Abstract

We describe a lab setup for analyzing impairments of terahertz (THz) and infrared (IR) free space links caused by local refraction index changes in the signal’s propagation paths that could be induced by turbulence, particles, humidity, etc. A THz signal comprising a 2.5Gb/s data load modulated on a carrier at 625 GHz, is launched through a weather emulating chamber, detected, and its performance analyzed. An IR beam at 1.5 um wavelength carrying the same data load is superposed with the THz beam, propagating through the same weather conditions and also performance analyzed. We modulate the IR channel with a usual non-return-to-zero (NRZ) format but use duobinary coding for driving our THz source, which enables signaling at high data rate and higher output power. As both beams pass through the same channel perturbations and as their degradations are recorded simultaneously we can simultaneously compare the weather impact on both. We investigate scintillation and fog attenuation effects for the THz and IR signals by measuring bit error rates (BER), signal power, and phase front distortions.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Cherry, “Edholm’s law of bandwidth,” IEEE Spectrum 41, 58–60 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Zhouyue and F. Khan, “An introduction to millimeter-wave mobile broadband systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49, 101–107(2011).
  3. C. Jansen, R. Piesiewicz, D. Mittleman, T. Kurner, and M. Koch, “The impact of reflections from stratified building materials on the wave propagation in future indoor terahertz communication systems,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 56, 1413–1419 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Federici and L. Moeller, “Review of terahertz and subterahertz wireless communications,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 111101 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Kleine-Ostmann and T. Nagatsuma, “A review on terahertz communications research,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz 32, 143–171 (2011).
  6. R. Yamaguchi, A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, N. Kukutsu, T. Nagatsuma, Y. Kado, H. Ikegawa, H. Nishikawa, and T. Nakayama, “10-Gbit/s MMIC wireless link exceeding 800 meters,” in Radio and Wireless Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 695–698.
  7. G. Ducournau, P. Szriftgiser, D. Bacquet, A. Beck, T. Akalin, E. Peytavit, M. Zaknoune, and J. F. Lampin, “Optically power supplied Gbit/s wireless hotspot using 1.55 um THz photomixer and heterodyne detection at 200 GHz,” Electron. Lett. 46, 1349–1351 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Nagatsuma, H. J. Song, Y. Fujimoto, K. Miyake, A. Hirata, K. Ajito, A. Wakatsuki, T. Furuta, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Giga-bit wireless link using 300–400 GHz bands,” in MWP’09. International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics(Academic, 2009), pp. 1–4.
  9. L. Moeller, J. Federici, and K. Su, “2.5  Gbit/s duobinary signalling with narrow bandwidth 0.625 terahertz source,” Electron. Lett. 47, 856–858 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Hirata, R. Yamaguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Kosugi, K. Murata, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Effect of rain attenuation for a 10-Gb/s 120-GHz-band millimeter-wave wireless link,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 57, 3099–3105 (2009).
  11. C. M. Mann, “Towards terahertz communication systems,” in Terahertz Sources and Systems, R. Miles, P. Harrison, and D. Lippens, eds. (Academic, 2001), pp. 261–267.
  12. M. J. Rosker and H. B. Wallace, “Imaging through the atmosphere at terahertz frequencies,” in IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 773–776.
  13. L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation Through Random Media (Academic, 1998).
  14. L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation with Applications (Academic, 2001).
  15. T. Utsunomiya and M. Sekine, “Rain Attenuation at 103 GHz in Millimeter Wave Ranges,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. 26, 1651–1660 (2005).
  16. S. A. Khan, A. N. Tawfik, C. J. Gibbins, and B. C. Gremont, “Extra-high frequency line-of-sight propagation for future urban communications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 3109–3121 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Lender, “The duobinary technique for high-speed data transmission,” IEEE Trans. Commun. Electron. 82, 214–218(1963).
  18. D. Penninckx, M. Chbat, L. Pierre, and J. P. Thiery, “The phase-shaped binary transmission (PSBT): a new technique to transmit for beyond the chromatic dispersion limit,” in the 22nd European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 22)(Academic, 1996), pp. 173–176.
  19. T. Mizuochi, “Recent progress in forward error correction and its interplay with transmission impairments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 544–554 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Le-Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, M. Ijaz, S. Rajbhandari, O. Adebanjo, S. Ansari, and E. Leitgeb, “Experimental study of bit error rate of free space optics communications in laboratory controlled turbulence,” in GLOBECOM Workshops (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1072–1076.
  21. M. Ijaz, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, S. Rajbhandari, J. Perez, and A. Gholami, “Bit error rate measurement of free space optical communication links under laboratory-controlled fog conditions,” in 16th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC) (Academic, 2011), pp. 52–55.

2011 (3)

P. Zhouyue and F. Khan, “An introduction to millimeter-wave mobile broadband systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49, 101–107(2011).

L. Moeller, J. Federici, and K. Su, “2.5  Gbit/s duobinary signalling with narrow bandwidth 0.625 terahertz source,” Electron. Lett. 47, 856–858 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Kleine-Ostmann and T. Nagatsuma, “A review on terahertz communications research,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz 32, 143–171 (2011).

2010 (2)

G. Ducournau, P. Szriftgiser, D. Bacquet, A. Beck, T. Akalin, E. Peytavit, M. Zaknoune, and J. F. Lampin, “Optically power supplied Gbit/s wireless hotspot using 1.55 um THz photomixer and heterodyne detection at 200 GHz,” Electron. Lett. 46, 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Federici and L. Moeller, “Review of terahertz and subterahertz wireless communications,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

A. Hirata, R. Yamaguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Kosugi, K. Murata, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Effect of rain attenuation for a 10-Gb/s 120-GHz-band millimeter-wave wireless link,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 57, 3099–3105 (2009).

2008 (1)

C. Jansen, R. Piesiewicz, D. Mittleman, T. Kurner, and M. Koch, “The impact of reflections from stratified building materials on the wave propagation in future indoor terahertz communication systems,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 56, 1413–1419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

T. Mizuochi, “Recent progress in forward error correction and its interplay with transmission impairments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 544–554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

T. Utsunomiya and M. Sekine, “Rain Attenuation at 103 GHz in Millimeter Wave Ranges,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. 26, 1651–1660 (2005).

2004 (1)

S. Cherry, “Edholm’s law of bandwidth,” IEEE Spectrum 41, 58–60 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. A. Khan, A. N. Tawfik, C. J. Gibbins, and B. C. Gremont, “Extra-high frequency line-of-sight propagation for future urban communications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 3109–3121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

A. Lender, “The duobinary technique for high-speed data transmission,” IEEE Trans. Commun. Electron. 82, 214–218(1963).

Adebanjo, O.

H. Le-Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, M. Ijaz, S. Rajbhandari, O. Adebanjo, S. Ansari, and E. Leitgeb, “Experimental study of bit error rate of free space optics communications in laboratory controlled turbulence,” in GLOBECOM Workshops (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1072–1076.

Ajito, K.

T. Nagatsuma, H. J. Song, Y. Fujimoto, K. Miyake, A. Hirata, K. Ajito, A. Wakatsuki, T. Furuta, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Giga-bit wireless link using 300–400 GHz bands,” in MWP’09. International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics(Academic, 2009), pp. 1–4.

Akalin, T.

G. Ducournau, P. Szriftgiser, D. Bacquet, A. Beck, T. Akalin, E. Peytavit, M. Zaknoune, and J. F. Lampin, “Optically power supplied Gbit/s wireless hotspot using 1.55 um THz photomixer and heterodyne detection at 200 GHz,” Electron. Lett. 46, 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, L. C.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation with Applications (Academic, 2001).

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation Through Random Media (Academic, 1998).

Ansari, S.

H. Le-Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, M. Ijaz, S. Rajbhandari, O. Adebanjo, S. Ansari, and E. Leitgeb, “Experimental study of bit error rate of free space optics communications in laboratory controlled turbulence,” in GLOBECOM Workshops (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1072–1076.

Bacquet, D.

G. Ducournau, P. Szriftgiser, D. Bacquet, A. Beck, T. Akalin, E. Peytavit, M. Zaknoune, and J. F. Lampin, “Optically power supplied Gbit/s wireless hotspot using 1.55 um THz photomixer and heterodyne detection at 200 GHz,” Electron. Lett. 46, 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beck, A.

G. Ducournau, P. Szriftgiser, D. Bacquet, A. Beck, T. Akalin, E. Peytavit, M. Zaknoune, and J. F. Lampin, “Optically power supplied Gbit/s wireless hotspot using 1.55 um THz photomixer and heterodyne detection at 200 GHz,” Electron. Lett. 46, 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chbat, M.

D. Penninckx, M. Chbat, L. Pierre, and J. P. Thiery, “The phase-shaped binary transmission (PSBT): a new technique to transmit for beyond the chromatic dispersion limit,” in the 22nd European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 22)(Academic, 1996), pp. 173–176.

Cherry, S.

S. Cherry, “Edholm’s law of bandwidth,” IEEE Spectrum 41, 58–60 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ducournau, G.

G. Ducournau, P. Szriftgiser, D. Bacquet, A. Beck, T. Akalin, E. Peytavit, M. Zaknoune, and J. F. Lampin, “Optically power supplied Gbit/s wireless hotspot using 1.55 um THz photomixer and heterodyne detection at 200 GHz,” Electron. Lett. 46, 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Federici, J.

L. Moeller, J. Federici, and K. Su, “2.5  Gbit/s duobinary signalling with narrow bandwidth 0.625 terahertz source,” Electron. Lett. 47, 856–858 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Federici and L. Moeller, “Review of terahertz and subterahertz wireless communications,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, Y.

T. Nagatsuma, H. J. Song, Y. Fujimoto, K. Miyake, A. Hirata, K. Ajito, A. Wakatsuki, T. Furuta, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Giga-bit wireless link using 300–400 GHz bands,” in MWP’09. International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics(Academic, 2009), pp. 1–4.

Furuta, T.

T. Nagatsuma, H. J. Song, Y. Fujimoto, K. Miyake, A. Hirata, K. Ajito, A. Wakatsuki, T. Furuta, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Giga-bit wireless link using 300–400 GHz bands,” in MWP’09. International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics(Academic, 2009), pp. 1–4.

Ghassemlooy, Z.

M. Ijaz, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, S. Rajbhandari, J. Perez, and A. Gholami, “Bit error rate measurement of free space optical communication links under laboratory-controlled fog conditions,” in 16th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC) (Academic, 2011), pp. 52–55.

H. Le-Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, M. Ijaz, S. Rajbhandari, O. Adebanjo, S. Ansari, and E. Leitgeb, “Experimental study of bit error rate of free space optics communications in laboratory controlled turbulence,” in GLOBECOM Workshops (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1072–1076.

Gholami, A.

M. Ijaz, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, S. Rajbhandari, J. Perez, and A. Gholami, “Bit error rate measurement of free space optical communication links under laboratory-controlled fog conditions,” in 16th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC) (Academic, 2011), pp. 52–55.

Gibbins, C. J.

S. A. Khan, A. N. Tawfik, C. J. Gibbins, and B. C. Gremont, “Extra-high frequency line-of-sight propagation for future urban communications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 3109–3121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gremont, B. C.

S. A. Khan, A. N. Tawfik, C. J. Gibbins, and B. C. Gremont, “Extra-high frequency line-of-sight propagation for future urban communications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 3109–3121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hirata, A.

A. Hirata, R. Yamaguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Kosugi, K. Murata, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Effect of rain attenuation for a 10-Gb/s 120-GHz-band millimeter-wave wireless link,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 57, 3099–3105 (2009).

R. Yamaguchi, A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, N. Kukutsu, T. Nagatsuma, Y. Kado, H. Ikegawa, H. Nishikawa, and T. Nakayama, “10-Gbit/s MMIC wireless link exceeding 800 meters,” in Radio and Wireless Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 695–698.

T. Nagatsuma, H. J. Song, Y. Fujimoto, K. Miyake, A. Hirata, K. Ajito, A. Wakatsuki, T. Furuta, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Giga-bit wireless link using 300–400 GHz bands,” in MWP’09. International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics(Academic, 2009), pp. 1–4.

Hopen, C. Y.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation with Applications (Academic, 2001).

Ijaz, M.

M. Ijaz, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, S. Rajbhandari, J. Perez, and A. Gholami, “Bit error rate measurement of free space optical communication links under laboratory-controlled fog conditions,” in 16th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC) (Academic, 2011), pp. 52–55.

H. Le-Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, M. Ijaz, S. Rajbhandari, O. Adebanjo, S. Ansari, and E. Leitgeb, “Experimental study of bit error rate of free space optics communications in laboratory controlled turbulence,” in GLOBECOM Workshops (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1072–1076.

Ikegawa, H.

R. Yamaguchi, A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, N. Kukutsu, T. Nagatsuma, Y. Kado, H. Ikegawa, H. Nishikawa, and T. Nakayama, “10-Gbit/s MMIC wireless link exceeding 800 meters,” in Radio and Wireless Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 695–698.

Jansen, C.

C. Jansen, R. Piesiewicz, D. Mittleman, T. Kurner, and M. Koch, “The impact of reflections from stratified building materials on the wave propagation in future indoor terahertz communication systems,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 56, 1413–1419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kado, Y.

A. Hirata, R. Yamaguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Kosugi, K. Murata, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Effect of rain attenuation for a 10-Gb/s 120-GHz-band millimeter-wave wireless link,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 57, 3099–3105 (2009).

R. Yamaguchi, A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, N. Kukutsu, T. Nagatsuma, Y. Kado, H. Ikegawa, H. Nishikawa, and T. Nakayama, “10-Gbit/s MMIC wireless link exceeding 800 meters,” in Radio and Wireless Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 695–698.

T. Nagatsuma, H. J. Song, Y. Fujimoto, K. Miyake, A. Hirata, K. Ajito, A. Wakatsuki, T. Furuta, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Giga-bit wireless link using 300–400 GHz bands,” in MWP’09. International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics(Academic, 2009), pp. 1–4.

Khan, F.

P. Zhouyue and F. Khan, “An introduction to millimeter-wave mobile broadband systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49, 101–107(2011).

Khan, S. A.

S. A. Khan, A. N. Tawfik, C. J. Gibbins, and B. C. Gremont, “Extra-high frequency line-of-sight propagation for future urban communications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 3109–3121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kleine-Ostmann, T.

T. Kleine-Ostmann and T. Nagatsuma, “A review on terahertz communications research,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz 32, 143–171 (2011).

Koch, M.

C. Jansen, R. Piesiewicz, D. Mittleman, T. Kurner, and M. Koch, “The impact of reflections from stratified building materials on the wave propagation in future indoor terahertz communication systems,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 56, 1413–1419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kosugi, T.

A. Hirata, R. Yamaguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Kosugi, K. Murata, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Effect of rain attenuation for a 10-Gb/s 120-GHz-band millimeter-wave wireless link,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 57, 3099–3105 (2009).

R. Yamaguchi, A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, N. Kukutsu, T. Nagatsuma, Y. Kado, H. Ikegawa, H. Nishikawa, and T. Nakayama, “10-Gbit/s MMIC wireless link exceeding 800 meters,” in Radio and Wireless Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 695–698.

Kukutsu, N.

A. Hirata, R. Yamaguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Kosugi, K. Murata, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Effect of rain attenuation for a 10-Gb/s 120-GHz-band millimeter-wave wireless link,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 57, 3099–3105 (2009).

R. Yamaguchi, A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, N. Kukutsu, T. Nagatsuma, Y. Kado, H. Ikegawa, H. Nishikawa, and T. Nakayama, “10-Gbit/s MMIC wireless link exceeding 800 meters,” in Radio and Wireless Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 695–698.

T. Nagatsuma, H. J. Song, Y. Fujimoto, K. Miyake, A. Hirata, K. Ajito, A. Wakatsuki, T. Furuta, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Giga-bit wireless link using 300–400 GHz bands,” in MWP’09. International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics(Academic, 2009), pp. 1–4.

Kurner, T.

C. Jansen, R. Piesiewicz, D. Mittleman, T. Kurner, and M. Koch, “The impact of reflections from stratified building materials on the wave propagation in future indoor terahertz communication systems,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 56, 1413–1419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lampin, J. F.

G. Ducournau, P. Szriftgiser, D. Bacquet, A. Beck, T. Akalin, E. Peytavit, M. Zaknoune, and J. F. Lampin, “Optically power supplied Gbit/s wireless hotspot using 1.55 um THz photomixer and heterodyne detection at 200 GHz,” Electron. Lett. 46, 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Le Minh, H.

M. Ijaz, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, S. Rajbhandari, J. Perez, and A. Gholami, “Bit error rate measurement of free space optical communication links under laboratory-controlled fog conditions,” in 16th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC) (Academic, 2011), pp. 52–55.

Leitgeb, E.

H. Le-Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, M. Ijaz, S. Rajbhandari, O. Adebanjo, S. Ansari, and E. Leitgeb, “Experimental study of bit error rate of free space optics communications in laboratory controlled turbulence,” in GLOBECOM Workshops (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1072–1076.

Le-Minh, H.

H. Le-Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, M. Ijaz, S. Rajbhandari, O. Adebanjo, S. Ansari, and E. Leitgeb, “Experimental study of bit error rate of free space optics communications in laboratory controlled turbulence,” in GLOBECOM Workshops (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1072–1076.

Lender, A.

A. Lender, “The duobinary technique for high-speed data transmission,” IEEE Trans. Commun. Electron. 82, 214–218(1963).

Mann, C. M.

C. M. Mann, “Towards terahertz communication systems,” in Terahertz Sources and Systems, R. Miles, P. Harrison, and D. Lippens, eds. (Academic, 2001), pp. 261–267.

Mittleman, D.

C. Jansen, R. Piesiewicz, D. Mittleman, T. Kurner, and M. Koch, “The impact of reflections from stratified building materials on the wave propagation in future indoor terahertz communication systems,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 56, 1413–1419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miyake, K.

T. Nagatsuma, H. J. Song, Y. Fujimoto, K. Miyake, A. Hirata, K. Ajito, A. Wakatsuki, T. Furuta, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Giga-bit wireless link using 300–400 GHz bands,” in MWP’09. International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics(Academic, 2009), pp. 1–4.

Mizuochi, T.

T. Mizuochi, “Recent progress in forward error correction and its interplay with transmission impairments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 544–554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moeller, L.

L. Moeller, J. Federici, and K. Su, “2.5  Gbit/s duobinary signalling with narrow bandwidth 0.625 terahertz source,” Electron. Lett. 47, 856–858 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Federici and L. Moeller, “Review of terahertz and subterahertz wireless communications,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Murata, K.

A. Hirata, R. Yamaguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Kosugi, K. Murata, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Effect of rain attenuation for a 10-Gb/s 120-GHz-band millimeter-wave wireless link,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 57, 3099–3105 (2009).

Nagatsuma, T.

T. Kleine-Ostmann and T. Nagatsuma, “A review on terahertz communications research,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz 32, 143–171 (2011).

T. Nagatsuma, H. J. Song, Y. Fujimoto, K. Miyake, A. Hirata, K. Ajito, A. Wakatsuki, T. Furuta, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Giga-bit wireless link using 300–400 GHz bands,” in MWP’09. International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics(Academic, 2009), pp. 1–4.

R. Yamaguchi, A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, N. Kukutsu, T. Nagatsuma, Y. Kado, H. Ikegawa, H. Nishikawa, and T. Nakayama, “10-Gbit/s MMIC wireless link exceeding 800 meters,” in Radio and Wireless Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 695–698.

Nakayama, T.

R. Yamaguchi, A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, N. Kukutsu, T. Nagatsuma, Y. Kado, H. Ikegawa, H. Nishikawa, and T. Nakayama, “10-Gbit/s MMIC wireless link exceeding 800 meters,” in Radio and Wireless Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 695–698.

Nishikawa, H.

R. Yamaguchi, A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, N. Kukutsu, T. Nagatsuma, Y. Kado, H. Ikegawa, H. Nishikawa, and T. Nakayama, “10-Gbit/s MMIC wireless link exceeding 800 meters,” in Radio and Wireless Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 695–698.

Penninckx, D.

D. Penninckx, M. Chbat, L. Pierre, and J. P. Thiery, “The phase-shaped binary transmission (PSBT): a new technique to transmit for beyond the chromatic dispersion limit,” in the 22nd European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 22)(Academic, 1996), pp. 173–176.

Perez, J.

M. Ijaz, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, S. Rajbhandari, J. Perez, and A. Gholami, “Bit error rate measurement of free space optical communication links under laboratory-controlled fog conditions,” in 16th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC) (Academic, 2011), pp. 52–55.

Peytavit, E.

G. Ducournau, P. Szriftgiser, D. Bacquet, A. Beck, T. Akalin, E. Peytavit, M. Zaknoune, and J. F. Lampin, “Optically power supplied Gbit/s wireless hotspot using 1.55 um THz photomixer and heterodyne detection at 200 GHz,” Electron. Lett. 46, 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, R. L.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation with Applications (Academic, 2001).

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation Through Random Media (Academic, 1998).

Pierre, L.

D. Penninckx, M. Chbat, L. Pierre, and J. P. Thiery, “The phase-shaped binary transmission (PSBT): a new technique to transmit for beyond the chromatic dispersion limit,” in the 22nd European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 22)(Academic, 1996), pp. 173–176.

Piesiewicz, R.

C. Jansen, R. Piesiewicz, D. Mittleman, T. Kurner, and M. Koch, “The impact of reflections from stratified building materials on the wave propagation in future indoor terahertz communication systems,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 56, 1413–1419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rajbhandari, S.

M. Ijaz, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, S. Rajbhandari, J. Perez, and A. Gholami, “Bit error rate measurement of free space optical communication links under laboratory-controlled fog conditions,” in 16th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC) (Academic, 2011), pp. 52–55.

H. Le-Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, M. Ijaz, S. Rajbhandari, O. Adebanjo, S. Ansari, and E. Leitgeb, “Experimental study of bit error rate of free space optics communications in laboratory controlled turbulence,” in GLOBECOM Workshops (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1072–1076.

Rosker, M. J.

M. J. Rosker and H. B. Wallace, “Imaging through the atmosphere at terahertz frequencies,” in IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 773–776.

Sekine, M.

T. Utsunomiya and M. Sekine, “Rain Attenuation at 103 GHz in Millimeter Wave Ranges,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. 26, 1651–1660 (2005).

Song, H. J.

T. Nagatsuma, H. J. Song, Y. Fujimoto, K. Miyake, A. Hirata, K. Ajito, A. Wakatsuki, T. Furuta, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Giga-bit wireless link using 300–400 GHz bands,” in MWP’09. International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics(Academic, 2009), pp. 1–4.

Su, K.

L. Moeller, J. Federici, and K. Su, “2.5  Gbit/s duobinary signalling with narrow bandwidth 0.625 terahertz source,” Electron. Lett. 47, 856–858 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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G. Ducournau, P. Szriftgiser, D. Bacquet, A. Beck, T. Akalin, E. Peytavit, M. Zaknoune, and J. F. Lampin, “Optically power supplied Gbit/s wireless hotspot using 1.55 um THz photomixer and heterodyne detection at 200 GHz,” Electron. Lett. 46, 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

A. Hirata, R. Yamaguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Kosugi, K. Murata, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Effect of rain attenuation for a 10-Gb/s 120-GHz-band millimeter-wave wireless link,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 57, 3099–3105 (2009).

R. Yamaguchi, A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, N. Kukutsu, T. Nagatsuma, Y. Kado, H. Ikegawa, H. Nishikawa, and T. Nakayama, “10-Gbit/s MMIC wireless link exceeding 800 meters,” in Radio and Wireless Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 695–698.

Tawfik, A. N.

S. A. Khan, A. N. Tawfik, C. J. Gibbins, and B. C. Gremont, “Extra-high frequency line-of-sight propagation for future urban communications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 3109–3121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thiery, J. P.

D. Penninckx, M. Chbat, L. Pierre, and J. P. Thiery, “The phase-shaped binary transmission (PSBT): a new technique to transmit for beyond the chromatic dispersion limit,” in the 22nd European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 22)(Academic, 1996), pp. 173–176.

Utsunomiya, T.

T. Utsunomiya and M. Sekine, “Rain Attenuation at 103 GHz in Millimeter Wave Ranges,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. 26, 1651–1660 (2005).

Wakatsuki, A.

T. Nagatsuma, H. J. Song, Y. Fujimoto, K. Miyake, A. Hirata, K. Ajito, A. Wakatsuki, T. Furuta, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Giga-bit wireless link using 300–400 GHz bands,” in MWP’09. International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics(Academic, 2009), pp. 1–4.

Wallace, H. B.

M. J. Rosker and H. B. Wallace, “Imaging through the atmosphere at terahertz frequencies,” in IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 773–776.

Yamaguchi, R.

A. Hirata, R. Yamaguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Kosugi, K. Murata, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Effect of rain attenuation for a 10-Gb/s 120-GHz-band millimeter-wave wireless link,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 57, 3099–3105 (2009).

R. Yamaguchi, A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, N. Kukutsu, T. Nagatsuma, Y. Kado, H. Ikegawa, H. Nishikawa, and T. Nakayama, “10-Gbit/s MMIC wireless link exceeding 800 meters,” in Radio and Wireless Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 695–698.

Zaknoune, M.

G. Ducournau, P. Szriftgiser, D. Bacquet, A. Beck, T. Akalin, E. Peytavit, M. Zaknoune, and J. F. Lampin, “Optically power supplied Gbit/s wireless hotspot using 1.55 um THz photomixer and heterodyne detection at 200 GHz,” Electron. Lett. 46, 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhouyue, P.

P. Zhouyue and F. Khan, “An introduction to millimeter-wave mobile broadband systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49, 101–107(2011).

Electron. Lett. (2)

L. Moeller, J. Federici, and K. Su, “2.5  Gbit/s duobinary signalling with narrow bandwidth 0.625 terahertz source,” Electron. Lett. 47, 856–858 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Ducournau, P. Szriftgiser, D. Bacquet, A. Beck, T. Akalin, E. Peytavit, M. Zaknoune, and J. F. Lampin, “Optically power supplied Gbit/s wireless hotspot using 1.55 um THz photomixer and heterodyne detection at 200 GHz,” Electron. Lett. 46, 1349–1351 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

P. Zhouyue and F. Khan, “An introduction to millimeter-wave mobile broadband systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49, 101–107(2011).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Mizuochi, “Recent progress in forward error correction and its interplay with transmission impairments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 544–554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Spectrum (1)

S. Cherry, “Edholm’s law of bandwidth,” IEEE Spectrum 41, 58–60 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (2)

S. A. Khan, A. N. Tawfik, C. J. Gibbins, and B. C. Gremont, “Extra-high frequency line-of-sight propagation for future urban communications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 3109–3121 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Jansen, R. Piesiewicz, D. Mittleman, T. Kurner, and M. Koch, “The impact of reflections from stratified building materials on the wave propagation in future indoor terahertz communication systems,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 56, 1413–1419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. Electron. (1)

A. Lender, “The duobinary technique for high-speed data transmission,” IEEE Trans. Commun. Electron. 82, 214–218(1963).

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

A. Hirata, R. Yamaguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Kosugi, K. Murata, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Effect of rain attenuation for a 10-Gb/s 120-GHz-band millimeter-wave wireless link,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 57, 3099–3105 (2009).

Int. J. Infrared Milli. (1)

T. Utsunomiya and M. Sekine, “Rain Attenuation at 103 GHz in Millimeter Wave Ranges,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. 26, 1651–1660 (2005).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Federici and L. Moeller, “Review of terahertz and subterahertz wireless communications,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 111101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz (1)

T. Kleine-Ostmann and T. Nagatsuma, “A review on terahertz communications research,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz 32, 143–171 (2011).

Other (9)

R. Yamaguchi, A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, N. Kukutsu, T. Nagatsuma, Y. Kado, H. Ikegawa, H. Nishikawa, and T. Nakayama, “10-Gbit/s MMIC wireless link exceeding 800 meters,” in Radio and Wireless Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 695–698.

C. M. Mann, “Towards terahertz communication systems,” in Terahertz Sources and Systems, R. Miles, P. Harrison, and D. Lippens, eds. (Academic, 2001), pp. 261–267.

M. J. Rosker and H. B. Wallace, “Imaging through the atmosphere at terahertz frequencies,” in IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 773–776.

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation Through Random Media (Academic, 1998).

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation with Applications (Academic, 2001).

T. Nagatsuma, H. J. Song, Y. Fujimoto, K. Miyake, A. Hirata, K. Ajito, A. Wakatsuki, T. Furuta, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Giga-bit wireless link using 300–400 GHz bands,” in MWP’09. International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics(Academic, 2009), pp. 1–4.

D. Penninckx, M. Chbat, L. Pierre, and J. P. Thiery, “The phase-shaped binary transmission (PSBT): a new technique to transmit for beyond the chromatic dispersion limit,” in the 22nd European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 22)(Academic, 1996), pp. 173–176.

H. Le-Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, M. Ijaz, S. Rajbhandari, O. Adebanjo, S. Ansari, and E. Leitgeb, “Experimental study of bit error rate of free space optics communications in laboratory controlled turbulence,” in GLOBECOM Workshops (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1072–1076.

M. Ijaz, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, S. Rajbhandari, J. Perez, and A. Gholami, “Bit error rate measurement of free space optical communication links under laboratory-controlled fog conditions,” in 16th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC) (Academic, 2011), pp. 52–55.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic diagram of THz and IR wireless communication link through fog chamber, (b) IR source, (c) IR receiver and signal detection.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) BER curves of THz Link for long and short PRBSs without decision threshold optimization. Eye diagram at BER=106, (b) IR BER curves for long and short PRBSs with fixed decision threshold optimized at BER=106.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Attenuation of THz link and IR link with time (b) log(BER) of THz link and IR link with time (c) IR attenuation in dB relative to THz attenuation in dB over time.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Individually normalized outputs of photodetectors (PD1, PD2, PD3) in dB, (b) optical power of IR and RF power of THz due to fog, (c) log(BER) of IR and THz links impaired by fog.

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