Abstract

It is well known that there are different preferences in correlated color temperature of light sources for daily living activities or for viewing artistic paintings. There are also data relating the capacity of observers to make judgments on color differences with the spectral power distribution of the light source used. The present work describes a visual color discrimination experiment whose results confirm the existence of a relationship between the correlated color temperature of a light source and the color discrimination capacities of the observers.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. van Trigt, “Color rendering, a reassessment,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 197–206 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Toward an improved color rendering metric,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 59411G1 (2005).
  3. CIE, “Colour rendering of white light sources,” CIE 177:2007 (CIE, 2007).
  4. E. M. Cordero, P. J. Pardo, A. L. Pérez, and M. I. Suero, “Correlation of various light source quality indices with the colour discrimination capacity,” Color. Technol. 127, 136–144 (2011).
  5. W. A. Thornton, “Color-discrimination index,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 191–194 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: A tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl. 33, 192–202 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. J. A. Dartnall, J. K. Bowmaker, and J. D. Mollon, “Human visual pigments: microspectrophotometric results from the eyes of seven persons,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 220, 115–130 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Stockman and L. T. Sharpe, “Spectral sensitivities of the middle- and long-wavelength sensitive cones derived from measurements in observers of known genotype,” Vision Res. 40, 1711–1737 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Stockman, L. T. Sharpe, and C. C. Fach, “The spectral sensitivity of the human short-wavelength cones,” Vision Res. 39, 2901–2927 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. A. Webster, E. Miyahara, G. Malkoc, and V. E. Raker, “Variations in normal color vision. II. Unique hues,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1545–1555 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. A. Bone, J. T Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vision Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. L. MacAdam, “Rautian on color discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 1065–1070 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. L. De Valois, I. Abramov, and W. R. Mead, “Single cell analysis of wavelength discrimination at the lateral geniculate nucleus in the macaque,” J. Neurophysiol. 30, 415–33 (1967).
  14. E. Mahler, J. J. Ezrati, and F. Vienot, “Testing LED lighting for colour discrimination and colour rendering,” Color Res. Appl. 34, 8–17 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Viénot, E. Mahler, L. Serreault, M. Harrar, J. J. Ezrati, P. Pérignon, and A. Bricoune, “Discriminating colours under LED illumination,” in Proceedings of AIC Colour (AIC, 2005), pp. 33–36.
  16. R. G. Davis and D. N. Ginthner, “Correlated color temperature, illuminance level, and the Kruithof curve,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 19, 27–38 (1990).
  17. N. Oi and H. Takahashi, “Preferred combinations between illuminance and color temperature in several settings for daily living activities,” in Proceedings of the 26th Session of the CIE (CIE, 2007), pp. D3–178.
  18. P. D. Pinto, J. M. M. Linhares, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Correlated color temperature preferred by observers for illumination of artistic paintings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 623–630 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. D. Pinto, P. E. R. Felgueiras, J. M. M. Linhares, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Chromatic effects of metamers of D65 on art paintings,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 632–637 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. M. M. Linhares, P. E. R. Felgueiras, P. D. Pinto, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Colour rendering of indoor lighting with CIE illuminants and white LEDs for normal and colour deficient observers,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 30, 618–625 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. CIE, “Colorimetry,” 3rd ed., CIE 15:2004 (CIE, 2004).
  22. M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. R. Deblassie, Measuring and Evaluating Pupil Progress (MSS Information Corp., 1974).
  24. Y. Le Grand, “Les seuils différentiels de couleurs dans la théorie de Young,” Rev. Opt. Theor. Instrum. 28, 261–278 (1949).
  25. R. M. Boynton and N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. Yaguchi, N. Watanabe, and S. Shioiri, “Effects of S-cone excitation on color discrimination threshold,” presented at Interim Meeting of the International Color Association AIC: Color and Paints, Porto-Alegre, Brasil (2004).
  27. J. Krauskopf and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Color discrimination and adaptation,” Vision Res. 32, 2165–2175 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. D. Mollon and M. V. Danilova, “Conditions under which an increase in S-cones excitation enhances discrimination on the L/M axis,” Proceedings of the International Colour Vision Society, ICVS, 2011.

2011 (1)

E. M. Cordero, P. J. Pardo, A. L. Pérez, and M. I. Suero, “Correlation of various light source quality indices with the colour discrimination capacity,” Color. Technol. 127, 136–144 (2011).

2010 (2)

P. D. Pinto, P. E. R. Felgueiras, J. M. M. Linhares, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Chromatic effects of metamers of D65 on art paintings,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 632–637 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. M. Linhares, P. E. R. Felgueiras, P. D. Pinto, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Colour rendering of indoor lighting with CIE illuminants and white LEDs for normal and colour deficient observers,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 30, 618–625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

E. Mahler, J. J. Ezrati, and F. Vienot, “Testing LED lighting for colour discrimination and colour rendering,” Color Res. Appl. 34, 8–17 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2005 (1)

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Toward an improved color rendering metric,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 59411G1 (2005).

2001 (1)

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. A. Webster, E. Miyahara, G. Malkoc, and V. E. Raker, “Variations in normal color vision. II. Unique hues,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1545–1555 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Stockman and L. T. Sharpe, “Spectral sensitivities of the middle- and long-wavelength sensitive cones derived from measurements in observers of known genotype,” Vision Res. 40, 1711–1737 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

A. Stockman, L. T. Sharpe, and C. C. Fach, “The spectral sensitivity of the human short-wavelength cones,” Vision Res. 39, 2901–2927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. van Trigt, “Color rendering, a reassessment,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 197–206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

R. A. Bone, J. T Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vision Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Krauskopf and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Color discrimination and adaptation,” Vision Res. 32, 2165–2175 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. G. Davis and D. N. Ginthner, “Correlated color temperature, illuminance level, and the Kruithof curve,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 19, 27–38 (1990).

1983 (1)

H. J. A. Dartnall, J. K. Bowmaker, and J. D. Mollon, “Human visual pigments: microspectrophotometric results from the eyes of seven persons,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 220, 115–130 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

R. M. Boynton and N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

1967 (1)

R. L. De Valois, I. Abramov, and W. R. Mead, “Single cell analysis of wavelength discrimination at the lateral geniculate nucleus in the macaque,” J. Neurophysiol. 30, 415–33 (1967).

1955 (1)

1949 (1)

Y. Le Grand, “Les seuils différentiels de couleurs dans la théorie de Young,” Rev. Opt. Theor. Instrum. 28, 261–278 (1949).

Abramov, I.

R. L. De Valois, I. Abramov, and W. R. Mead, “Single cell analysis of wavelength discrimination at the lateral geniculate nucleus in the macaque,” J. Neurophysiol. 30, 415–33 (1967).

Bone, R. A.

R. A. Bone, J. T Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vision Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bowmaker, J. K.

H. J. A. Dartnall, J. K. Bowmaker, and J. D. Mollon, “Human visual pigments: microspectrophotometric results from the eyes of seven persons,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 220, 115–130 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton and N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bricoune, A.

F. Viénot, E. Mahler, L. Serreault, M. Harrar, J. J. Ezrati, P. Pérignon, and A. Bricoune, “Discriminating colours under LED illumination,” in Proceedings of AIC Colour (AIC, 2005), pp. 33–36.

Cains, A.

R. A. Bone, J. T Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vision Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cordero, E. M.

E. M. Cordero, P. J. Pardo, A. L. Pérez, and M. I. Suero, “Correlation of various light source quality indices with the colour discrimination capacity,” Color. Technol. 127, 136–144 (2011).

Cui, G.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Danilova, M. V.

J. D. Mollon and M. V. Danilova, “Conditions under which an increase in S-cones excitation enhances discrimination on the L/M axis,” Proceedings of the International Colour Vision Society, ICVS, 2011.

Dartnall, H. J. A.

H. J. A. Dartnall, J. K. Bowmaker, and J. D. Mollon, “Human visual pigments: microspectrophotometric results from the eyes of seven persons,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 220, 115–130 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Davis, R. G.

R. G. Davis and D. N. Ginthner, “Correlated color temperature, illuminance level, and the Kruithof curve,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 19, 27–38 (1990).

Davis, W.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Toward an improved color rendering metric,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 59411G1 (2005).

De Valois, R. L.

R. L. De Valois, I. Abramov, and W. R. Mead, “Single cell analysis of wavelength discrimination at the lateral geniculate nucleus in the macaque,” J. Neurophysiol. 30, 415–33 (1967).

Deblassie, R. R.

R. R. Deblassie, Measuring and Evaluating Pupil Progress (MSS Information Corp., 1974).

Ezrati, J. J.

E. Mahler, J. J. Ezrati, and F. Vienot, “Testing LED lighting for colour discrimination and colour rendering,” Color Res. Appl. 34, 8–17 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Viénot, E. Mahler, L. Serreault, M. Harrar, J. J. Ezrati, P. Pérignon, and A. Bricoune, “Discriminating colours under LED illumination,” in Proceedings of AIC Colour (AIC, 2005), pp. 33–36.

Fach, C. C.

A. Stockman, L. T. Sharpe, and C. C. Fach, “The spectral sensitivity of the human short-wavelength cones,” Vision Res. 39, 2901–2927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Felgueiras, P. E. R.

P. D. Pinto, P. E. R. Felgueiras, J. M. M. Linhares, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Chromatic effects of metamers of D65 on art paintings,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 632–637 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. M. Linhares, P. E. R. Felgueiras, P. D. Pinto, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Colour rendering of indoor lighting with CIE illuminants and white LEDs for normal and colour deficient observers,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 30, 618–625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Freyssinier-Nova, J. P.

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: A tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl. 33, 192–202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gegenfurtner, K. R.

J. Krauskopf and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Color discrimination and adaptation,” Vision Res. 32, 2165–2175 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ginthner, D. N.

R. G. Davis and D. N. Ginthner, “Correlated color temperature, illuminance level, and the Kruithof curve,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 19, 27–38 (1990).

Harrar, M.

F. Viénot, E. Mahler, L. Serreault, M. Harrar, J. J. Ezrati, P. Pérignon, and A. Bricoune, “Discriminating colours under LED illumination,” in Proceedings of AIC Colour (AIC, 2005), pp. 33–36.

Kambe, N.

R. M. Boynton and N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Krauskopf, J.

J. Krauskopf and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Color discrimination and adaptation,” Vision Res. 32, 2165–2175 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Landrum, J. T

R. A. Bone, J. T Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vision Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Le Grand, Y.

Y. Le Grand, “Les seuils différentiels de couleurs dans la théorie de Young,” Rev. Opt. Theor. Instrum. 28, 261–278 (1949).

Linhares, J. M. M.

P. D. Pinto, P. E. R. Felgueiras, J. M. M. Linhares, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Chromatic effects of metamers of D65 on art paintings,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 632–637 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. M. Linhares, P. E. R. Felgueiras, P. D. Pinto, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Colour rendering of indoor lighting with CIE illuminants and white LEDs for normal and colour deficient observers,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 30, 618–625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Pinto, J. M. M. Linhares, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Correlated color temperature preferred by observers for illumination of artistic paintings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 623–630 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, M. R.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

MacAdam, D. L.

Mahler, E.

E. Mahler, J. J. Ezrati, and F. Vienot, “Testing LED lighting for colour discrimination and colour rendering,” Color Res. Appl. 34, 8–17 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Viénot, E. Mahler, L. Serreault, M. Harrar, J. J. Ezrati, P. Pérignon, and A. Bricoune, “Discriminating colours under LED illumination,” in Proceedings of AIC Colour (AIC, 2005), pp. 33–36.

Malkoc, G.

Mead, W. R.

R. L. De Valois, I. Abramov, and W. R. Mead, “Single cell analysis of wavelength discrimination at the lateral geniculate nucleus in the macaque,” J. Neurophysiol. 30, 415–33 (1967).

Miyahara, E.

Mollon, J. D.

H. J. A. Dartnall, J. K. Bowmaker, and J. D. Mollon, “Human visual pigments: microspectrophotometric results from the eyes of seven persons,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 220, 115–130 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Mollon and M. V. Danilova, “Conditions under which an increase in S-cones excitation enhances discrimination on the L/M axis,” Proceedings of the International Colour Vision Society, ICVS, 2011.

Nascimento, S. M. C.

J. M. M. Linhares, P. E. R. Felgueiras, P. D. Pinto, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Colour rendering of indoor lighting with CIE illuminants and white LEDs for normal and colour deficient observers,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 30, 618–625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Pinto, P. E. R. Felgueiras, J. M. M. Linhares, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Chromatic effects of metamers of D65 on art paintings,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 632–637 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Pinto, J. M. M. Linhares, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Correlated color temperature preferred by observers for illumination of artistic paintings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 623–630 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, Y.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Toward an improved color rendering metric,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 59411G1 (2005).

Oi, N.

N. Oi and H. Takahashi, “Preferred combinations between illuminance and color temperature in several settings for daily living activities,” in Proceedings of the 26th Session of the CIE (CIE, 2007), pp. D3–178.

Pardo, P. J.

E. M. Cordero, P. J. Pardo, A. L. Pérez, and M. I. Suero, “Correlation of various light source quality indices with the colour discrimination capacity,” Color. Technol. 127, 136–144 (2011).

Pérez, A. L.

E. M. Cordero, P. J. Pardo, A. L. Pérez, and M. I. Suero, “Correlation of various light source quality indices with the colour discrimination capacity,” Color. Technol. 127, 136–144 (2011).

Pérignon, P.

F. Viénot, E. Mahler, L. Serreault, M. Harrar, J. J. Ezrati, P. Pérignon, and A. Bricoune, “Discriminating colours under LED illumination,” in Proceedings of AIC Colour (AIC, 2005), pp. 33–36.

Pinto, P. D.

P. D. Pinto, P. E. R. Felgueiras, J. M. M. Linhares, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Chromatic effects of metamers of D65 on art paintings,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 632–637 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. M. Linhares, P. E. R. Felgueiras, P. D. Pinto, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Colour rendering of indoor lighting with CIE illuminants and white LEDs for normal and colour deficient observers,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 30, 618–625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Pinto, J. M. M. Linhares, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Correlated color temperature preferred by observers for illumination of artistic paintings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 623–630 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Raker, V. E.

Rea, M. S.

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: A tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl. 33, 192–202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rigg, B.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Serreault, L.

F. Viénot, E. Mahler, L. Serreault, M. Harrar, J. J. Ezrati, P. Pérignon, and A. Bricoune, “Discriminating colours under LED illumination,” in Proceedings of AIC Colour (AIC, 2005), pp. 33–36.

Sharpe, L. T.

A. Stockman and L. T. Sharpe, “Spectral sensitivities of the middle- and long-wavelength sensitive cones derived from measurements in observers of known genotype,” Vision Res. 40, 1711–1737 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Stockman, L. T. Sharpe, and C. C. Fach, “The spectral sensitivity of the human short-wavelength cones,” Vision Res. 39, 2901–2927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shioiri, S.

H. Yaguchi, N. Watanabe, and S. Shioiri, “Effects of S-cone excitation on color discrimination threshold,” presented at Interim Meeting of the International Color Association AIC: Color and Paints, Porto-Alegre, Brasil (2004).

Stockman, A.

A. Stockman and L. T. Sharpe, “Spectral sensitivities of the middle- and long-wavelength sensitive cones derived from measurements in observers of known genotype,” Vision Res. 40, 1711–1737 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Stockman, L. T. Sharpe, and C. C. Fach, “The spectral sensitivity of the human short-wavelength cones,” Vision Res. 39, 2901–2927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Suero, M. I.

E. M. Cordero, P. J. Pardo, A. L. Pérez, and M. I. Suero, “Correlation of various light source quality indices with the colour discrimination capacity,” Color. Technol. 127, 136–144 (2011).

Takahashi, H.

N. Oi and H. Takahashi, “Preferred combinations between illuminance and color temperature in several settings for daily living activities,” in Proceedings of the 26th Session of the CIE (CIE, 2007), pp. D3–178.

Thornton, W. A.

van Trigt, C.

C. van Trigt, “Color rendering, a reassessment,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 197–206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vienot, F.

E. Mahler, J. J. Ezrati, and F. Vienot, “Testing LED lighting for colour discrimination and colour rendering,” Color Res. Appl. 34, 8–17 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Viénot, F.

F. Viénot, E. Mahler, L. Serreault, M. Harrar, J. J. Ezrati, P. Pérignon, and A. Bricoune, “Discriminating colours under LED illumination,” in Proceedings of AIC Colour (AIC, 2005), pp. 33–36.

Watanabe, N.

H. Yaguchi, N. Watanabe, and S. Shioiri, “Effects of S-cone excitation on color discrimination threshold,” presented at Interim Meeting of the International Color Association AIC: Color and Paints, Porto-Alegre, Brasil (2004).

Webster, M. A.

Yaguchi, H.

H. Yaguchi, N. Watanabe, and S. Shioiri, “Effects of S-cone excitation on color discrimination threshold,” presented at Interim Meeting of the International Color Association AIC: Color and Paints, Porto-Alegre, Brasil (2004).

Color Res. Appl. (5)

C. van Trigt, “Color rendering, a reassessment,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 197–206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: A tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl. 33, 192–202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Mahler, J. J. Ezrati, and F. Vienot, “Testing LED lighting for colour discrimination and colour rendering,” Color Res. Appl. 34, 8–17 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Boynton and N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Color. Technol. (1)

E. M. Cordero, P. J. Pardo, A. L. Pérez, and M. I. Suero, “Correlation of various light source quality indices with the colour discrimination capacity,” Color. Technol. 127, 136–144 (2011).

J. Illum. Eng. Soc. (1)

R. G. Davis and D. N. Ginthner, “Correlated color temperature, illuminance level, and the Kruithof curve,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 19, 27–38 (1990).

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

R. L. De Valois, I. Abramov, and W. R. Mead, “Single cell analysis of wavelength discrimination at the lateral geniculate nucleus in the macaque,” J. Neurophysiol. 30, 415–33 (1967).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. (1)

J. M. M. Linhares, P. E. R. Felgueiras, P. D. Pinto, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Colour rendering of indoor lighting with CIE illuminants and white LEDs for normal and colour deficient observers,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 30, 618–625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (1)

P. D. Pinto, P. E. R. Felgueiras, J. M. M. Linhares, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Chromatic effects of metamers of D65 on art paintings,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 632–637 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B (1)

H. J. A. Dartnall, J. K. Bowmaker, and J. D. Mollon, “Human visual pigments: microspectrophotometric results from the eyes of seven persons,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 220, 115–130 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Toward an improved color rendering metric,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 59411G1 (2005).

Rev. Opt. Theor. Instrum. (1)

Y. Le Grand, “Les seuils différentiels de couleurs dans la théorie de Young,” Rev. Opt. Theor. Instrum. 28, 261–278 (1949).

Vision Res. (4)

J. Krauskopf and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Color discrimination and adaptation,” Vision Res. 32, 2165–2175 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Stockman and L. T. Sharpe, “Spectral sensitivities of the middle- and long-wavelength sensitive cones derived from measurements in observers of known genotype,” Vision Res. 40, 1711–1737 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Stockman, L. T. Sharpe, and C. C. Fach, “The spectral sensitivity of the human short-wavelength cones,” Vision Res. 39, 2901–2927 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bone, J. T Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vision Res. 32, 105–110 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

N. Oi and H. Takahashi, “Preferred combinations between illuminance and color temperature in several settings for daily living activities,” in Proceedings of the 26th Session of the CIE (CIE, 2007), pp. D3–178.

F. Viénot, E. Mahler, L. Serreault, M. Harrar, J. J. Ezrati, P. Pérignon, and A. Bricoune, “Discriminating colours under LED illumination,” in Proceedings of AIC Colour (AIC, 2005), pp. 33–36.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SPD of the CIE D65 simulator light source used in the present work.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Chromaticity coordinates in the a*b* plane of the 20 sample pairs illuminated with the CIE D65 simulator. Corresponding elements of each pair of samples are represented by a cross and by a disc. The inset is an enlargement of the central zone of the plane that includes the greatest number of samples.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SPD of the three configurations of the RGBA LED light source used in the present work: 2800 K, 5000 K, 6500 K.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Relative SPD of the three configurations of the RGBA LED 5000 K light source used in the present work with different luminances: 55.61, 98.91, and 182.11cd/m2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Evolution of the chromaticity coordinates of the unequal sample pairs in the a*b* plane with changes in the light source: (a) 2800 K; (b) 5000 K; (c) 6500 K. Corresponding elements of each pair of samples are represented by a cross and by a disc.

Tables (3)

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Table 1. NCS Sample Pairs Conforming the Tests, Together with the Color Differences between the Samples of Each Pair Calculated for the Five RGBA Light Sources

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Table 2. Luminance and Color Temperature Values of the Five Light Source Configurations Plus CIE D65 Simulator, and the Corresponding Percentages of Correct Responses Given by the Full Sample of Observers and by the Subgroup of Best Observers

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Table 3. Statistical Analysis of the Results Divided by Correlated Color Temperature and Luminance and Distinguishing between Equal and Different Sample Pairs

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