Abstract

This study investigated the mechanisms of flicker detection suppression by measuring mesopic rod and cone critical flicker frequencies (CFFs) at different center and surround illuminance levels. Stimuli were generated with a four-primary photostimulator that provided independent control of rod and cone excitations. The results showed that dim surrounds 0.2Td suppressed cone-mediated CFFs at 20Td but not rod-mediated CFFs. These results can be understood in terms of peak amplitudes of photoreceptor impulse response functions under different stimulation conditions.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. W. Daw, E. J. Jensen, and W. J. Brunken, “Rod pathways in the mammalian retinae,” Trends Neurosci. 13, 110–115 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. T. Sharpe and A. Stockman, “Rod pathways: the importance of seeing nothing,” Trends Neurosci. 22, 497–504 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Verweij, B. B. Peterson, D. M. Dacey, and S. L. Buck, “Sensitivity and dynamics of rod signals in H1 horizontal cells of the macaque monkey retina,” Vis. Res. 39, 3662–3672 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Soucy, Y. Wang, S. Nirenberg, J. Nathans, and M. Meister, “A novel signaling pathway from rod photoreceptors to ganglion cells in mammalian retina,” Neuron 21, 481–493 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. L. Buck, “Rod–cone interaction in human vision,” in The Visual Neuroscience, L. M. Chalupa and J. S. Werner, eds. (MIT, 2004), pp. 863–878.
  6. S. H. Goldberg, T. E. Frumkes, and R. W. Nygaard, “Inhibitory influence of unstimulated rods in the human retina: evidence provided by examining cone flicker,” Science 221, 180–182 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. J. Coletta and A. J. Adams, “Rod–cone interaction in flicker detection,” Vis. Res. 24, 1333–1340 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. R. Alexander and G. A. Fishman, “Rod–cone interaction in flicker perimetry,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 68, 303–309 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. J. Lythgoe and K. Tansley, “The relation of the critical frequency of flicker to the adaptation of the eye,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B 105, 60–92 (1929).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Dark-adapted rod suppression of cone flicker detection: evaluation of receptoral and postreceptoral interactions,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 531–537 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. J. Zele, D. Cao, and J. Pokorny, “Rod–cone interactions and the cone pathway temporal impulse response,” Vis. Res. 48, 2593–2598 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Pokorny, H. Smithson, and J. Quinlan, “Photostimulator allowing independent control of rods and the three cone types,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 263–267 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, “The “silent substitution” method in visual research,” Vis. Res. 22, 681–691 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. G. Shapiro, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Cone–rod receptor spaces, with illustrations that use CRT phosphor and light-emitting-diode spectra,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2319–2328 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. J. H. Puts, J. Pokorny, J. Quinlan, and L. Glennie, “Audiophile hardware in vision science; the soundcard as a digital to analog converter,” J. Neurosci. Methods 142, 77–81 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. H. Swanson, T. Ueno, V. C. Smith, and J. Pokorny, “Temporal modulation sensitivity and pulse detection thresholds for chromatic and luminance perturbations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1992–2005 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Cao, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Matching rod percepts with cone stimuli,” Vis. Res. 45, 2119–2128 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “The design and use of a cone chromaticity space,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 375–383 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Effects of rod activity on colour threshold,” Vis. Res. 16, 1105–1110 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Linking impulse response functions to reaction time: rod and cone reaction time data and a computational model,” Vis. Res. 47, 1060–1074 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. B. Watson, “Temporal sensitivity,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, and J. P. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, 1986).
  22. S. G. Solomon, P. R. Martin, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and B. B. Lee, “Modulation sensitivity of ganglion cells in peripheral retina of macaque,” Vis. Res. 42, 2893–2898 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Pokorny and D. Cao, “Rod and cone contributions to mesopic vision,” in Proceedings of CIE 2010 Lighting Quality & Energy Efficiency (CIE, 2010), pp. 9–20.
  24. A. Stockman, L. T. Sharpe, E. Zrenner, and K. Nordby, “Slow and fast pathways in the human rod visual system: electrophysiology and psychophysics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1657–1665 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  25. L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, and D. I. MacLeod, “Rod flicker perception: scotopic duality, phase lags and destructive interference,” Vis. Res. 29, 1539–1559 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. E. Frumkes and T. Eysteinsson, “Suppressive rod–cone interaction in distal vertebrate retina: intracellular records from Xenopus and Necturus,” J. Neurophysiol. 57, 1361–1382 (1987).
  27. T. E. Frumkes and T. Eysteinsson, “The cellular basis for suppressive rod–cone interaction,” Vis. Neurosci. 1, 263–273 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. A. Bloomfield and R. F. Dacheux, “Rod vision: pathways and processing in the mammalian retina,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 20, 351–384 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. J. Zele, D. Cao, and J. Pokorny, “Rod–cone interactions and the cone pathway temporal impulse response,” Vis. Res. 48, 2593–2598 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Linking impulse response functions to reaction time: rod and cone reaction time data and a computational model,” Vis. Res. 47, 1060–1074 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Dark-adapted rod suppression of cone flicker detection: evaluation of receptoral and postreceptoral interactions,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 531–537 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

D. Cao, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Matching rod percepts with cone stimuli,” Vis. Res. 45, 2119–2128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. J. H. Puts, J. Pokorny, J. Quinlan, and L. Glennie, “Audiophile hardware in vision science; the soundcard as a digital to analog converter,” J. Neurosci. Methods 142, 77–81 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Pokorny, H. Smithson, and J. Quinlan, “Photostimulator allowing independent control of rods and the three cone types,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 263–267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. G. Solomon, P. R. Martin, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and B. B. Lee, “Modulation sensitivity of ganglion cells in peripheral retina of macaque,” Vis. Res. 42, 2893–2898 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. A. Bloomfield and R. F. Dacheux, “Rod vision: pathways and processing in the mammalian retina,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 20, 351–384 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

L. T. Sharpe and A. Stockman, “Rod pathways: the importance of seeing nothing,” Trends Neurosci. 22, 497–504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Verweij, B. B. Peterson, D. M. Dacey, and S. L. Buck, “Sensitivity and dynamics of rod signals in H1 horizontal cells of the macaque monkey retina,” Vis. Res. 39, 3662–3672 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

E. Soucy, Y. Wang, S. Nirenberg, J. Nathans, and M. Meister, “A novel signaling pathway from rod photoreceptors to ganglion cells in mammalian retina,” Neuron 21, 481–493 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

N. W. Daw, E. J. Jensen, and W. J. Brunken, “Rod pathways in the mammalian retinae,” Trends Neurosci. 13, 110–115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, and D. I. MacLeod, “Rod flicker perception: scotopic duality, phase lags and destructive interference,” Vis. Res. 29, 1539–1559 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

T. E. Frumkes and T. Eysteinsson, “The cellular basis for suppressive rod–cone interaction,” Vis. Neurosci. 1, 263–273 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

W. H. Swanson, T. Ueno, V. C. Smith, and J. Pokorny, “Temporal modulation sensitivity and pulse detection thresholds for chromatic and luminance perturbations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1992–2005 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Frumkes and T. Eysteinsson, “Suppressive rod–cone interaction in distal vertebrate retina: intracellular records from Xenopus and Necturus,” J. Neurophysiol. 57, 1361–1382 (1987).

1984 (2)

N. J. Coletta and A. J. Adams, “Rod–cone interaction in flicker detection,” Vis. Res. 24, 1333–1340 (1984).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Alexander and G. A. Fishman, “Rod–cone interaction in flicker perimetry,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 68, 303–309 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

S. H. Goldberg, T. E. Frumkes, and R. W. Nygaard, “Inhibitory influence of unstimulated rods in the human retina: evidence provided by examining cone flicker,” Science 221, 180–182 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, “The “silent substitution” method in visual research,” Vis. Res. 22, 681–691 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Effects of rod activity on colour threshold,” Vis. Res. 16, 1105–1110 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1929 (1)

R. J. Lythgoe and K. Tansley, “The relation of the critical frequency of flicker to the adaptation of the eye,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B 105, 60–92 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Adams, A. J.

N. J. Coletta and A. J. Adams, “Rod–cone interaction in flicker detection,” Vis. Res. 24, 1333–1340 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, K. R.

K. R. Alexander and G. A. Fishman, “Rod–cone interaction in flicker perimetry,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 68, 303–309 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bloomfield, S. A.

S. A. Bloomfield and R. F. Dacheux, “Rod vision: pathways and processing in the mammalian retina,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 20, 351–384 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brunken, W. J.

N. W. Daw, E. J. Jensen, and W. J. Brunken, “Rod pathways in the mammalian retinae,” Trends Neurosci. 13, 110–115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Buck, S. L.

J. Verweij, B. B. Peterson, D. M. Dacey, and S. L. Buck, “Sensitivity and dynamics of rod signals in H1 horizontal cells of the macaque monkey retina,” Vis. Res. 39, 3662–3672 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck, “Rod–cone interaction in human vision,” in The Visual Neuroscience, L. M. Chalupa and J. S. Werner, eds. (MIT, 2004), pp. 863–878.

Cao, D.

A. J. Zele, D. Cao, and J. Pokorny, “Rod–cone interactions and the cone pathway temporal impulse response,” Vis. Res. 48, 2593–2598 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Linking impulse response functions to reaction time: rod and cone reaction time data and a computational model,” Vis. Res. 47, 1060–1074 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Dark-adapted rod suppression of cone flicker detection: evaluation of receptoral and postreceptoral interactions,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 531–537 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Cao, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Matching rod percepts with cone stimuli,” Vis. Res. 45, 2119–2128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny and D. Cao, “Rod and cone contributions to mesopic vision,” in Proceedings of CIE 2010 Lighting Quality & Energy Efficiency (CIE, 2010), pp. 9–20.

Coletta, N. J.

N. J. Coletta and A. J. Adams, “Rod–cone interaction in flicker detection,” Vis. Res. 24, 1333–1340 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dacey, D. M.

J. Verweij, B. B. Peterson, D. M. Dacey, and S. L. Buck, “Sensitivity and dynamics of rod signals in H1 horizontal cells of the macaque monkey retina,” Vis. Res. 39, 3662–3672 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dacheux, R. F.

S. A. Bloomfield and R. F. Dacheux, “Rod vision: pathways and processing in the mammalian retina,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 20, 351–384 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Daw, N. W.

N. W. Daw, E. J. Jensen, and W. J. Brunken, “Rod pathways in the mammalian retinae,” Trends Neurosci. 13, 110–115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Estévez, O.

O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, “The “silent substitution” method in visual research,” Vis. Res. 22, 681–691 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Eysteinsson, T.

T. E. Frumkes and T. Eysteinsson, “The cellular basis for suppressive rod–cone interaction,” Vis. Neurosci. 1, 263–273 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Frumkes and T. Eysteinsson, “Suppressive rod–cone interaction in distal vertebrate retina: intracellular records from Xenopus and Necturus,” J. Neurophysiol. 57, 1361–1382 (1987).

Fishman, G. A.

K. R. Alexander and G. A. Fishman, “Rod–cone interaction in flicker perimetry,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 68, 303–309 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Frumkes, T. E.

T. E. Frumkes and T. Eysteinsson, “The cellular basis for suppressive rod–cone interaction,” Vis. Neurosci. 1, 263–273 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Frumkes and T. Eysteinsson, “Suppressive rod–cone interaction in distal vertebrate retina: intracellular records from Xenopus and Necturus,” J. Neurophysiol. 57, 1361–1382 (1987).

S. H. Goldberg, T. E. Frumkes, and R. W. Nygaard, “Inhibitory influence of unstimulated rods in the human retina: evidence provided by examining cone flicker,” Science 221, 180–182 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Glennie, L.

M. J. H. Puts, J. Pokorny, J. Quinlan, and L. Glennie, “Audiophile hardware in vision science; the soundcard as a digital to analog converter,” J. Neurosci. Methods 142, 77–81 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, S. H.

S. H. Goldberg, T. E. Frumkes, and R. W. Nygaard, “Inhibitory influence of unstimulated rods in the human retina: evidence provided by examining cone flicker,” Science 221, 180–182 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, E. J.

N. W. Daw, E. J. Jensen, and W. J. Brunken, “Rod pathways in the mammalian retinae,” Trends Neurosci. 13, 110–115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. B.

S. G. Solomon, P. R. Martin, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and B. B. Lee, “Modulation sensitivity of ganglion cells in peripheral retina of macaque,” Vis. Res. 42, 2893–2898 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lythgoe, R. J.

R. J. Lythgoe and K. Tansley, “The relation of the critical frequency of flicker to the adaptation of the eye,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B 105, 60–92 (1929).
[CrossRef]

MacLeod, D. I.

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, and D. I. MacLeod, “Rod flicker perception: scotopic duality, phase lags and destructive interference,” Vis. Res. 29, 1539–1559 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. R.

S. G. Solomon, P. R. Martin, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and B. B. Lee, “Modulation sensitivity of ganglion cells in peripheral retina of macaque,” Vis. Res. 42, 2893–2898 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meister, M.

E. Soucy, Y. Wang, S. Nirenberg, J. Nathans, and M. Meister, “A novel signaling pathway from rod photoreceptors to ganglion cells in mammalian retina,” Neuron 21, 481–493 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nathans, J.

E. Soucy, Y. Wang, S. Nirenberg, J. Nathans, and M. Meister, “A novel signaling pathway from rod photoreceptors to ganglion cells in mammalian retina,” Neuron 21, 481–493 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nirenberg, S.

E. Soucy, Y. Wang, S. Nirenberg, J. Nathans, and M. Meister, “A novel signaling pathway from rod photoreceptors to ganglion cells in mammalian retina,” Neuron 21, 481–493 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nordby, K.

Nygaard, R. W.

S. H. Goldberg, T. E. Frumkes, and R. W. Nygaard, “Inhibitory influence of unstimulated rods in the human retina: evidence provided by examining cone flicker,” Science 221, 180–182 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, B. B.

J. Verweij, B. B. Peterson, D. M. Dacey, and S. L. Buck, “Sensitivity and dynamics of rod signals in H1 horizontal cells of the macaque monkey retina,” Vis. Res. 39, 3662–3672 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pokorny, J.

A. J. Zele, D. Cao, and J. Pokorny, “Rod–cone interactions and the cone pathway temporal impulse response,” Vis. Res. 48, 2593–2598 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Linking impulse response functions to reaction time: rod and cone reaction time data and a computational model,” Vis. Res. 47, 1060–1074 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Dark-adapted rod suppression of cone flicker detection: evaluation of receptoral and postreceptoral interactions,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 531–537 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. J. H. Puts, J. Pokorny, J. Quinlan, and L. Glennie, “Audiophile hardware in vision science; the soundcard as a digital to analog converter,” J. Neurosci. Methods 142, 77–81 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Cao, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Matching rod percepts with cone stimuli,” Vis. Res. 45, 2119–2128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny, H. Smithson, and J. Quinlan, “Photostimulator allowing independent control of rods and the three cone types,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 263–267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “The design and use of a cone chromaticity space,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 375–383 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Shapiro, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Cone–rod receptor spaces, with illustrations that use CRT phosphor and light-emitting-diode spectra,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2319–2328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Swanson, T. Ueno, V. C. Smith, and J. Pokorny, “Temporal modulation sensitivity and pulse detection thresholds for chromatic and luminance perturbations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1992–2005 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny and D. Cao, “Rod and cone contributions to mesopic vision,” in Proceedings of CIE 2010 Lighting Quality & Energy Efficiency (CIE, 2010), pp. 9–20.

Puts, M. J. H.

M. J. H. Puts, J. Pokorny, J. Quinlan, and L. Glennie, “Audiophile hardware in vision science; the soundcard as a digital to analog converter,” J. Neurosci. Methods 142, 77–81 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Quinlan, J.

M. J. H. Puts, J. Pokorny, J. Quinlan, and L. Glennie, “Audiophile hardware in vision science; the soundcard as a digital to analog converter,” J. Neurosci. Methods 142, 77–81 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny, H. Smithson, and J. Quinlan, “Photostimulator allowing independent control of rods and the three cone types,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 263–267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rüttiger, L.

S. G. Solomon, P. R. Martin, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and B. B. Lee, “Modulation sensitivity of ganglion cells in peripheral retina of macaque,” Vis. Res. 42, 2893–2898 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, A. G.

Sharpe, L. T.

L. T. Sharpe and A. Stockman, “Rod pathways: the importance of seeing nothing,” Trends Neurosci. 22, 497–504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Stockman, L. T. Sharpe, E. Zrenner, and K. Nordby, “Slow and fast pathways in the human rod visual system: electrophysiology and psychophysics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1657–1665 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, and D. I. MacLeod, “Rod flicker perception: scotopic duality, phase lags and destructive interference,” Vis. Res. 29, 1539–1559 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Smith, V. C.

Smithson, H.

J. Pokorny, H. Smithson, and J. Quinlan, “Photostimulator allowing independent control of rods and the three cone types,” Vis. Neurosci. 21, 263–267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, S. G.

S. G. Solomon, P. R. Martin, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and B. B. Lee, “Modulation sensitivity of ganglion cells in peripheral retina of macaque,” Vis. Res. 42, 2893–2898 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soucy, E.

E. Soucy, Y. Wang, S. Nirenberg, J. Nathans, and M. Meister, “A novel signaling pathway from rod photoreceptors to ganglion cells in mammalian retina,” Neuron 21, 481–493 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spekreijse, H.

O. Estévez and H. Spekreijse, “The “silent substitution” method in visual research,” Vis. Res. 22, 681–691 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Stabell, B.

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Effects of rod activity on colour threshold,” Vis. Res. 16, 1105–1110 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Stabell, U.

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Effects of rod activity on colour threshold,” Vis. Res. 16, 1105–1110 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, A.

L. T. Sharpe and A. Stockman, “Rod pathways: the importance of seeing nothing,” Trends Neurosci. 22, 497–504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Stockman, L. T. Sharpe, E. Zrenner, and K. Nordby, “Slow and fast pathways in the human rod visual system: electrophysiology and psychophysics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1657–1665 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, and D. I. MacLeod, “Rod flicker perception: scotopic duality, phase lags and destructive interference,” Vis. Res. 29, 1539–1559 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, W. H.

Tansley, K.

R. J. Lythgoe and K. Tansley, “The relation of the critical frequency of flicker to the adaptation of the eye,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B 105, 60–92 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, T.

Verweij, J.

J. Verweij, B. B. Peterson, D. M. Dacey, and S. L. Buck, “Sensitivity and dynamics of rod signals in H1 horizontal cells of the macaque monkey retina,” Vis. Res. 39, 3662–3672 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

E. Soucy, Y. Wang, S. Nirenberg, J. Nathans, and M. Meister, “A novel signaling pathway from rod photoreceptors to ganglion cells in mammalian retina,” Neuron 21, 481–493 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Watson, A. B.

A. B. Watson, “Temporal sensitivity,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, and J. P. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, 1986).

White, A. J. R.

S. G. Solomon, P. R. Martin, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and B. B. Lee, “Modulation sensitivity of ganglion cells in peripheral retina of macaque,” Vis. Res. 42, 2893–2898 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zele, A. J.

A. J. Zele, D. Cao, and J. Pokorny, “Rod–cone interactions and the cone pathway temporal impulse response,” Vis. Res. 48, 2593–2598 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Linking impulse response functions to reaction time: rod and cone reaction time data and a computational model,” Vis. Res. 47, 1060–1074 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Dark-adapted rod suppression of cone flicker detection: evaluation of receptoral and postreceptoral interactions,” Vis. Neurosci. 23, 531–537 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zrenner, E.

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

K. R. Alexander and G. A. Fishman, “Rod–cone interaction in flicker perimetry,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 68, 303–309 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Color Res. Appl. (1)

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “The design and use of a cone chromaticity space,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 375–383 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

T. E. Frumkes and T. Eysteinsson, “Suppressive rod–cone interaction in distal vertebrate retina: intracellular records from Xenopus and Necturus,” J. Neurophysiol. 57, 1361–1382 (1987).

J. Neurosci. Methods (1)

M. J. H. Puts, J. Pokorny, J. Quinlan, and L. Glennie, “Audiophile hardware in vision science; the soundcard as a digital to analog converter,” J. Neurosci. Methods 142, 77–81 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Neuron (1)

E. Soucy, Y. Wang, S. Nirenberg, J. Nathans, and M. Meister, “A novel signaling pathway from rod photoreceptors to ganglion cells in mammalian retina,” Neuron 21, 481–493 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B (1)

R. J. Lythgoe and K. Tansley, “The relation of the critical frequency of flicker to the adaptation of the eye,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B 105, 60–92 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Retin. Eye Res. (1)

S. A. Bloomfield and R. F. Dacheux, “Rod vision: pathways and processing in the mammalian retina,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 20, 351–384 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. H. Goldberg, T. E. Frumkes, and R. W. Nygaard, “Inhibitory influence of unstimulated rods in the human retina: evidence provided by examining cone flicker,” Science 221, 180–182 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Trends Neurosci. (2)

N. W. Daw, E. J. Jensen, and W. J. Brunken, “Rod pathways in the mammalian retinae,” Trends Neurosci. 13, 110–115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Spatial configuration and temporal profile of stimuli used for CFF measurements. The left panel shows a 2° central field set within a 10° surround. A fixation placed the stimuli at 6.0° temporal eccentricity. The right panel shows an example of a 10 Hz signal that was modulated sinusoidally in the center field within a 1 s raised cosine envelope that was alternated with a 1 s steady center field.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

CFF measurements as a function of surround illuminance for observers (top) J. S., (center) Y. L., and (bottom) I. V. (Left) 2 Td center, (middle) 20 Td center, (right) 200 Td center. The arrows indicate the center illuminance. The error bars are standard errors of the means. The majority of error bars are absent because they are covered by the plot symbols.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Fitted intercept (a) and estimated suppression magnitude from the fitted slope b from Eq. 1 (suppression magnitude=b for a 2 Td center, 2b for a 20 Td center, and 3b for a 200 Td center) for the (left) isolated rod stimuli, (middle) isolated cone stimuli, and (right) combined stimuli. The error bars are standard errors. For each observer, the conditions with significant suppression are labeled: *, p<0.05; **, p<0.01.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Predicting CFFs using IRF: effects of IRF model parameters (time to peak, τ1, time to trough, τ2, the excitatory weight, ω1, and inhibitory weight, ω2) on IRF peak amplitudes (dashed lines, right y axis) and CFFs (solid lines, left y axis). (a) Varying τ1 only with other parameters fixed at the values shown in the panel, (b) varying τ2 only, (c) varying ω1 only, and (d) varying ω2 only. See text for more details.

Equations (2)

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CFF=a+bx,
A(t)=ω1[t/τ1e(τ1t)/τ1](n11)ω2[t/τ2e(τ2t)/τ2](n21),

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