Abstract

A characteristic shift in hue and saturation occurs when colored targets are viewed peripherally compared with centrally. Four hues, one in each of the red, blue, green, and yellow regions of color space, remain unchanged when presented in the peripheral field. Apart from green, these peripherally invariant hues correspond almost exactly in color space with the unique hues. We explore this puzzling observation using asymmetric color-matching and color-naming experiments and computing cone contrasts for peripheral and central stimuli. We find that the difference between cone contrasts for the peripheral and central stimuli reaches a maximum at the chromatic axis corresponding to peripherally invariant green. We speculate that the effect is linked to a weakened signal from M-cones and probably associated with a reduced number of M-cones in peripheral retina.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  38. R. L. van der Veen, T. T. Berendschot, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, M. Makridaki, and I. J. Murray, “A new desktop instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density based on a novel technique for setting flicker thresholds,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 29, 127–137 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  43. I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  44. S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity coordinates of unique and other constant hues,” Vis. Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  45. K. Knoblauch and S. K. Shevell, “Relating cone signals to color appearance: failure of monotonicity in yellow/blue,” Vis. Neurosci. 18, 901–906 (2001).
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    [CrossRef]
  47. J. K. Bowmaker, J. W. L. Parry, and J. D. Mollon, “The arrangement of L and M cones in human and a primate retina,” in Normal and Defective Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, J. Pokorny, and K. Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford University, 2003), pp. 39–50.

2011 (1)

A. D. Logvinenko and L. L. Beattie, “Partial hue-matching,” J. Vision 11 (8), 6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, L. S. Baker, A. R. Trujillo, and K. Youngpeter, “Unique hue loci differ with methodology,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 545–552 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Panorgias, J. J. Kulikowski, N. R. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and I. J. Murray, “Naming versus matching and the stability of unique hues,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 553–559 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Challa, D. McKeefry, N. R. Parry, J. Kremers, I. J. Murray, and A. Panorgias, “L- and M-cone input to 12 Hz and 30 Hz flicker ERGs across the human retina,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 503–510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

R. L. van der Veen, T. T. Berendschot, M. Makridaki, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, and I. J. Murray, “Correspondence between retinal reflectometry and a flicker-based technique in the measurement of macular pigment spatial profiles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064046 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. L. van der Veen, T. T. Berendschot, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, M. Makridaki, and I. J. Murray, “A new desktop instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density based on a novel technique for setting flicker thresholds,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 29, 127–137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

C. Vakrou, D. Whitaker, P. V. McGraw, and D. McKeefry, “Functional evidence for cone-specific connectivity in the human retina,” J. Physiol. 566, 93–102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, “The cone inputs to the unique-hue mechanisms,” Vis. Res. 45, 3210–3223(2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. T. Mullen and F. A. Kingdom, “Differential distributions of red-green and blue-yellow cone opponency across the visual field,” Vis. Neurosci. 19, 109–118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

A. Valberg, “Unique hues: an old problem for a new generation,” Vis. Res. 41, 1645–1657 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Knoblauch and S. K. Shevell, “Relating cone signals to color appearance: failure of monotonicity in yellow/blue,” Vis. Neurosci. 18, 901–906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

1999 (2)

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397, 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, T. Usui, H. P. Scholl, and L. T. Sharpe, “Cone signal contributions to electroretinograms [correction of electrograms] in dichromats and trichromats,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 920–930 (1999).

1998 (2)

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, and M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red–green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” NeuroReport 9, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, G. Fowler, and B. Hunt, “Rod influence on hue-scaling functions,” Vis. Res. 38, 3259–3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, and L. Mahon, “Hue scaling of isoluminant and cone-specific lights,” Vis. Res. 37, 885–897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Jordan and J. D. Mollon, “Adaptation of colour vision to sunlight,” Nature 386, 135–136 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

R. L. De Valois and K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vis. Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Jacobs, J. Neitz, and M. Neitz, “Genetic basis of polymorphism in the color vision of platyrrhine monkeys,” Vis. Res. 33, 269–274 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Endler, “The color of light in forests and its implications,” Ecolog. Monogr. 63, 1–27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. L. Nerger and C. M. Cicerone, “The ratio of L cones to M cones in the human parafoveal retina,” Vis. Res. 32, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J. Gordon and I. Abramov, “Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 146–152 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

T. Indow, “Psychologically unique hues in aperture and surface colors,” Die Farbe 34, 253–260 (1987).

1984 (3)

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity coordinates of unique and other constant hues,” Vis. Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, and P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. 357, 241–265 (1984).

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vis. Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, and D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vis. Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

D. R. Williams, D. I. MacLeod, and M. M. Hayhoe, “Foveal tritanopia,” Vis. Res. 21, 1341–1356 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vis. Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

J. D. Moreland and A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

Abramov, I.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Gordon and I. Abramov, “Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 146–152 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Allen, K. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, P.

S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, “The cone inputs to the unique-hue mechanisms,” Vis. Res. 45, 3210–3223(2005).
[CrossRef]

Ayde, C. J.

Baker, L. S.

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, L. S. Baker, A. R. Trujillo, and K. Youngpeter, “Unique hue loci differ with methodology,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 545–552 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beattie, L. L.

A. D. Logvinenko and L. L. Beattie, “Partial hue-matching,” J. Vision 11 (8), 6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bechtold, J.

S. L. Buck, R. F. Knight, and J. Bechtold, “Opponent-color models and the influence of rod signals on the loci of unique hues,” Vis. Res. 40, 3333–3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berendschot, T. T.

R. L. van der Veen, T. T. Berendschot, M. Makridaki, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, and I. J. Murray, “Correspondence between retinal reflectometry and a flicker-based technique in the measurement of macular pigment spatial profiles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064046 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. L. van der Veen, T. T. Berendschot, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, M. Makridaki, and I. J. Murray, “A new desktop instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density based on a novel technique for setting flicker thresholds,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 29, 127–137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bowmaker, J. K.

J. K. Bowmaker, J. W. L. Parry, and J. D. Mollon, “The arrangement of L and M cones in human and a primate retina,” in Normal and Defective Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, J. Pokorny, and K. Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford University, 2003), pp. 39–50.

Boynton, R. M.

P. K. Kaiser and R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, 1996).

Buck, S. L.

S. L. Buck, R. F. Knight, and J. Bechtold, “Opponent-color models and the influence of rod signals on the loci of unique hues,” Vis. Res. 40, 3333–3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, G. Fowler, and B. Hunt, “Rod influence on hue-scaling functions,” Vis. Res. 38, 3259–3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burns, S. A.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity coordinates of unique and other constant hues,” Vis. Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Carden, D.

R. L. van der Veen, T. T. Berendschot, M. Makridaki, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, and I. J. Murray, “Correspondence between retinal reflectometry and a flicker-based technique in the measurement of macular pigment spatial profiles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064046 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. L. van der Veen, T. T. Berendschot, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, M. Makridaki, and I. J. Murray, “A new desktop instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density based on a novel technique for setting flicker thresholds,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 29, 127–137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Challa, N. K.

N. K. Challa, D. McKeefry, N. R. Parry, J. Kremers, I. J. Murray, and A. Panorgias, “L- and M-cone input to 12 Hz and 30 Hz flicker ERGs across the human retina,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 503–510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H.

Cicerone, C. M.

J. L. Nerger and C. M. Cicerone, “The ratio of L cones to M cones in the human parafoveal retina,” Vis. Res. 32, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cropper, S.

S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, “The cone inputs to the unique-hue mechanisms,” Vis. Res. 45, 3210–3223(2005).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, A.

J. D. Moreland and A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

De Valois, K. K.

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, and L. Mahon, “Hue scaling of isoluminant and cone-specific lights,” Vis. Res. 37, 885–897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. L. De Valois and K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vis. Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
[CrossRef]

De Valois, R. L.

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, and L. Mahon, “Hue scaling of isoluminant and cone-specific lights,” Vis. Res. 37, 885–897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. L. De Valois and K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vis. Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Derrington, A. M.

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, and P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. 357, 241–265 (1984).

Elsner, A. E.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity coordinates of unique and other constant hues,” Vis. Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Endler, J. A.

J. A. Endler, “The color of light in forests and its implications,” Ecolog. Monogr. 63, 1–27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fowler, G.

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, G. Fowler, and B. Hunt, “Rod influence on hue-scaling functions,” Vis. Res. 38, 3259–3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Gordon and I. Abramov, “Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 146–152 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hagstrom, S. A.

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, and M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red–green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” NeuroReport 9, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hayhoe, M. M.

D. R. Williams, D. I. MacLeod, and M. M. Hayhoe, “Foveal tritanopia,” Vis. Res. 21, 1341–1356 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Heeley, D. W.

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, and D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vis. Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hendrikse, F.

R. L. van der Veen, T. T. Berendschot, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, M. Makridaki, and I. J. Murray, “A new desktop instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density based on a novel technique for setting flicker thresholds,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 29, 127–137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. L. van der Veen, T. T. Berendschot, M. Makridaki, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, and I. J. Murray, “Correspondence between retinal reflectometry and a flicker-based technique in the measurement of macular pigment spatial profiles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064046 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hering, E.

E. Hering, Outlines of a Theory of the Light Sense (Harvard University, 1964).

Hunt, B.

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, G. Fowler, and B. Hunt, “Rod influence on hue-scaling functions,” Vis. Res. 38, 3259–3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hurley, J. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hurvich, L. M.

Imhoff, S. M.

Indow, T.

T. Indow, “Psychologically unique hues in aperture and surface colors,” Die Farbe 34, 253–260 (1987).

Jacobs, G. H.

G. H. Jacobs, J. Neitz, and M. Neitz, “Genetic basis of polymorphism in the color vision of platyrrhine monkeys,” Vis. Res. 33, 269–274 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jameson, D.

Jordan, G.

G. Jordan and J. D. Mollon, “Adaptation of colour vision to sunlight,” Nature 386, 135–136 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Mollon and G. Jordan, “On the nature of unique hues,” in John Dalton’s Colour Vision Legacy, C. Dickinson, I. Murray, and D. Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 1997), pp. 381–392.

Kaiser, P. K.

P. K. Kaiser and R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, 1996).

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kingdom, F. A.

K. T. Mullen and F. A. Kingdom, “Differential distributions of red-green and blue-yellow cone opponency across the visual field,” Vis. Neurosci. 19, 109–118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klock, I. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Knau, H.

Knight, R.

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, G. Fowler, and B. Hunt, “Rod influence on hue-scaling functions,” Vis. Res. 38, 3259–3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Knight, R. F.

S. L. Buck, R. F. Knight, and J. Bechtold, “Opponent-color models and the influence of rod signals on the loci of unique hues,” Vis. Res. 40, 3333–3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Knoblauch, K.

K. Knoblauch and S. K. Shevell, “Relating cone signals to color appearance: failure of monotonicity in yellow/blue,” Vis. Neurosci. 18, 901–906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krauskopf, J.

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, and P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. 357, 241–265 (1984).

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, and D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vis. Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kremers, J.

N. K. Challa, D. McKeefry, N. R. Parry, J. Kremers, I. J. Murray, and A. Panorgias, “L- and M-cone input to 12 Hz and 30 Hz flicker ERGs across the human retina,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 503–510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, T. Usui, H. P. Scholl, and L. T. Sharpe, “Cone signal contributions to electroretinograms [correction of electrograms] in dichromats and trichromats,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 920–930 (1999).

Kulikowski, J. J.

A. Panorgias, J. J. Kulikowski, N. R. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and I. J. Murray, “Naming versus matching and the stability of unique hues,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 553–559 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lennie, P.

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, and P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. 357, 241–265 (1984).

Lerea, C. L.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Logvinenko, A. D.

A. D. Logvinenko and L. L. Beattie, “Partial hue-matching,” J. Vision 11 (8), 6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Logvinenko, “A theory of unique hues and colour categories in the human colour vision,” Color Res. Appl., doc. ID 20661, doi:10.1002/col.20661 (to be published).
[CrossRef]

MacLeod, D. I.

D. R. Williams, D. I. MacLeod, and M. M. Hayhoe, “Foveal tritanopia,” Vis. Res. 21, 1341–1356 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mahon, L.

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, and L. Mahon, “Hue scaling of isoluminant and cone-specific lights,” Vis. Res. 37, 885–897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Makridaki, M.

R. L. van der Veen, T. T. Berendschot, M. Makridaki, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, and I. J. Murray, “Correspondence between retinal reflectometry and a flicker-based technique in the measurement of macular pigment spatial profiles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064046 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. L. van der Veen, T. T. Berendschot, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, M. Makridaki, and I. J. Murray, “A new desktop instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density based on a novel technique for setting flicker thresholds,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 29, 127–137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Malkoc, G.

McGraw, P. V.

C. Vakrou, D. Whitaker, P. V. McGraw, and D. McKeefry, “Functional evidence for cone-specific connectivity in the human retina,” J. Physiol. 566, 93–102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McKeefry, D.

N. K. Challa, D. McKeefry, N. R. Parry, J. Kremers, I. J. Murray, and A. Panorgias, “L- and M-cone input to 12 Hz and 30 Hz flicker ERGs across the human retina,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 503–510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Vakrou, D. Whitaker, P. V. McGraw, and D. McKeefry, “Functional evidence for cone-specific connectivity in the human retina,” J. Physiol. 566, 93–102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McKeefry, D. J.

Milam, A. H.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Miyahara, E.

Mollon, J. D.

G. Jordan and J. D. Mollon, “Adaptation of colour vision to sunlight,” Nature 386, 135–136 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Bowmaker, J. W. L. Parry, and J. D. Mollon, “The arrangement of L and M cones in human and a primate retina,” in Normal and Defective Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, J. Pokorny, and K. Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford University, 2003), pp. 39–50.

J. D. Mollon and G. Jordan, “On the nature of unique hues,” in John Dalton’s Colour Vision Legacy, C. Dickinson, I. Murray, and D. Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 1997), pp. 381–392.

Moreland, J. D.

J. D. Moreland and A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Mullen, K. T.

K. T. Mullen and F. A. Kingdom, “Differential distributions of red-green and blue-yellow cone opponency across the visual field,” Vis. Neurosci. 19, 109–118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murray, I. J.

N. K. Challa, D. McKeefry, N. R. Parry, J. Kremers, I. J. Murray, and A. Panorgias, “L- and M-cone input to 12 Hz and 30 Hz flicker ERGs across the human retina,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 503–510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Panorgias, J. J. Kulikowski, N. R. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and I. J. Murray, “Naming versus matching and the stability of unique hues,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 553–559 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. L. van der Veen, T. T. Berendschot, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, M. Makridaki, and I. J. Murray, “A new desktop instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density based on a novel technique for setting flicker thresholds,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 29, 127–137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. L. van der Veen, T. T. Berendschot, M. Makridaki, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, and I. J. Murray, “Correspondence between retinal reflectometry and a flicker-based technique in the measurement of macular pigment spatial profiles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064046 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. McKeefry, I. J. Murray, and N. R. Parry, “Perceived shifts in saturation and hue of chromatic stimuli in the near peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3168–3179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and I. J. Murray, “Variant and invariant color perception in the near peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1586–1597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neitz, J.

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, and M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red–green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” NeuroReport 9, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Jacobs, J. Neitz, and M. Neitz, “Genetic basis of polymorphism in the color vision of platyrrhine monkeys,” Vis. Res. 33, 269–274 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Neitz, M.

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, and M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red–green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” NeuroReport 9, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Jacobs, J. Neitz, and M. Neitz, “Genetic basis of polymorphism in the color vision of platyrrhine monkeys,” Vis. Res. 33, 269–274 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nerger, J. L.

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, L. S. Baker, A. R. Trujillo, and K. Youngpeter, “Unique hue loci differ with methodology,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 545–552 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, S. M. Imhoff, and C. J. Ayde, “Effect of the short-wavelength-sensitive-cone mosaic and rods on the locus of unique green,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 628–634 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Nerger and C. M. Cicerone, “The ratio of L cones to M cones in the human parafoveal retina,” Vis. Res. 32, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Panorgias, A.

N. K. Challa, D. McKeefry, N. R. Parry, J. Kremers, I. J. Murray, and A. Panorgias, “L- and M-cone input to 12 Hz and 30 Hz flicker ERGs across the human retina,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 503–510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Panorgias, J. J. Kulikowski, N. R. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and I. J. Murray, “Naming versus matching and the stability of unique hues,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 553–559 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Parry, J. W. L.

J. K. Bowmaker, J. W. L. Parry, and J. D. Mollon, “The arrangement of L and M cones in human and a primate retina,” in Normal and Defective Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, J. Pokorny, and K. Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford University, 2003), pp. 39–50.

Parry, N. R.

A. Panorgias, J. J. Kulikowski, N. R. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and I. J. Murray, “Naming versus matching and the stability of unique hues,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 553–559 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Challa, D. McKeefry, N. R. Parry, J. Kremers, I. J. Murray, and A. Panorgias, “L- and M-cone input to 12 Hz and 30 Hz flicker ERGs across the human retina,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 503–510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. McKeefry, I. J. Murray, and N. R. Parry, “Perceived shifts in saturation and hue of chromatic stimuli in the near peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3168–3179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and I. J. Murray, “Variant and invariant color perception in the near peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1586–1597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pokorny, J.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity coordinates of unique and other constant hues,” Vis. Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vis. Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Raker, V. E.

Roorda, A.

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397, 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scholl, H. P.

J. Kremers, T. Usui, H. P. Scholl, and L. T. Sharpe, “Cone signal contributions to electroretinograms [correction of electrograms] in dichromats and trichromats,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 920–930 (1999).

Sharpe, L. T.

J. Kremers, T. Usui, H. P. Scholl, and L. T. Sharpe, “Cone signal contributions to electroretinograms [correction of electrograms] in dichromats and trichromats,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 920–930 (1999).

Shevell, S. K.

K. Knoblauch and S. K. Shevell, “Relating cone signals to color appearance: failure of monotonicity in yellow/blue,” Vis. Neurosci. 18, 901–906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Smith, V. C.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity coordinates of unique and other constant hues,” Vis. Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vis. Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Stabell, B.

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vis. Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Stabell, U.

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vis. Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982).

Switkes, E.

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, and L. Mahon, “Hue scaling of isoluminant and cone-specific lights,” Vis. Res. 37, 885–897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Trujillo, A. R.

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, L. S. Baker, A. R. Trujillo, and K. Youngpeter, “Unique hue loci differ with methodology,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 545–552 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Usui, T.

J. Kremers, T. Usui, H. P. Scholl, and L. T. Sharpe, “Cone signal contributions to electroretinograms [correction of electrograms] in dichromats and trichromats,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 920–930 (1999).

Vakrou, C.

C. Vakrou, D. Whitaker, P. V. McGraw, and D. McKeefry, “Functional evidence for cone-specific connectivity in the human retina,” J. Physiol. 566, 93–102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Valberg, A.

A. Valberg, “Unique hues: an old problem for a new generation,” Vis. Res. 41, 1645–1657 (2001).
[CrossRef]

van der Veen, R. L.

R. L. van der Veen, T. T. Berendschot, M. Makridaki, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, and I. J. Murray, “Correspondence between retinal reflectometry and a flicker-based technique in the measurement of macular pigment spatial profiles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064046 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. L. van der Veen, T. T. Berendschot, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, M. Makridaki, and I. J. Murray, “A new desktop instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density based on a novel technique for setting flicker thresholds,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 29, 127–137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Volbrecht, V. J.

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, L. S. Baker, A. R. Trujillo, and K. Youngpeter, “Unique hue loci differ with methodology,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 545–552 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, S. M. Imhoff, and C. J. Ayde, “Effect of the short-wavelength-sensitive-cone mosaic and rods on the locus of unique green,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 628–634 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Webster, M. A.

Whitaker, D.

C. Vakrou, D. Whitaker, P. V. McGraw, and D. McKeefry, “Functional evidence for cone-specific connectivity in the human retina,” J. Physiol. 566, 93–102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. R.

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397, 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, and D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vis. Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Williams, D. I. MacLeod, and M. M. Hayhoe, “Foveal tritanopia,” Vis. Res. 21, 1341–1356 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wuerger, S. M.

S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, “The cone inputs to the unique-hue mechanisms,” Vis. Res. 45, 3210–3223(2005).
[CrossRef]

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982).

Youngpeter, K.

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, L. S. Baker, A. R. Trujillo, and K. Youngpeter, “Unique hue loci differ with methodology,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 545–552 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Color Res. Appl. (2)

J. Gordon and I. Abramov, “Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 146–152 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Logvinenko, “A theory of unique hues and colour categories in the human colour vision,” Color Res. Appl., doc. ID 20661, doi:10.1002/col.20661 (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Die Farbe (1)

T. Indow, “Psychologically unique hues in aperture and surface colors,” Die Farbe 34, 253–260 (1987).

Ecolog. Monogr. (1)

J. A. Endler, “The color of light in forests and its implications,” Ecolog. Monogr. 63, 1–27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

J. Kremers, T. Usui, H. P. Scholl, and L. T. Sharpe, “Cone signal contributions to electroretinograms [correction of electrograms] in dichromats and trichromats,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 920–930 (1999).

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

R. L. van der Veen, T. T. Berendschot, M. Makridaki, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, and I. J. Murray, “Correspondence between retinal reflectometry and a flicker-based technique in the measurement of macular pigment spatial profiles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064046 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Comp. Neurol. (2)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (6)

J. Physiol. (2)

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, and P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. 357, 241–265 (1984).

C. Vakrou, D. Whitaker, P. V. McGraw, and D. McKeefry, “Functional evidence for cone-specific connectivity in the human retina,” J. Physiol. 566, 93–102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Vision (1)

A. D. Logvinenko and L. L. Beattie, “Partial hue-matching,” J. Vision 11 (8), 6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397, 520–522 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Jordan and J. D. Mollon, “Adaptation of colour vision to sunlight,” Nature 386, 135–136 (1997).
[CrossRef]

NeuroReport (1)

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, and M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red–green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” NeuroReport 9, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. (4)

N. K. Challa, D. McKeefry, N. R. Parry, J. Kremers, I. J. Murray, and A. Panorgias, “L- and M-cone input to 12 Hz and 30 Hz flicker ERGs across the human retina,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 503–510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. L. van der Veen, T. T. Berendschot, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, M. Makridaki, and I. J. Murray, “A new desktop instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density based on a novel technique for setting flicker thresholds,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 29, 127–137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, L. S. Baker, A. R. Trujillo, and K. Youngpeter, “Unique hue loci differ with methodology,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 545–552 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Panorgias, J. J. Kulikowski, N. R. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and I. J. Murray, “Naming versus matching and the stability of unique hues,” Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 553–559 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

J. D. Moreland and A. Cruz, “Colour perception with the peripheral retina,” Opt. Acta 6, 117–151 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Neurosci. (2)

K. T. Mullen and F. A. Kingdom, “Differential distributions of red-green and blue-yellow cone opponency across the visual field,” Vis. Neurosci. 19, 109–118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Knoblauch and S. K. Shevell, “Relating cone signals to color appearance: failure of monotonicity in yellow/blue,” Vis. Neurosci. 18, 901–906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Res. (13)

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity coordinates of unique and other constant hues,” Vis. Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, and D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vis. Res. 22, 1123–1131 (1982).
[CrossRef]

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vis. Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Williams, D. I. MacLeod, and M. M. Hayhoe, “Foveal tritanopia,” Vis. Res. 21, 1341–1356 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Nerger and C. M. Cicerone, “The ratio of L cones to M cones in the human parafoveal retina,” Vis. Res. 32, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Jacobs, J. Neitz, and M. Neitz, “Genetic basis of polymorphism in the color vision of platyrrhine monkeys,” Vis. Res. 33, 269–274 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vis. Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. L. De Valois and K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vis. Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, R. F. Knight, and J. Bechtold, “Opponent-color models and the influence of rod signals on the loci of unique hues,” Vis. Res. 40, 3333–3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, G. Fowler, and B. Hunt, “Rod influence on hue-scaling functions,” Vis. Res. 38, 3259–3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Valberg, “Unique hues: an old problem for a new generation,” Vis. Res. 41, 1645–1657 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, and L. Mahon, “Hue scaling of isoluminant and cone-specific lights,” Vis. Res. 37, 885–897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, “The cone inputs to the unique-hue mechanisms,” Vis. Res. 45, 3210–3223(2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982).

P. K. Kaiser and R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, 1996).

E. Hering, Outlines of a Theory of the Light Sense (Harvard University, 1964).

L. M. Hurvich, Color Vision (Sinauer, 1981).

J. D. Mollon and G. Jordan, “On the nature of unique hues,” in John Dalton’s Colour Vision Legacy, C. Dickinson, I. Murray, and D. Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 1997), pp. 381–392.

J. K. Bowmaker, J. W. L. Parry, and J. D. Mollon, “The arrangement of L and M cones in human and a primate retina,” in Normal and Defective Colour Vision, J. D. Mollon, J. Pokorny, and K. Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford University, 2003), pp. 39–50.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Mean L- (upper), M- (middle) and S-cc (lower) of 38 observers. The panels on the left plot the probe (filled circles) and test (open circles) cone contrast as a function of chromatic axis. The error bars are ±1SD. Below each graph the difference between the test and probe cone contrast is plotted as a function of the chromatic axis. The panels on the right are the correlation of the probe and test cone contrast for each cone type. The solid line is the diagonal line that represents where the test contrast equals the probe contrast.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Probe versus test cone contrast for peripherally invariant and unique hues. L- (left), M- (middle), and S-cc (right) correlation between the probe and the test stimuli. The diamonds are the peripherally invariant hues, and the asterisks are the unique hues. Note that peripherally invariant and unique blue are superimposed. The letter G indicates the pair of peripherally invariant and unique green that does not fit the diagonal line.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Peripheral and foveal RMS cone contrast as a function of chromatic axis. Error bars are ±1 SD. The lower panel is the difference between probe and test RMS-cc. Arrows indicate the peripherally invariant and unique green.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Probe versus test RMS cone contrast for the 24 chromatic axes. (b) Probe versus test RMS cone contrast for peripherally invariant and unique hues. Diamonds depict the peripherally invariant hues, and asterisks represent the unique hues. The letters next to each symbol identify whether the data points are for red, green, blue, or yellow unique and invariant hues. The solid lines are the diagonals.

Equations (2)

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Lcc=ΔLLb,
RMScc=Lcc2+Mcc2+Scc23.

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