Abstract

Consider a feature of a stimulus (such as color, luminance, or spatial frequency) that changes over time along a continuum. When a second stimulus is briefly pulsed with the same feature value as the first stimulus, the two stimuli are not perceived to match. Instead, the continuously changing stimulus is perceived to be further ahead on the feature continuum than the pulsed stimulus [Nat. Neurosci. 3, 489 (2000) [CrossRef]  ]. This shift is quantified by the amount of time ahead on the changing continuum, which is different for various types of features. A basic question is how our percepts are affected when an object has two continuously changing features (such as color and orientation) with different magnitudes of time ahead. This was addressed using a bar continuously changing in both color and orientation. Even though the two features were part of the same object, each feature maintained a distinctly different time ahead. This implies that observers perceived at each moment a combination of color and orientation that never was presented to the eye.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

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  32. E. Brenner and J. B. J. Smeets, “Motion extrapolation is not responsible for the flash-lag effect,” Vis. Res. 40, 1645–1648 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  33. D. M. Eagleman and T. J. Sejnowski, “Motion integration and postdiction in visual awareness,” Science 287, 2036–2038 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  34. D. Whitney, I. Murakami, and P. Cavanagh, “Illusory spatial offset of a flash relative to a moving stimulus is caused by differential latencies for moving and flashed stimuli,” Vis. Res. 40, 137–149 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  35. R. Nijhawan, “Visual prediction: psychophysics and neurophysiology of compensation for time delays,” Behav. Brain Sci. 31, 179–239 (2008).
  36. B. Sheth, R. Nijhawan, and S. Shimojo, “Changing objects lead briefly pulsed ones,” Nat. Neurosci. 3, 489–495 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  37. B. J. Scholl, “Objects and attention: the state of the art,” Cognition 80, 1–46 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  38. J. Duncan, “Selective attention and the organization of visual information,” J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 113, 501–517 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  39. R. Egly, J. Driver, and R. Rafal, “Shifting visual attention between objects and locations: evidence for normal and parietal lesion subjects,” J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 123, 161–177 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  40. C. McCollough, “Color adaptation of edge-detectors in the human visual system,” Science 149, 1115–1116 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  41. A. O. Holcombe and P. Cavanagh, “Early binding of feature pairs for visual perception,” Nat. Neurosci. 4, 127–128 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  42. A. O. Holcombe and P. Cavanagh, “Independent, synchronous access to color and motion features,” Cognition 107, 552–580 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  43. L. C. Sincich and J. C. Horton, “The circuitry of V1 and V2: integration of color, form, and motion,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 28, 303–326 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  44. T. Yoshioka and B. M. Dow, “Color, orientation and cytochrome oxidase reactivity in areas V1, V2 and V4 of macaque monkey visual cortex,” Behav. Brain Res. 76, 71–88 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  45. E. N. Johnson, M. J. Hawken, and R. Shapley, “The orientation selectivity of color-responsive neurons in macaque V1,” J. Neurosci. 28, 8096–8106 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  46. S. A. Engel, “Adaptation of oriented and unoriented color-selective neurons in human visual areas,” Neuron 45, 613–623(2005).
    [CrossRef]
  47. K. Seymour, C. W. Clifford, N. K. Logothetis, and A. Bartels, “Coding and binding of color and form in visual cortex,” Cereb. Cortex 20, 1946–1954 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

K. Seymour, C. W. Clifford, N. K. Logothetis, and A. Bartels, “Coding and binding of color and form in visual cortex,” Cereb. Cortex 20, 1946–1954 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. W. Hong and S. K. Shevell, “Color-binding errors during rivalrous suppression of form,” Psychol. Sci. 20, 1084–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

R. Nijhawan, “Visual prediction: psychophysics and neurophysiology of compensation for time delays,” Behav. Brain Sci. 31, 179–239 (2008).

E. N. Johnson, M. J. Hawken, and R. Shapley, “The orientation selectivity of color-responsive neurons in macaque V1,” J. Neurosci. 28, 8096–8106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Holcombe and P. Cavanagh, “Independent, synchronous access to color and motion features,” Cognition 107, 552–580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

L. C. Sincich and J. C. Horton, “The circuitry of V1 and V2: integration of color, form, and motion,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 28, 303–326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Engel, “Adaptation of oriented and unoriented color-selective neurons in human visual areas,” Neuron 45, 613–623(2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. W. G. Clifford, D. H. Arnold, and J. Pearson, “A paradox of temporal perception revealed by a stimulus oscillating in colour and orientation,” Vision Res. 43, 2245–2253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

D. H. Arnold, C. W. Clifford, and P. Wenderoth, “Asynchronous processing in vision: color leads motion,” Curr. Biol. 11, 596–600 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Scholl, “Objects and attention: the state of the art,” Cognition 80, 1–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Holcombe and P. Cavanagh, “Early binding of feature pairs for visual perception,” Nat. Neurosci. 4, 127–128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (6)

B. Sheth, R. Nijhawan, and S. Shimojo, “Changing objects lead briefly pulsed ones,” Nat. Neurosci. 3, 489–495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Patel, H. Ogmen, H. E. Bedell, and V. Sampath, “Flash-lag effect: differential latency, not postdiction,” Science 290, 1051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Brenner and J. B. J. Smeets, “Motion extrapolation is not responsible for the flash-lag effect,” Vis. Res. 40, 1645–1648 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Eagleman and T. J. Sejnowski, “Motion integration and postdiction in visual awareness,” Science 287, 2036–2038 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Whitney, I. Murakami, and P. Cavanagh, “Illusory spatial offset of a flash relative to a moving stimulus is caused by differential latencies for moving and flashed stimuli,” Vis. Res. 40, 137–149 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Lamme and P. R. Roelfsema, “The distinct modes of vision offered by feedforward and recurrent processing,” Trends Neurosci. 23, 571–579 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

A. L. Roskies, “The binding problem,” Neuron 24, 7–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. H. R. Maunsell, G. M. Ghose, J. A. Assad, C. J. McAdams, C. E. Boudreau, and B. D. Noerager, “Visual response latencies of magnocellular and parvocellular LGN neurons in macaque monkeys,” Vis. Neurosci. 16, 1–14 (1999).

1998 (5)

G. Purushothaman, S. S. Patel, H. E. Bedell, and H. Ogmen, “Moving ahead through differential visual latency,” Nature 396, 424 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Whitney and I. Murakami, “Latency difference, not spatial extrapolation,” Nat. Neurosci. 1, 656–657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Pisella, M. Arzi, and Y. Rossetti, “The timing of color and location processing in the motor context,” Exp. Brain Res. 121, 270–276 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Schmolesky, Y. Wang, D. P. Hanes, K. G. Thompson, S. Leutgeb, J. D. Schall, and A. G. Leventhal, “Signal timing across the macaque visual system,” J. Neurophysiol. 79, 3272–3278 (1998).

J. L. Barbur, J. Wolf, and P. Lennie, “Visual processing levels revealed by response latencies to changes in different visual attributes,” Proc. R. Soc. B 265, 2321–2325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

K. Moutoussis and S. Zeki, “A direct demonstration of perceptual asynchrony in vision,” Proc. R. Soc. B 264, 393–399(1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Moutoussis and S. Zeki, “Functional segregation and temporal hierarchy of the visual perceptive systems,” Proc. R. Soc. B 264, 1407–1414 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Zeki and K. Moutoussis, “Temporal hierarchy of the visual perceptive systems in the Mondrian world,” Proc. R. Soc. B 264, 1415–1419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

T. J. Gawne, T. W. Kjaer, and B. J. Richmond, “Latency: another potential code for feature binding in striate cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 76, 1356–1360 (1996).

T. Yoshioka and B. M. Dow, “Color, orientation and cytochrome oxidase reactivity in areas V1, V2 and V4 of macaque monkey visual cortex,” Behav. Brain Res. 76, 71–88 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

B. Khurana and R. Nijhawan, “Extrapolation or attention shift: reply to Baldo and Klein,” Nature 378, 566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

R. Nijhawan, “Motion extrapolation in catching,” Nature 370, 256–257 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakamura, K. Matsumoto, A. Mikami, and K. Kubota, “Visual response properties of single neurons in the temporal pole of behaving monkeys,” J. Neurophysiol. 71, 1206–1221 (1994).

R. Egly, J. Driver, and R. Rafal, “Shifting visual attention between objects and locations: evidence for normal and parietal lesion subjects,” J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 123, 161–177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. H. R. Maunsell and J. R. Gibson, “Visual response latencies in striate cortex of the macaque monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 68, 1332–1344 (1992).

1991 (1)

D. J. Felleman and D. C. Van Essen, “Distributed hierarchical processing in the primate cerebral cortex,” Cereb. Cortex 1, 1–47 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

M. S. Livingstone and D. H. Hubel, “Segregation of form, color, movement, and depth: anatomy, physiology, and perception,” Science 240, 740–749 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. Duncan, “Selective attention and the organization of visual information,” J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 113, 501–517 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

A. Treisman and H. Schmidt, “Illusory conjunctions in the perception of objects,” Cogn. Psychol. 14, 107–141 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. Kaplan and R. M. Shapley, “X and Y cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque monkeys,” J. Physiol. 330, 125–143 (1982).

1981 (1)

P. Lennie, “The physiological basis of variations in visual latency,” Vis. Res. 21, 815–824 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. Treisman and G. Gelade, “A feature-integration theory of attention,” Cogn. Psychol. 12, 97–136 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

P. H. Schiller and J. G. Malpeli, “Functional specificity of lateral geniculate nucleus laminae of the rhesus monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 41, 788–797 (1978).

1976 (1)

B. Dreher, Y. Fukada, and R. W. Rodieck, “Identification, classification and anatomical segregation of cells with X-like and Y-like properties in the lateral geniculate nucleus of old-world primates,” J. Physiol. 258, 433–452 (1976).

1965 (1)

C. McCollough, “Color adaptation of edge-detectors in the human visual system,” Science 149, 1115–1116 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

D. M. MacKay, “Perceptual stability of a stroboscopically lit visual field containing self-luminous objects,” Nature 181, 507–508 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, D. H.

C. W. G. Clifford, D. H. Arnold, and J. Pearson, “A paradox of temporal perception revealed by a stimulus oscillating in colour and orientation,” Vision Res. 43, 2245–2253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Arnold, C. W. Clifford, and P. Wenderoth, “Asynchronous processing in vision: color leads motion,” Curr. Biol. 11, 596–600 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arzi, M.

L. Pisella, M. Arzi, and Y. Rossetti, “The timing of color and location processing in the motor context,” Exp. Brain Res. 121, 270–276 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Assad, J. A.

J. H. R. Maunsell, G. M. Ghose, J. A. Assad, C. J. McAdams, C. E. Boudreau, and B. D. Noerager, “Visual response latencies of magnocellular and parvocellular LGN neurons in macaque monkeys,” Vis. Neurosci. 16, 1–14 (1999).

Barbur, J. L.

J. L. Barbur, J. Wolf, and P. Lennie, “Visual processing levels revealed by response latencies to changes in different visual attributes,” Proc. R. Soc. B 265, 2321–2325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, A.

K. Seymour, C. W. Clifford, N. K. Logothetis, and A. Bartels, “Coding and binding of color and form in visual cortex,” Cereb. Cortex 20, 1946–1954 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bedell, H. E.

S. S. Patel, H. Ogmen, H. E. Bedell, and V. Sampath, “Flash-lag effect: differential latency, not postdiction,” Science 290, 1051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Purushothaman, S. S. Patel, H. E. Bedell, and H. Ogmen, “Moving ahead through differential visual latency,” Nature 396, 424 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boudreau, C. E.

J. H. R. Maunsell, G. M. Ghose, J. A. Assad, C. J. McAdams, C. E. Boudreau, and B. D. Noerager, “Visual response latencies of magnocellular and parvocellular LGN neurons in macaque monkeys,” Vis. Neurosci. 16, 1–14 (1999).

Brenner, E.

E. Brenner and J. B. J. Smeets, “Motion extrapolation is not responsible for the flash-lag effect,” Vis. Res. 40, 1645–1648 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cavanagh, P.

A. O. Holcombe and P. Cavanagh, “Independent, synchronous access to color and motion features,” Cognition 107, 552–580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Holcombe and P. Cavanagh, “Early binding of feature pairs for visual perception,” Nat. Neurosci. 4, 127–128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Whitney, I. Murakami, and P. Cavanagh, “Illusory spatial offset of a flash relative to a moving stimulus is caused by differential latencies for moving and flashed stimuli,” Vis. Res. 40, 137–149 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Clifford, C. W.

K. Seymour, C. W. Clifford, N. K. Logothetis, and A. Bartels, “Coding and binding of color and form in visual cortex,” Cereb. Cortex 20, 1946–1954 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Arnold, C. W. Clifford, and P. Wenderoth, “Asynchronous processing in vision: color leads motion,” Curr. Biol. 11, 596–600 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clifford, C. W. G.

C. W. G. Clifford, D. H. Arnold, and J. Pearson, “A paradox of temporal perception revealed by a stimulus oscillating in colour and orientation,” Vision Res. 43, 2245–2253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dow, B. M.

T. Yoshioka and B. M. Dow, “Color, orientation and cytochrome oxidase reactivity in areas V1, V2 and V4 of macaque monkey visual cortex,” Behav. Brain Res. 76, 71–88 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dreher, B.

B. Dreher, Y. Fukada, and R. W. Rodieck, “Identification, classification and anatomical segregation of cells with X-like and Y-like properties in the lateral geniculate nucleus of old-world primates,” J. Physiol. 258, 433–452 (1976).

Driver, J.

R. Egly, J. Driver, and R. Rafal, “Shifting visual attention between objects and locations: evidence for normal and parietal lesion subjects,” J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 123, 161–177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, J.

J. Duncan, “Selective attention and the organization of visual information,” J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 113, 501–517 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Eagleman, D. M.

D. M. Eagleman and T. J. Sejnowski, “Motion integration and postdiction in visual awareness,” Science 287, 2036–2038 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Egly, R.

R. Egly, J. Driver, and R. Rafal, “Shifting visual attention between objects and locations: evidence for normal and parietal lesion subjects,” J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 123, 161–177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Engel, S. A.

S. A. Engel, “Adaptation of oriented and unoriented color-selective neurons in human visual areas,” Neuron 45, 613–623(2005).
[CrossRef]

Felleman, D. J.

D. J. Felleman and D. C. Van Essen, “Distributed hierarchical processing in the primate cerebral cortex,” Cereb. Cortex 1, 1–47 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fukada, Y.

B. Dreher, Y. Fukada, and R. W. Rodieck, “Identification, classification and anatomical segregation of cells with X-like and Y-like properties in the lateral geniculate nucleus of old-world primates,” J. Physiol. 258, 433–452 (1976).

Gawne, T. J.

T. J. Gawne, T. W. Kjaer, and B. J. Richmond, “Latency: another potential code for feature binding in striate cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 76, 1356–1360 (1996).

Gelade, G.

A. Treisman and G. Gelade, “A feature-integration theory of attention,” Cogn. Psychol. 12, 97–136 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ghose, G. M.

J. H. R. Maunsell, G. M. Ghose, J. A. Assad, C. J. McAdams, C. E. Boudreau, and B. D. Noerager, “Visual response latencies of magnocellular and parvocellular LGN neurons in macaque monkeys,” Vis. Neurosci. 16, 1–14 (1999).

Gibson, J. R.

J. H. R. Maunsell and J. R. Gibson, “Visual response latencies in striate cortex of the macaque monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 68, 1332–1344 (1992).

Hanes, D. P.

M. T. Schmolesky, Y. Wang, D. P. Hanes, K. G. Thompson, S. Leutgeb, J. D. Schall, and A. G. Leventhal, “Signal timing across the macaque visual system,” J. Neurophysiol. 79, 3272–3278 (1998).

Hawken, M. J.

E. N. Johnson, M. J. Hawken, and R. Shapley, “The orientation selectivity of color-responsive neurons in macaque V1,” J. Neurosci. 28, 8096–8106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Holcombe, A. O.

A. O. Holcombe and P. Cavanagh, “Independent, synchronous access to color and motion features,” Cognition 107, 552–580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Holcombe and P. Cavanagh, “Early binding of feature pairs for visual perception,” Nat. Neurosci. 4, 127–128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S. W.

S. W. Hong and S. K. Shevell, “Color-binding errors during rivalrous suppression of form,” Psychol. Sci. 20, 1084–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Horton, J. C.

L. C. Sincich and J. C. Horton, “The circuitry of V1 and V2: integration of color, form, and motion,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 28, 303–326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hubel, D. H.

M. S. Livingstone and D. H. Hubel, “Segregation of form, color, movement, and depth: anatomy, physiology, and perception,” Science 240, 740–749 (1988).
[CrossRef]

James, W.

W. James, A Pluralistic Universe: Hibbert Lectures at Manchester College on the Present Situation in Philosophy (Longmans, Green, 1909), pp. 207–208.

Johnson, E. N.

E. N. Johnson, M. J. Hawken, and R. Shapley, “The orientation selectivity of color-responsive neurons in macaque V1,” J. Neurosci. 28, 8096–8106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, E.

E. Kaplan and R. M. Shapley, “X and Y cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque monkeys,” J. Physiol. 330, 125–143 (1982).

Khurana, B.

B. Khurana and R. Nijhawan, “Extrapolation or attention shift: reply to Baldo and Klein,” Nature 378, 566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kjaer, T. W.

T. J. Gawne, T. W. Kjaer, and B. J. Richmond, “Latency: another potential code for feature binding in striate cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 76, 1356–1360 (1996).

Kubota, K.

K. Nakamura, K. Matsumoto, A. Mikami, and K. Kubota, “Visual response properties of single neurons in the temporal pole of behaving monkeys,” J. Neurophysiol. 71, 1206–1221 (1994).

Lamme, V. A.

V. A. Lamme and P. R. Roelfsema, “The distinct modes of vision offered by feedforward and recurrent processing,” Trends Neurosci. 23, 571–579 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lennie, P.

J. L. Barbur, J. Wolf, and P. Lennie, “Visual processing levels revealed by response latencies to changes in different visual attributes,” Proc. R. Soc. B 265, 2321–2325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Lennie, “The physiological basis of variations in visual latency,” Vis. Res. 21, 815–824 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Leutgeb, S.

M. T. Schmolesky, Y. Wang, D. P. Hanes, K. G. Thompson, S. Leutgeb, J. D. Schall, and A. G. Leventhal, “Signal timing across the macaque visual system,” J. Neurophysiol. 79, 3272–3278 (1998).

Leventhal, A. G.

M. T. Schmolesky, Y. Wang, D. P. Hanes, K. G. Thompson, S. Leutgeb, J. D. Schall, and A. G. Leventhal, “Signal timing across the macaque visual system,” J. Neurophysiol. 79, 3272–3278 (1998).

Livingstone, M. S.

M. S. Livingstone and D. H. Hubel, “Segregation of form, color, movement, and depth: anatomy, physiology, and perception,” Science 240, 740–749 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Logothetis, N. K.

K. Seymour, C. W. Clifford, N. K. Logothetis, and A. Bartels, “Coding and binding of color and form in visual cortex,” Cereb. Cortex 20, 1946–1954 (2010).
[CrossRef]

MacKay, D. M.

D. M. MacKay, “Perceptual stability of a stroboscopically lit visual field containing self-luminous objects,” Nature 181, 507–508 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Malpeli, J. G.

P. H. Schiller and J. G. Malpeli, “Functional specificity of lateral geniculate nucleus laminae of the rhesus monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 41, 788–797 (1978).

Matsumoto, K.

K. Nakamura, K. Matsumoto, A. Mikami, and K. Kubota, “Visual response properties of single neurons in the temporal pole of behaving monkeys,” J. Neurophysiol. 71, 1206–1221 (1994).

Maunsell, J. H. R.

J. H. R. Maunsell, G. M. Ghose, J. A. Assad, C. J. McAdams, C. E. Boudreau, and B. D. Noerager, “Visual response latencies of magnocellular and parvocellular LGN neurons in macaque monkeys,” Vis. Neurosci. 16, 1–14 (1999).

J. H. R. Maunsell and J. R. Gibson, “Visual response latencies in striate cortex of the macaque monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 68, 1332–1344 (1992).

McAdams, C. J.

J. H. R. Maunsell, G. M. Ghose, J. A. Assad, C. J. McAdams, C. E. Boudreau, and B. D. Noerager, “Visual response latencies of magnocellular and parvocellular LGN neurons in macaque monkeys,” Vis. Neurosci. 16, 1–14 (1999).

McCollough, C.

C. McCollough, “Color adaptation of edge-detectors in the human visual system,” Science 149, 1115–1116 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Mikami, A.

K. Nakamura, K. Matsumoto, A. Mikami, and K. Kubota, “Visual response properties of single neurons in the temporal pole of behaving monkeys,” J. Neurophysiol. 71, 1206–1221 (1994).

Moutoussis, K.

S. Zeki and K. Moutoussis, “Temporal hierarchy of the visual perceptive systems in the Mondrian world,” Proc. R. Soc. B 264, 1415–1419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Moutoussis and S. Zeki, “A direct demonstration of perceptual asynchrony in vision,” Proc. R. Soc. B 264, 393–399(1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Moutoussis and S. Zeki, “Functional segregation and temporal hierarchy of the visual perceptive systems,” Proc. R. Soc. B 264, 1407–1414 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, I.

D. Whitney, I. Murakami, and P. Cavanagh, “Illusory spatial offset of a flash relative to a moving stimulus is caused by differential latencies for moving and flashed stimuli,” Vis. Res. 40, 137–149 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Whitney and I. Murakami, “Latency difference, not spatial extrapolation,” Nat. Neurosci. 1, 656–657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K.

K. Nakamura, K. Matsumoto, A. Mikami, and K. Kubota, “Visual response properties of single neurons in the temporal pole of behaving monkeys,” J. Neurophysiol. 71, 1206–1221 (1994).

Nijhawan, R.

R. Nijhawan, “Visual prediction: psychophysics and neurophysiology of compensation for time delays,” Behav. Brain Sci. 31, 179–239 (2008).

B. Sheth, R. Nijhawan, and S. Shimojo, “Changing objects lead briefly pulsed ones,” Nat. Neurosci. 3, 489–495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Khurana and R. Nijhawan, “Extrapolation or attention shift: reply to Baldo and Klein,” Nature 378, 566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Nijhawan, “Motion extrapolation in catching,” Nature 370, 256–257 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Noerager, B. D.

J. H. R. Maunsell, G. M. Ghose, J. A. Assad, C. J. McAdams, C. E. Boudreau, and B. D. Noerager, “Visual response latencies of magnocellular and parvocellular LGN neurons in macaque monkeys,” Vis. Neurosci. 16, 1–14 (1999).

Ogmen, H.

S. S. Patel, H. Ogmen, H. E. Bedell, and V. Sampath, “Flash-lag effect: differential latency, not postdiction,” Science 290, 1051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Purushothaman, S. S. Patel, H. E. Bedell, and H. Ogmen, “Moving ahead through differential visual latency,” Nature 396, 424 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Patel, S. S.

S. S. Patel, H. Ogmen, H. E. Bedell, and V. Sampath, “Flash-lag effect: differential latency, not postdiction,” Science 290, 1051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Purushothaman, S. S. Patel, H. E. Bedell, and H. Ogmen, “Moving ahead through differential visual latency,” Nature 396, 424 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, J.

C. W. G. Clifford, D. H. Arnold, and J. Pearson, “A paradox of temporal perception revealed by a stimulus oscillating in colour and orientation,” Vision Res. 43, 2245–2253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pisella, L.

L. Pisella, M. Arzi, and Y. Rossetti, “The timing of color and location processing in the motor context,” Exp. Brain Res. 121, 270–276 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Purushothaman, G.

G. Purushothaman, S. S. Patel, H. E. Bedell, and H. Ogmen, “Moving ahead through differential visual latency,” Nature 396, 424 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rafal, R.

R. Egly, J. Driver, and R. Rafal, “Shifting visual attention between objects and locations: evidence for normal and parietal lesion subjects,” J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 123, 161–177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Richmond, B. J.

T. J. Gawne, T. W. Kjaer, and B. J. Richmond, “Latency: another potential code for feature binding in striate cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 76, 1356–1360 (1996).

Rodieck, R. W.

B. Dreher, Y. Fukada, and R. W. Rodieck, “Identification, classification and anatomical segregation of cells with X-like and Y-like properties in the lateral geniculate nucleus of old-world primates,” J. Physiol. 258, 433–452 (1976).

Roelfsema, P. R.

V. A. Lamme and P. R. Roelfsema, “The distinct modes of vision offered by feedforward and recurrent processing,” Trends Neurosci. 23, 571–579 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Roskies, A. L.

A. L. Roskies, “The binding problem,” Neuron 24, 7–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rossetti, Y.

L. Pisella, M. Arzi, and Y. Rossetti, “The timing of color and location processing in the motor context,” Exp. Brain Res. 121, 270–276 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sampath, V.

S. S. Patel, H. Ogmen, H. E. Bedell, and V. Sampath, “Flash-lag effect: differential latency, not postdiction,” Science 290, 1051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schall, J. D.

M. T. Schmolesky, Y. Wang, D. P. Hanes, K. G. Thompson, S. Leutgeb, J. D. Schall, and A. G. Leventhal, “Signal timing across the macaque visual system,” J. Neurophysiol. 79, 3272–3278 (1998).

Schiller, P. H.

P. H. Schiller and J. G. Malpeli, “Functional specificity of lateral geniculate nucleus laminae of the rhesus monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 41, 788–797 (1978).

Schmidt, H.

A. Treisman and H. Schmidt, “Illusory conjunctions in the perception of objects,” Cogn. Psychol. 14, 107–141 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Schmolesky, M. T.

M. T. Schmolesky, Y. Wang, D. P. Hanes, K. G. Thompson, S. Leutgeb, J. D. Schall, and A. G. Leventhal, “Signal timing across the macaque visual system,” J. Neurophysiol. 79, 3272–3278 (1998).

Scholl, B. J.

B. J. Scholl, “Objects and attention: the state of the art,” Cognition 80, 1–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sejnowski, T. J.

D. M. Eagleman and T. J. Sejnowski, “Motion integration and postdiction in visual awareness,” Science 287, 2036–2038 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seymour, K.

K. Seymour, C. W. Clifford, N. K. Logothetis, and A. Bartels, “Coding and binding of color and form in visual cortex,” Cereb. Cortex 20, 1946–1954 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shapley, R.

E. N. Johnson, M. J. Hawken, and R. Shapley, “The orientation selectivity of color-responsive neurons in macaque V1,” J. Neurosci. 28, 8096–8106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shapley, R. M.

E. Kaplan and R. M. Shapley, “X and Y cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque monkeys,” J. Physiol. 330, 125–143 (1982).

Sheth, B.

B. Sheth, R. Nijhawan, and S. Shimojo, “Changing objects lead briefly pulsed ones,” Nat. Neurosci. 3, 489–495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shevell, S. K.

S. W. Hong and S. K. Shevell, “Color-binding errors during rivalrous suppression of form,” Psychol. Sci. 20, 1084–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shimojo, S.

B. Sheth, R. Nijhawan, and S. Shimojo, “Changing objects lead briefly pulsed ones,” Nat. Neurosci. 3, 489–495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sincich, L. C.

L. C. Sincich and J. C. Horton, “The circuitry of V1 and V2: integration of color, form, and motion,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 28, 303–326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smeets, J. B. J.

E. Brenner and J. B. J. Smeets, “Motion extrapolation is not responsible for the flash-lag effect,” Vis. Res. 40, 1645–1648 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, K. G.

M. T. Schmolesky, Y. Wang, D. P. Hanes, K. G. Thompson, S. Leutgeb, J. D. Schall, and A. G. Leventhal, “Signal timing across the macaque visual system,” J. Neurophysiol. 79, 3272–3278 (1998).

Treisman, A.

A. Treisman and H. Schmidt, “Illusory conjunctions in the perception of objects,” Cogn. Psychol. 14, 107–141 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Treisman and G. Gelade, “A feature-integration theory of attention,” Cogn. Psychol. 12, 97–136 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Van Essen, D. C.

D. J. Felleman and D. C. Van Essen, “Distributed hierarchical processing in the primate cerebral cortex,” Cereb. Cortex 1, 1–47 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

M. T. Schmolesky, Y. Wang, D. P. Hanes, K. G. Thompson, S. Leutgeb, J. D. Schall, and A. G. Leventhal, “Signal timing across the macaque visual system,” J. Neurophysiol. 79, 3272–3278 (1998).

Wenderoth, P.

D. H. Arnold, C. W. Clifford, and P. Wenderoth, “Asynchronous processing in vision: color leads motion,” Curr. Biol. 11, 596–600 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Whitney, D.

D. Whitney, I. Murakami, and P. Cavanagh, “Illusory spatial offset of a flash relative to a moving stimulus is caused by differential latencies for moving and flashed stimuli,” Vis. Res. 40, 137–149 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Whitney and I. Murakami, “Latency difference, not spatial extrapolation,” Nat. Neurosci. 1, 656–657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.

J. L. Barbur, J. Wolf, and P. Lennie, “Visual processing levels revealed by response latencies to changes in different visual attributes,” Proc. R. Soc. B 265, 2321–2325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoshioka, T.

T. Yoshioka and B. M. Dow, “Color, orientation and cytochrome oxidase reactivity in areas V1, V2 and V4 of macaque monkey visual cortex,” Behav. Brain Res. 76, 71–88 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zeki, S.

K. Moutoussis and S. Zeki, “Functional segregation and temporal hierarchy of the visual perceptive systems,” Proc. R. Soc. B 264, 1407–1414 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Zeki and K. Moutoussis, “Temporal hierarchy of the visual perceptive systems in the Mondrian world,” Proc. R. Soc. B 264, 1415–1419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Moutoussis and S. Zeki, “A direct demonstration of perceptual asynchrony in vision,” Proc. R. Soc. B 264, 393–399(1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Zeki, A Vision of the Brain (Blackwell, 1993).

Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (1)

L. C. Sincich and J. C. Horton, “The circuitry of V1 and V2: integration of color, form, and motion,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 28, 303–326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Behav. Brain Res. (1)

T. Yoshioka and B. M. Dow, “Color, orientation and cytochrome oxidase reactivity in areas V1, V2 and V4 of macaque monkey visual cortex,” Behav. Brain Res. 76, 71–88 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Behav. Brain Sci. (1)

R. Nijhawan, “Visual prediction: psychophysics and neurophysiology of compensation for time delays,” Behav. Brain Sci. 31, 179–239 (2008).

Cereb. Cortex (2)

D. J. Felleman and D. C. Van Essen, “Distributed hierarchical processing in the primate cerebral cortex,” Cereb. Cortex 1, 1–47 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Seymour, C. W. Clifford, N. K. Logothetis, and A. Bartels, “Coding and binding of color and form in visual cortex,” Cereb. Cortex 20, 1946–1954 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cogn. Psychol. (2)

A. Treisman and H. Schmidt, “Illusory conjunctions in the perception of objects,” Cogn. Psychol. 14, 107–141 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Treisman and G. Gelade, “A feature-integration theory of attention,” Cogn. Psychol. 12, 97–136 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Cognition (2)

A. O. Holcombe and P. Cavanagh, “Independent, synchronous access to color and motion features,” Cognition 107, 552–580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Scholl, “Objects and attention: the state of the art,” Cognition 80, 1–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Biol. (1)

D. H. Arnold, C. W. Clifford, and P. Wenderoth, “Asynchronous processing in vision: color leads motion,” Curr. Biol. 11, 596–600 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Brain Res. (1)

L. Pisella, M. Arzi, and Y. Rossetti, “The timing of color and location processing in the motor context,” Exp. Brain Res. 121, 270–276 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. (2)

J. Duncan, “Selective attention and the organization of visual information,” J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 113, 501–517 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. Egly, J. Driver, and R. Rafal, “Shifting visual attention between objects and locations: evidence for normal and parietal lesion subjects,” J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 123, 161–177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurophysiol. (5)

P. H. Schiller and J. G. Malpeli, “Functional specificity of lateral geniculate nucleus laminae of the rhesus monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 41, 788–797 (1978).

T. J. Gawne, T. W. Kjaer, and B. J. Richmond, “Latency: another potential code for feature binding in striate cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 76, 1356–1360 (1996).

K. Nakamura, K. Matsumoto, A. Mikami, and K. Kubota, “Visual response properties of single neurons in the temporal pole of behaving monkeys,” J. Neurophysiol. 71, 1206–1221 (1994).

M. T. Schmolesky, Y. Wang, D. P. Hanes, K. G. Thompson, S. Leutgeb, J. D. Schall, and A. G. Leventhal, “Signal timing across the macaque visual system,” J. Neurophysiol. 79, 3272–3278 (1998).

J. H. R. Maunsell and J. R. Gibson, “Visual response latencies in striate cortex of the macaque monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 68, 1332–1344 (1992).

J. Neurosci. (1)

E. N. Johnson, M. J. Hawken, and R. Shapley, “The orientation selectivity of color-responsive neurons in macaque V1,” J. Neurosci. 28, 8096–8106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Physiol. (2)

B. Dreher, Y. Fukada, and R. W. Rodieck, “Identification, classification and anatomical segregation of cells with X-like and Y-like properties in the lateral geniculate nucleus of old-world primates,” J. Physiol. 258, 433–452 (1976).

E. Kaplan and R. M. Shapley, “X and Y cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque monkeys,” J. Physiol. 330, 125–143 (1982).

Nat. Neurosci. (3)

B. Sheth, R. Nijhawan, and S. Shimojo, “Changing objects lead briefly pulsed ones,” Nat. Neurosci. 3, 489–495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Whitney and I. Murakami, “Latency difference, not spatial extrapolation,” Nat. Neurosci. 1, 656–657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Holcombe and P. Cavanagh, “Early binding of feature pairs for visual perception,” Nat. Neurosci. 4, 127–128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature (4)

B. Khurana and R. Nijhawan, “Extrapolation or attention shift: reply to Baldo and Klein,” Nature 378, 566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. M. MacKay, “Perceptual stability of a stroboscopically lit visual field containing self-luminous objects,” Nature 181, 507–508 (1958).
[CrossRef]

R. Nijhawan, “Motion extrapolation in catching,” Nature 370, 256–257 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Purushothaman, S. S. Patel, H. E. Bedell, and H. Ogmen, “Moving ahead through differential visual latency,” Nature 396, 424 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neuron (2)

A. L. Roskies, “The binding problem,” Neuron 24, 7–9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Engel, “Adaptation of oriented and unoriented color-selective neurons in human visual areas,” Neuron 45, 613–623(2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. B (4)

K. Moutoussis and S. Zeki, “A direct demonstration of perceptual asynchrony in vision,” Proc. R. Soc. B 264, 393–399(1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Moutoussis and S. Zeki, “Functional segregation and temporal hierarchy of the visual perceptive systems,” Proc. R. Soc. B 264, 1407–1414 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Zeki and K. Moutoussis, “Temporal hierarchy of the visual perceptive systems in the Mondrian world,” Proc. R. Soc. B 264, 1415–1419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Barbur, J. Wolf, and P. Lennie, “Visual processing levels revealed by response latencies to changes in different visual attributes,” Proc. R. Soc. B 265, 2321–2325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Psychol. Sci. (1)

S. W. Hong and S. K. Shevell, “Color-binding errors during rivalrous suppression of form,” Psychol. Sci. 20, 1084–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science (4)

M. S. Livingstone and D. H. Hubel, “Segregation of form, color, movement, and depth: anatomy, physiology, and perception,” Science 240, 740–749 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Patel, H. Ogmen, H. E. Bedell, and V. Sampath, “Flash-lag effect: differential latency, not postdiction,” Science 290, 1051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Eagleman and T. J. Sejnowski, “Motion integration and postdiction in visual awareness,” Science 287, 2036–2038 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. McCollough, “Color adaptation of edge-detectors in the human visual system,” Science 149, 1115–1116 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Trends Neurosci. (1)

V. A. Lamme and P. R. Roelfsema, “The distinct modes of vision offered by feedforward and recurrent processing,” Trends Neurosci. 23, 571–579 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Neurosci. (1)

J. H. R. Maunsell, G. M. Ghose, J. A. Assad, C. J. McAdams, C. E. Boudreau, and B. D. Noerager, “Visual response latencies of magnocellular and parvocellular LGN neurons in macaque monkeys,” Vis. Neurosci. 16, 1–14 (1999).

Vis. Res. (3)

D. Whitney, I. Murakami, and P. Cavanagh, “Illusory spatial offset of a flash relative to a moving stimulus is caused by differential latencies for moving and flashed stimuli,” Vis. Res. 40, 137–149 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Brenner and J. B. J. Smeets, “Motion extrapolation is not responsible for the flash-lag effect,” Vis. Res. 40, 1645–1648 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Lennie, “The physiological basis of variations in visual latency,” Vis. Res. 21, 815–824 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (1)

C. W. G. Clifford, D. H. Arnold, and J. Pearson, “A paradox of temporal perception revealed by a stimulus oscillating in colour and orientation,” Vision Res. 43, 2245–2253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. Zeki, A Vision of the Brain (Blackwell, 1993).

W. James, A Pluralistic Universe: Hibbert Lectures at Manchester College on the Present Situation in Philosophy (Longmans, Green, 1909), pp. 207–208.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the experimental stimuli. The same experimental stimuli were used for all three conditions: (i) Separate Color condition (color matching only), (ii) Separate Orientation condition (orientation matching only) and (iii) the Both condition (both color and orientation matching simultaneously).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Results for the Separate conditions and the Both condition. The vertical axis represents the perceptual-shift time in milliseconds and the horizontal axis indicates the three different conditions: (i) Separate Color, (ii) Separate Orientation, and (iii) Both. In the Separate conditions, the observer judged color or orientation separately in different runs, whereas in the Both condition the observer judged both color and orientation simultaneously on each trial. Striped bars [solid bars] represent the perceptual shift in orientation [color]. Error bars are standard errors of the mean from measurements collected in different sessions.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic illustration showing how a continuously changing stimulus (left of fixation) is perceived when the pulsed stimulus (right of fixation) is presented. The continuously changing stimulus appears more advanced in color than orientation (based on average from three observers: 264 ms advance for color, 121 ms for orientation).

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