Abstract

We analyzed mesopic rod and S-cone interactions in terms of their contributions to the blue–yellow opponent pathway. Stimuli were generated using a four-primary colorimeter. Mixed rod and S-cone modulation thresholds (constant L-, M-cone excitation) were measured as a function of their phase difference. Modulation amplitude was equated using threshold units and contrast ratios. This study identified three interaction types: (1) a linear and antagonistic rod:S-cone interaction, (2) probability summation, and (3) a previously unidentified mutual nonlinear reinforcement. Linear rod:S-cone interactions occur within the blue–yellow opponent pathway. Probability summation involves signaling by different postreceptoral pathways. The origin of the nonlinear reinforcement is possibly at the photoreceptors.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2010

D. Cao, B. B. Lee, and H. Sun, “Combination of rod and cone inputs in parasol ganglion cells of the magnocellular pathway,” J. Vis. 10, 4 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, P. H. Li, J. L. Schnapf, and D. M. Dacey, “Blue-yellow opponency in primate S cone photoreceptors,” J. Neurosci. 30, 568–572 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Field, J. L. Gauthier, A. Sher, M. Greschner, T. A. Machado, L. H. Jepson, J. Shlens, D. E. Gunning, K. Mathieson, W. Dabrowski, L. Paninski, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “Functional connectivity in the retina at the resolution of photoreceptors,” Nature 467, 673–677 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and U. Grunert, “Retinal connectivity and primate vision,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 29, 622–639 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

C. Ripamonti, W. L. Woo, E. Crowther, and A. Stockman, “The S-cone contribution to luminance depends on the M- and L-cone adaptation levels: silent surrounds?” J. Vis. 9, 10 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue-yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

D. Cao, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and A. J. Zele, “Rod contributions to color perception: linear with rod contrast,” Vision Res. 48, 2586–2592 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Chromatic discrimination in the presence of incremental and decremental rod pedestals,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 399–404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Zele, D. Cao, and J. Pokorny, “Rod-cone interactions and the temporal impulse response of the cone pathway,” Vis. Res. 48, 2593–2598 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Shinomori and J. S. Werner, “The impulse response of S-cone pathways in detection of increments and decrements,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 341–347 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, B. B. Lee, and D. M. Dacey, “Sequential processing in vision: the interaction of sensitivity regulation and temporal dynamics,” Vis. Res. 48, 2649–2656 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Linking impulse response functions to reaction time: rod and cone reaction time data and a computational model,” Vis. Res. 47, 1060–1074 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Zele, D. Cao, and J. Pokorny, “Threshold units: a correct metric for reaction time?” Vision Res. 47, 608–611 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Zele and A. J. Vingrys, “Defining the detection mechanisms for symmetric and rectified flicker stimuli,” Vis. Res. 47, 2700–2713 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Dark-adapted rod suppression of cone flicker detection: evaluation of receptoral and postreceptoral interactions,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 531–537 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, M. Lutze, D. Cao, and A. J. Zele, “The color of night: Surface color perception under dim illuminations,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 525–530 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

D. Cao, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Matching rod percepts with cone stimuli,” Vis. Res. 45, 2119–2128 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Puts, J. Pokorny, J. Quinlan, and L. Glennie, “Audiophile hardware in vision science; the soundcard as a digital to analog converter,” J. Neurosci. Methods 142, 77–81 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

J. Pokorny, H. Smithson, and J. Quinlan, “Photostimulator allowing independent control of rods and the three cone types,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 263–267 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kaplan, “The M, P, and K pathways of the primate visual system,” in The Visual Neurosciences, L.M.Chalupa and J.S.Werner, eds. (MIT, 2004), pp. 481–493.

S. L. Buck, “Rod-cone interactions in human vision,” in The Visual Neurosciences, L.M.Chalupa and J.S.Werner, eds. (MIT, 2004), pp. 863–878.

H. E. Smithson and J. D. Mollon, “Is the S-opponent chromatic sub-system sluggish?” Vis. Res. 44, 2919–2929 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

D. J. McKeefry, N. R. Parry, and I. J. Murray, “Simple reaction times in color space: the influence of chromaticity, contrast, and cone opponency,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 2267–2276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. Knight, S. L. Buck, and M. Pereverzeva, “Stimulus size affects rod influence on tritan chromatic discrimination,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S65–S68 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Sun, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Control of the modulation of human photoreceptors,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S69–S75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Sun, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Brightness induction from rods,” J. Vis. 1, 32–41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Sun, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Rod-cone interactions assessed in inferred magnocellular and parvocellular postreceptoral pathways,” J. Vis. 1, 42–54 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, “What is the hue of rod vision?” Color Res. Appl. 26, S57–S59 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Kremers and S. Meierkord, “Rod–cone-interactions in deuteranopic observers: models and dynamics,” Vis. Res. 39, 3372–3385 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Chichilnisky and D. A. Baylor, “Receptive-field microstructure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 2, 889–893 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Sterling, “Deciphering the retina’s wiring diagram,” Nat. Neurosci. 2, 851–853 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kremers, T. Usui, H. P. Scholl, and L. T. Sharpe, “Cone signal contributions to electroretinograms in dichromats and trichromats,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 920–930(1999).
[PubMed]

1998

S. Weiss, J. Kremers, and J. Maurer, “Interaction between rod and cone signals in responses of lateral geniculate neurons in dichromatic marmosets (Callithrix jacchus),” Vis. Neurosci. 15, 931–943 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. Cottaris and R. L. De Valois, “Temporal dynamics of chromatic tuning in macaque primary visual cortex,” Nature 395, 896–900 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, G. Fowler, and B. Hunt, “Rod influence on hue-scaling functions,” Vis. Res. 38, 3259–3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Knight, S. L. Buck, G. A. Fowler, and A. Nguyen, “Rods affect S-cone discrimination on the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test,” Vis. Res. 38, 3477–3481 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. L. Buck, E. Sanocki, and R. Knight, “Do rod signals add with S cone signals in increment detection?” in Colour Vision Deficiencies, C.R.Cavonius, ed. (Kluwer, 1997), pp. 451–458.
[CrossRef]

B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 37, 2813–2828 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Lange, N. Denny, and T. E. Frumkes, “Suppressive rod–cone interactions: evidence for separate retinal (temporal) and extraretinal (spatial) mechanisms in achromatic vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2487–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. G. Shapiro, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Cone-rod receptor spaces, with illustrations that use CRT phosphor and light-emitting-diode spectra,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2319–2328(1996).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Dacey, B. B. Lee, D. K. Stafford, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Horizontal cells of the primate retina: cone specificity without spectral opponency,” Science 271, 656–659(1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “The design and use of a cone chromaticity space,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 375–383 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Naarendorp, K. S. Rice, and P. A. Sieving, “Summation of rod and S cone signals at threshold in human observers,” Vis. Res. 36, 2681–2688 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

1994

D. M. Dacey and B. B. Lee, “The ‘blue-on’ opponent pathway in primate retina originates from a distinct bistratified ganglion cell type,” Nature 367, 731–735 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Buck and R. Knight, “Partial additivity of rod signals with M- and L-cone signals in increment detection,” Vis. Res. 34, 2537–2545 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

D. M. Dacey, “Morphology of a small-field bistratified ganglion cell type in the macaque and human retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 10, 1081–1098 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

V. C. Smith, B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Responses of macaque ganglion cells to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights,” J. Physiol. 458, 191–221(1992).
[PubMed]

1991

1990

B. B. Lee, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, P. R. Martin, and A. Valberg, “Luminance and chromatic modulation sensitivity of macaque ganglion cells and human observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 2223–2236 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Purpura, D. Tranchina, E. Kaplan, and R. M. Shapley, “Light adaptation in the primate retina: analysis of changes in gain and dynamics of monkey retinal ganglion cells,” Vis. Neurosci. 4, 75–93 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Schnapf, B. J. Nunn, M. Meister, and D. A. Baylor, “Visual transduction in cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. 427, 681–713 (1990).
[PubMed]

N. W. Daw, E. J. Jensen, and W. J. Bunken, “Rod pathways in the mammalian retinae,” Trends Neurosci. 13, 110–115 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage, “Mesopic photometry: history, special problems and practical solutions. Publ. CIE No. 81,” TC 1-01 (Bureau Central de la Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage, 1989).

N. V. S. Graham, Visual Pattern Analyzers (Oxford University, 1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

1984

M. W. Levine and L. J. Frishman, “Interactions between rod and cone channels: a model that includes inhibition,” Vis. Res. 24, 513–516 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

V. Virsu and B. B. Lee, “Light adaptation in cells of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus and its relation to human light adaptation,” J. Neurophysiol. 50, 864–878 (1983).
[PubMed]

1982

N. Benimoff, S. Schneider, and D. C. Hood, “Interactions between rod and cone channels above threshold: a test of various models,” Vis. Res. 22, 1133–1140 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Drum, “Summation of rod and cone responses at absolute threshold,” Vis. Res. 22, 823–826 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

1977

T. J. T. P. van den Berg and H. Spekreijse, “Interaction between rod and cone signals studied with temporal sine wave stimulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1210–1217 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Virsu, B. B. Lee, and O. D. Creutzfeldt, “Dark adaptation and receptive field organisation of cells in the cat lateral geniculate nucleus,” Exp. Brain Res. 27, 35–50 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Chromatic rod vision. II. Wavelength of pre-stimulation varied,” Scand. J. Psychol. 12, 282–288(1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970

P. W. Trezona, “Rod participation in the ‘blue’ mechanism and its effect on colour matching,” Vis. Res. 10, 317–332 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and R. Swartley, “Threshold measurements of spectral sensitivity in a blue monocone monochromat,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 9, 807–813 (1970).

1969

E. A. Hough and K. H. Ruddock, “The parafoveal visual response of a tritanope and an interpretation of the Vλ sensitivity functions of mesopic vision,” Vis. Res. 9, 935–946 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Hough and K. H. Ruddock, “The Purkinje shift,” Vis. Res. 9, 313–315 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, and R. T. Marrocco, “On luminance additivity and related topics,” Vis. Res. 9, 537–575 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968

E. A. Hough, “The spectral sensitivity functions for parafoveal vision,” Vis. Res. 8, 1423–1430 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966

T. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, “Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115–1156 (1966).
[PubMed]

1965

M. Alpern, G. B. Lee, and B. E. Spivey, “Pi-1 cone monochromatism,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 74, 334–337 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1964

R. M. Boynton, M. Ikeda, and W. S. Stiles, “Interactions among chromatic mechanisms as inferred from positive and negative increment thresholds,” Vis. Res. 4, 87–117 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1963

I. Lie, “Dark adaptation and the photochromatic interval,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 17, 411–510 (1963).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1961

H. R. Blackwell and O. M. Blackwell, “Rod and cone receptor mechanisms in typical and atypical congenital achromatopsia,” Vis. Res. 1, 62–107 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1949

E. N. Willmer, “Low threshold rods and the perception of blue,” J. Physiol. 111, 10–20, Abstract 17P (1949).

1924

W. Nagel, “Appendix: adaptation, twilight vision and the duplicity theory,” in Helmholtz’s Treatise on Physiological Optics. Translated from the Third German Edition by J. P. C. Southall, 3rd German ed. (Optical Society of America, 1924), pp. 313–343.

1825

J. Purkinje, Beobachtungen und Versuche zur Physiologie der Sinne. Neue Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Sehens in subjectiver Hinsicht (Reimer, 1825).

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern, G. B. Lee, and B. E. Spivey, “Pi-1 cone monochromatism,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 74, 334–337 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baylor, D. A.

E. J. Chichilnisky and D. A. Baylor, “Receptive-field microstructure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 2, 889–893 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Schnapf, B. J. Nunn, M. Meister, and D. A. Baylor, “Visual transduction in cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis,” J. Physiol. 427, 681–713 (1990).
[PubMed]

Benimoff, N.

N. Benimoff, S. Schneider, and D. C. Hood, “Interactions between rod and cone channels above threshold: a test of various models,” Vis. Res. 22, 1133–1140 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blackwell, H. R.

H. R. Blackwell and O. M. Blackwell, “Rod and cone receptor mechanisms in typical and atypical congenital achromatopsia,” Vis. Res. 1, 62–107 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Blackwell, O. M.

H. R. Blackwell and O. M. Blackwell, “Rod and cone receptor mechanisms in typical and atypical congenital achromatopsia,” Vis. Res. 1, 62–107 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, M. Ikeda, and W. S. Stiles, “Interactions among chromatic mechanisms as inferred from positive and negative increment thresholds,” Vis. Res. 4, 87–117 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buck, S. L.

S. L. Buck, “Rod-cone interactions in human vision,” in The Visual Neurosciences, L.M.Chalupa and J.S.Werner, eds. (MIT, 2004), pp. 863–878.

S. L. Buck, “What is the hue of rod vision?” Color Res. Appl. 26, S57–S59 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Knight, S. L. Buck, and M. Pereverzeva, “Stimulus size affects rod influence on tritan chromatic discrimination,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S65–S68 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, G. Fowler, and B. Hunt, “Rod influence on hue-scaling functions,” Vis. Res. 38, 3259–3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Knight, S. L. Buck, G. A. Fowler, and A. Nguyen, “Rods affect S-cone discrimination on the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test,” Vis. Res. 38, 3477–3481 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, E. Sanocki, and R. Knight, “Do rod signals add with S cone signals in increment detection?” in Colour Vision Deficiencies, C.R.Cavonius, ed. (Kluwer, 1997), pp. 451–458.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck and R. Knight, “Partial additivity of rod signals with M- and L-cone signals in increment detection,” Vis. Res. 34, 2537–2545 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Buck and R. Knight, “Test-additivity experiments: different procedures, different results,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 696–698(1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bunken, W. J.

N. W. Daw, E. J. Jensen, and W. J. Bunken, “Rod pathways in the mammalian retinae,” Trends Neurosci. 13, 110–115 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, D.

D. Cao, B. B. Lee, and H. Sun, “Combination of rod and cone inputs in parasol ganglion cells of the magnocellular pathway,” J. Vis. 10, 4 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Zele, D. Cao, and J. Pokorny, “Rod-cone interactions and the temporal impulse response of the cone pathway,” Vis. Res. 48, 2593–2598 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Chromatic discrimination in the presence of incremental and decremental rod pedestals,” Vis. Neurosci. 25, 399–404 (2008).
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D. Cao, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and A. J. Zele, “Rod contributions to color perception: linear with rod contrast,” Vision Res. 48, 2586–2592 (2008).
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D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Linking impulse response functions to reaction time: rod and cone reaction time data and a computational model,” Vis. Res. 47, 1060–1074 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Zele, D. Cao, and J. Pokorny, “Threshold units: a correct metric for reaction time?” Vision Res. 47, 608–611 (2007).
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J. Pokorny, M. Lutze, D. Cao, and A. J. Zele, “The color of night: Surface color perception under dim illuminations,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 525–530 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Dark-adapted rod suppression of cone flicker detection: evaluation of receptoral and postreceptoral interactions,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 531–537 (2006).
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D. Cao, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Matching rod percepts with cone stimuli,” Vis. Res. 45, 2119–2128 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chichilnisky, E. J.

G. D. Field, J. L. Gauthier, A. Sher, M. Greschner, T. A. Machado, L. H. Jepson, J. Shlens, D. E. Gunning, K. Mathieson, W. Dabrowski, L. Paninski, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “Functional connectivity in the retina at the resolution of photoreceptors,” Nature 467, 673–677 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue-yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Chichilnisky and D. A. Baylor, “Receptive-field microstructure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 2, 889–893 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cottaris, N. P.

N. P. Cottaris and R. L. De Valois, “Temporal dynamics of chromatic tuning in macaque primary visual cortex,” Nature 395, 896–900 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Creutzfeldt, O. D.

V. Virsu, B. B. Lee, and O. D. Creutzfeldt, “Dark adaptation and receptive field organisation of cells in the cat lateral geniculate nucleus,” Exp. Brain Res. 27, 35–50 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crook, J. D.

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crowther, E.

C. Ripamonti, W. L. Woo, E. Crowther, and A. Stockman, “The S-cone contribution to luminance depends on the M- and L-cone adaptation levels: silent surrounds?” J. Vis. 9, 10 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dabrowski, W.

G. D. Field, J. L. Gauthier, A. Sher, M. Greschner, T. A. Machado, L. H. Jepson, J. Shlens, D. E. Gunning, K. Mathieson, W. Dabrowski, L. Paninski, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “Functional connectivity in the retina at the resolution of photoreceptors,” Nature 467, 673–677 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dacey, D. M.

O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, P. H. Li, J. L. Schnapf, and D. M. Dacey, “Blue-yellow opponency in primate S cone photoreceptors,” J. Neurosci. 30, 568–572 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, B. B. Lee, and D. M. Dacey, “Sequential processing in vision: the interaction of sensitivity regulation and temporal dynamics,” Vis. Res. 48, 2649–2656 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Dacey, B. B. Lee, D. K. Stafford, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Horizontal cells of the primate retina: cone specificity without spectral opponency,” Science 271, 656–659(1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Dacey and B. B. Lee, “The ‘blue-on’ opponent pathway in primate retina originates from a distinct bistratified ganglion cell type,” Nature 367, 731–735 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Dacey, “Morphology of a small-field bistratified ganglion cell type in the macaque and human retina,” Vis. Neurosci. 10, 1081–1098 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davenport, C. M.

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daw, N. W.

N. W. Daw, E. J. Jensen, and W. J. Bunken, “Rod pathways in the mammalian retinae,” Trends Neurosci. 13, 110–115 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Valois, R. L.

N. P. Cottaris and R. L. De Valois, “Temporal dynamics of chromatic tuning in macaque primary visual cortex,” Nature 395, 896–900 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denny, N.

Detwiler, P. B.

J. D. Crook, C. M. Davenport, B. B. Peterson, O. S. Packer, P. B. Detwiler, and D. M. Dacey, “Parallel ON and OFF cone bipolar inputs establish spatially coextensive receptive field structure of blue-yellow ganglion cells in primate retina,” J. Neurosci. 29, 8372–8387 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donley, N. J.

S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, and R. T. Marrocco, “On luminance additivity and related topics,” Vis. Res. 9, 537–575 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drum, B.

B. Drum, “Summation of rod and cone responses at absolute threshold,” Vis. Res. 22, 823–826 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Field, G. D.

G. D. Field, J. L. Gauthier, A. Sher, M. Greschner, T. A. Machado, L. H. Jepson, J. Shlens, D. E. Gunning, K. Mathieson, W. Dabrowski, L. Paninski, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “Functional connectivity in the retina at the resolution of photoreceptors,” Nature 467, 673–677 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue-yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fowler, G.

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, G. Fowler, and B. Hunt, “Rod influence on hue-scaling functions,” Vis. Res. 38, 3259–3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fowler, G. A.

R. Knight, S. L. Buck, G. A. Fowler, and A. Nguyen, “Rods affect S-cone discrimination on the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test,” Vis. Res. 38, 3477–3481 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Frishman, L. J.

M. W. Levine and L. J. Frishman, “Interactions between rod and cone channels: a model that includes inhibition,” Vis. Res. 24, 513–516 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frumkes, T. E.

Gauthier, J. L.

G. D. Field, J. L. Gauthier, A. Sher, M. Greschner, T. A. Machado, L. H. Jepson, J. Shlens, D. E. Gunning, K. Mathieson, W. Dabrowski, L. Paninski, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “Functional connectivity in the retina at the resolution of photoreceptors,” Nature 467, 673–677 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue-yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glennie, L.

M. J. Puts, J. Pokorny, J. Quinlan, and L. Glennie, “Audiophile hardware in vision science; the soundcard as a digital to analog converter,” J. Neurosci. Methods 142, 77–81 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graham, N. V. S.

N. V. S. Graham, Visual Pattern Analyzers (Oxford University, 1989).
[CrossRef]

Greschner, M.

G. D. Field, J. L. Gauthier, A. Sher, M. Greschner, T. A. Machado, L. H. Jepson, J. Shlens, D. E. Gunning, K. Mathieson, W. Dabrowski, L. Paninski, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “Functional connectivity in the retina at the resolution of photoreceptors,” Nature 467, 673–677 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Field, M. Greschner, J. L. Gauthier, C. Rangel, J. Shlens, A. Sher, D. W. Marshak, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “High-sensitivity rod photoreceptor input to the blue-yellow color opponent pathway in macaque retina,” Nat. Neurosci. 12, 1159–1164 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grunert, U.

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and U. Grunert, “Retinal connectivity and primate vision,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 29, 622–639 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gunning, D. E.

G. D. Field, J. L. Gauthier, A. Sher, M. Greschner, T. A. Machado, L. H. Jepson, J. Shlens, D. E. Gunning, K. Mathieson, W. Dabrowski, L. Paninski, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “Functional connectivity in the retina at the resolution of photoreceptors,” Nature 467, 673–677 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guth, S. L.

S. L. Guth, N. J. Donley, and R. T. Marrocco, “On luminance additivity and related topics,” Vis. Res. 9, 537–575 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hood, D. C.

N. Benimoff, S. Schneider, and D. C. Hood, “Interactions between rod and cone channels above threshold: a test of various models,” Vis. Res. 22, 1133–1140 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hough, E. A.

E. A. Hough and K. H. Ruddock, “The parafoveal visual response of a tritanope and an interpretation of the Vλ sensitivity functions of mesopic vision,” Vis. Res. 9, 935–946 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Hough and K. H. Ruddock, “The Purkinje shift,” Vis. Res. 9, 313–315 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Hough, “The spectral sensitivity functions for parafoveal vision,” Vis. Res. 8, 1423–1430 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hubel, D. H.

T. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, “Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115–1156 (1966).
[PubMed]

Hunt, B.

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, G. Fowler, and B. Hunt, “Rod influence on hue-scaling functions,” Vis. Res. 38, 3259–3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, M.

R. M. Boynton, M. Ikeda, and W. S. Stiles, “Interactions among chromatic mechanisms as inferred from positive and negative increment thresholds,” Vis. Res. 4, 87–117 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jensen, E. J.

N. W. Daw, E. J. Jensen, and W. J. Bunken, “Rod pathways in the mammalian retinae,” Trends Neurosci. 13, 110–115 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jepson, L. H.

G. D. Field, J. L. Gauthier, A. Sher, M. Greschner, T. A. Machado, L. H. Jepson, J. Shlens, D. E. Gunning, K. Mathieson, W. Dabrowski, L. Paninski, A. M. Litke, and E. J. Chichilnisky, “Functional connectivity in the retina at the resolution of photoreceptors,” Nature 467, 673–677 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaplan, E.

E. Kaplan, “The M, P, and K pathways of the primate visual system,” in The Visual Neurosciences, L.M.Chalupa and J.S.Werner, eds. (MIT, 2004), pp. 481–493.

K. Purpura, D. Tranchina, E. Kaplan, and R. M. Shapley, “Light adaptation in the primate retina: analysis of changes in gain and dynamics of monkey retinal ganglion cells,” Vis. Neurosci. 4, 75–93 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, R.

R. Knight, S. L. Buck, and M. Pereverzeva, “Stimulus size affects rod influence on tritan chromatic discrimination,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S65–S68 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Knight, S. L. Buck, G. A. Fowler, and A. Nguyen, “Rods affect S-cone discrimination on the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test,” Vis. Res. 38, 3477–3481 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, R. Knight, G. Fowler, and B. Hunt, “Rod influence on hue-scaling functions,” Vis. Res. 38, 3259–3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, E. Sanocki, and R. Knight, “Do rod signals add with S cone signals in increment detection?” in Colour Vision Deficiencies, C.R.Cavonius, ed. (Kluwer, 1997), pp. 451–458.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck and R. Knight, “Partial additivity of rod signals with M- and L-cone signals in increment detection,” Vis. Res. 34, 2537–2545 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Buck and R. Knight, “Test-additivity experiments: different procedures, different results,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 696–698(1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kremers, J.

J. Kremers and S. Meierkord, “Rod–cone-interactions in deuteranopic observers: models and dynamics,” Vis. Res. 39, 3372–3385 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kremers, T. Usui, H. P. Scholl, and L. T. Sharpe, “Cone signal contributions to electroretinograms in dichromats and trichromats,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 920–930(1999).
[PubMed]

S. Weiss, J. Kremers, and J. Maurer, “Interaction between rod and cone signals in responses of lateral geniculate neurons in dichromatic marmosets (Callithrix jacchus),” Vis. Neurosci. 15, 931–943 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vis. Res. 37, 2813–2828 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Yeh, B. B. Lee, and J. Kremers, “The temporal response of ganglion cells of the macaque retina to cone-specific modulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 456–464 (1995).
[CrossRef]

l’Éclairage, Commission Internationale de

Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage, “Mesopic photometry: history, special problems and practical solutions. Publ. CIE No. 81,” TC 1-01 (Bureau Central de la Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage, 1989).

Lange, G.

Lee, B. B.

D. Cao, B. B. Lee, and H. Sun, “Combination of rod and cone inputs in parasol ganglion cells of the magnocellular pathway,” J. Vis. 10, 4 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. B. Lee, P. R. Martin, and U. Grunert, “Retinal connectivity and primate vision,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 29, 622–639 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, B. B. Lee, and D. M. Dacey, “Sequential processing in vision: the interaction of sensitivity regulation and temporal dynamics,” Vis. Res. 48, 2649–2656 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental paradigms. Schematic of the relative phase differences between rod (black dotted curves) and S-cone (blue dashed curves) modulations for the phase paradigm (Experiment 1, top) and contrast ratio paradigm (Experiments 2, bottom). In the phase paradigm, threshold ratio ( 1 1 TU) defines the relative amplitude of the two modulation types. In the contrast ratio paradigm, Michelson contrast ratio ( 0.5 1 , 1 1 , 2 1 ) defines the photoreceptor modulation amplitudes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Model predictions for the phase paradigm. In Experiment 1, the rod and S-cone modulations were maintained in a constant ratio of 1 1 TU as a function of the phase difference (degrees) between the photoreceptor modulations. Two outcomes were tested. For linear summation (within-pathway summation), threshold is dependent on the phase difference between the mixed photoreceptor modulations. Three predictions are shown for linear summation. The dashed curve (blue) shows linear summation ( phase = 30 ° ) with a threshold ratio (TR) less than 1 ( TR < 1.0 ; subadditivity). The solid curve (black) shows linear summation ( phase = 30 ° ) with a TR larger than 1 ( TR > 1.0 ; supra-additivity). The dotted curve (red) shows linear summation ( phase = 180 ° ; TR < 1.0 ). In these examples, the difference between the 30 ° and 180 ° phase difference is due to antagonistic interaction. For probability summation (gray dashed-dotted line; c = 0.75 ), threshold is independent of the phase difference between the mixed photoreceptor modulations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Thresholds for combined rod and S-cone modulation as a function of their relative phase difference (degrees) at 20 photopic Td with an equiluminant surround (Experiment 1). Symbols show the data ( mean ± standard deviation) for the three observers (diamonds, AJZ; squares JK; circles, MLM). The curves show the best-fitting models (linear summation, AJZ and JK; probability summation, MLM). Error bars are smaller than some symbols.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Thresholds for combined rod and S-cone modulation as a function of the Michelson contrast ratio ( 0.5 1 , 1 1 , 2 1 , rod alone, S-cone alone) for two phases ( 0 ° and 180 ° ) at 20 photopic Td with an equiluminant surround (Experiment 2). Symbols show the mean data (average standard deviation = 0.0059 % ) for the three observers (diamonds and solid curve, AJZ; squares and dashed curve JK; circles and dotted curve, MLM).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Threshold Contrasts and Vector Summation Model Parameters

Equations (1)

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R = 1 ( r 2 + s 2 2 · r · s · cos ( ϕ ϕ r s ) ) ,

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