fitted to the data and the goodness of the fit is described by the square of the product moment correlation coefficient. Panel (c) shows a typical spatial profile for the macular pigment optical density measured with the MAP test [31]. The dotted curve represents the best exponential fit of the form, OD=0.832*exp0.609*θ, where θ represents the stimulus eccentricity in degrees [33].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measurements of color detection thresholds, expressed in standard normal units (SNU), in a group of 237 subjects when adapted to a uniform screen of luminance of 24cd/m2. The standard normal CAD units are based on the mean RG and YB thresholds measured in 330 normal trichromats [18]. According to this definition, the median normal trichromat has a threshold of 1 SNU. A threshold of 2 SNU means that the subject requires twice the color signal strength of the median normal trichromat. In cone contrast space, this corresponds approximately to doubling the cone photoreceptor contrasts [39].The inset histogram shows the age distribution within the group with a mean age of 29.5 years. The display was viewed with both eyes under optimum conditions and the measurements were carried out using the CAD test. The effects of age on the measured thresholds are very small (r2<0.06) [38].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Monocular measurements of color detection thresholds in a group of 60 subjects when adapted to a uniform background field of 26cd/m2. The subjects were more uniformly distributed as a function of age (ranging from 16 to 79 years). The inset histogram shows the age distribution within the group with a mean of 47.6 years). The effects of age are significant for RG and YB detection thresholds, as indicated by the dotted curves (r2=0.23 and r2=0.22, respectively, and p<0.001).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Color thresholds measured as a function of retinal illuminance (E) after appropriate correction for pupil size (RG). In the case of YB thresholds, the retinal illuminance was also corrected for the absorption of SW light by the lens and the MP. The screen luminances employed were 2.6, 7.8, 26, and 65cd/m2. The dotted curves show the optimized power law functions that predict the increase in color detection thresholds with decreasing retinal illuminance for the group of subjects examined in the study.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Examples of YB and RG color thresholds and the corresponding HRindex values for young and old subjects. The HRindex is defined as the difference in area under the subject’s threshold curve (AS) and the normal group (Agroup) expressed as a fraction of the area for the group, as illustrated in each diagram. The mean pupil size and the absorption of the lens and the MP (in the case of YB thresholds) affect the subject’s retinal illuminance. The optimum threshold measured at the highest illuminance together with the rate of increase in thresholds with decreasing retinal illuminance determine the subject’s HRindex. Panel (a) shows data in an 18-year-old subject with a positive HRindex indicative of performance better than average. Panel (b) also shows better than average performance for YB thresholds in a 51-year-old subject. The 36-year-old subject shown in (c) and (d) falls outside the normal range for YB thresholds, while the 70-year-old subject shown in (e) and (f) is within the 2σ limits established for the group (see Fig. 6).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Frequency distribution of HRindex values within the normal group (N=55) were computed for both YB and RG thresholds and are shown together with the corresponding, best-fit probability density functions. The 95% limits were estimated from the fitted functions shown by computing the cumulative probability values that correspond to ±2σ limits on the normal distribution.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

HRindex values plotted as a function of age for the 60 subjects investigated in this study. The ±2σ limits are shown as dotted curves. Age appears to have only a small effect on the HRindex for both RG and YB color vision, for subjects falling within the ±2σ limits (r2=0.16 and r2=0.13, respectively, and p<0.001). The linear regression lines indicated above each graph are based only on the subjects who had HRindices within the specified limits. Seven subjects (11%) produced HRindex values that fall below the 2σ limit; two subjects failed only RG and two others only YB. The remaining three subjects failed both RG and YB tests.

Equations (8)

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TAVG=380780TL(λ)LB(λ)dλ380780LB(λ)dλ,
OD=log10LpLo,
E=L·P.
E=L·P·TC.
AgroupAS=11+HRindex.
T=k×Ea+To,
A=25900(k×Ea+To)dE=[k(1a)×E(1a)+ToE]25900.
HRindex=1As/Agroup.

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