Abstract

The whiteness of fluorescent white materials is in part due to the absorption of ultraviolet (UV) light and subsequent emission of visible blue light. The UV content of light sources in viewing booths and in spectrophotometers can thus significantly affect the perceived whiteness (PW) and measured sum of reflected and emitted light of fluorescent materials. The effect of UV content on the spectral radiance factor of fluorescent white materials containing different amounts of a fluorescent brightening agent and the subsequent assessment of their PW were evaluated. The UV content of sources in two calibrated viewing booths that simulated D65 and D75 illuminants, separately, was changed by selectively blocking UV emission of the source by approximately 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. The radiance spectra of a series of white fabrics were also obtained using a reflectance spectrophotometer at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% UV transmittance. The CIE and Uchida whiteness indices (WIs) were calculated for white samples and compared to perceptual results under varying illumination and UV conditions. Results indicate relatively modest agreement between perceptual assessments of fluorescent samples and whiteness metrics examined. Results also show that when the UV content of sources used in the viewing booths is adjusted to be similar to that used in measurements, improved correlations between perceptual and calculated results are obtained. The CIE WI was found to outperform the Uchida index under both sources.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  3. R. H. Peters, Textile Chemistry, Vol. II: Purification of Fibers (Elsevier, 1967).
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  5. M. Lewin, Handbook of Fiber Chemistry, 3rd ed. (CRC Press, 2007).
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    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Wyszecki, “Basic concepts of colorimetry of fluorescent materials,” J. Color Appear. 1, 8–17 (1972).
  10. E. Allen, “Fluorescent colorants: true reflectance, quantum efficiency and match formulation,” J. Color Appear. 1, 28–32 (1972).
  11. F. Grum, “Whiteness and fluorescence,” Text. Chem. Colour. 13, 34–36 (1981).
  12. R. Anliker and G. Muller, Fluorescent Whitening Agents (Georg Thieme, 1975).
  13. International Organization for Standardization and Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, “Publication 51.2, Standard method of assessing the spectral quality of daylight simulators for visual appraisal and measurement of colour,” ISO 23603:2005(E)/CIE S 012/E:2004 (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 2004).
  14. R. Seve, “A bibliography on whiteness,” Die Farbe 26, 89–104 (1979).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  26. American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, “Test method 110–2011, whiteness of textiles,” in AATCC Technical Manual (AATCC, 2012), pp. 165–166.
  27. American Society for Testing and Materials, “ASTM E308–06, standard practice for computing the colors of objects by using the CIE system,” in ASTM Standards on Color and Appearance, 8th ed. (ASTM, 2008), pp. 382–415.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

J. Lin, R. Shamey, and J. H. Trussell, “The effect of texture on perception and measurement of whiteness,” AATCC Rev., 12, 61–68 (2012).

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

R. Shamey, L. M. Cardenas, D. Hinks, and R. Woodard, “Comparison of naive and expert subjects in the assessment of small color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 1482–1489 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Katayama and M. D. Fairchild, “Quantitative evaluation of perceived whiteness based on a color vision model,” Color Res. Appl. 35, 410–418 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

R. Jafari and S. H. Amirshahi, “A comparison of the CIE and Uchida whiteness formulae as predictor of average visual whiteness evaluation of textiles,” Textile Res. J. 77, 756 (2007).

1998 (1)

H. Uchida, “A new whiteness formula,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 202–209 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

H. Uchida, “Whiteness formula dealing with tint and purity,” J. Color Sci. Asso. Jpn. 17, 226–233 (1994).

1990 (1)

H. Uchida, “A study on the CIE whiteness formula,” J. Color Sci. Asso. Jpn. 14, 106–113 (1990).

1981 (2)

R. Griesser, “Instrumental measurement of fluorescence and determination of whiteness: review and advances,” Rev. Prog. Color. 11, 25–36 (1981).
[CrossRef]

F. Grum, “Whiteness and fluorescence,” Text. Chem. Colour. 13, 34–36 (1981).

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

R. Seve, “A bibliography on whiteness,” Die Farbe 26, 89–104 (1979).

1972 (2)

G. Wyszecki, “Basic concepts of colorimetry of fluorescent materials,” J. Color Appear. 1, 8–17 (1972).

E. Allen, “Fluorescent colorants: true reflectance, quantum efficiency and match formulation,” J. Color Appear. 1, 28–32 (1972).

1971 (1)

R. Zweidler, “Why and how fluorescent whiteners work,” Ciba-Geigy Rev. 3, 38–44 (1971).

1967 (1)

R. S. Hunter, “Instruments and test methods for control of whiteness in textile mills,” Amer. Dyest. Rep. 56, 80–87 (1967).

1957 (1)

Allen, E.

E. Allen, “Fluorescent colorants: true reflectance, quantum efficiency and match formulation,” J. Color Appear. 1, 28–32 (1972).

E. Allen, “Mode of action of fluorescent whitening agents and measurement of their relative efficiency,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 933–943 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Amirshahi, S. H.

R. Jafari and S. H. Amirshahi, “A comparison of the CIE and Uchida whiteness formulae as predictor of average visual whiteness evaluation of textiles,” Textile Res. J. 77, 756 (2007).

Anliker, R.

R. Anliker and G. Muller, Fluorescent Whitening Agents (Georg Thieme, 1975).

Becker, R. S.

R. S. Becker, Theory and Interpretation of Fluorescence and Phosphorescence (Wiley Interscience, 1969).

Benzschawel, T.

Cardenas, L. M.

Cui, G.

Fairchild, M. D.

I. Katayama and M. D. Fairchild, “Quantitative evaluation of perceived whiteness based on a color vision model,” Color Res. Appl. 35, 410–418 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, P.

Gomez-Robledo, L.

Griesser, R.

R. Griesser, “Instrumental measurement of fluorescence and determination of whiteness: review and advances,” Rev. Prog. Color. 11, 25–36 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Grum, F.

F. Grum, “Whiteness and fluorescence,” Text. Chem. Colour. 13, 34–36 (1981).

Guth, S. L.

Hinks, D.

Hunter, R. S.

R. S. Hunter, “Instruments and test methods for control of whiteness in textile mills,” Amer. Dyest. Rep. 56, 80–87 (1967).

Jafari, R.

R. Jafari and S. H. Amirshahi, “A comparison of the CIE and Uchida whiteness formulae as predictor of average visual whiteness evaluation of textiles,” Textile Res. J. 77, 756 (2007).

Katayama, I.

I. Katayama and M. D. Fairchild, “Quantitative evaluation of perceived whiteness based on a color vision model,” Color Res. Appl. 35, 410–418 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lewin, M.

M. Lewin, Handbook of Fiber Chemistry, 3rd ed. (CRC Press, 2007).

Lin, J.

J. Lin, R. Shamey, and J. H. Trussell, “The effect of texture on perception and measurement of whiteness,” AATCC Rev., 12, 61–68 (2012).

Luo, R.

Massof, R. W.

Melgosa, M.

Muller, G.

R. Anliker and G. Muller, Fluorescent Whitening Agents (Georg Thieme, 1975).

Peters, R. H.

R. H. Peters, Textile Chemistry, Vol. I: The Chemistry of Fibres (Elsevier, 1963).

R. H. Peters, Textile Chemistry, Vol. II: Purification of Fibers (Elsevier, 1967).

R. H. Peters, Textile Chemistry, Vol. III: The Physical Chemistry of Dyeing (Elsevier, 1975).

Schanda, J.

J. Schanda, Colorimetry: Understanding the CIE System(Wiley, 2007), pp. 69–71.

Seve, R.

R. Seve, “A bibliography on whiteness,” Die Farbe 26, 89–104 (1979).

Shamey, R.

Trussell, J. H.

J. Lin, R. Shamey, and J. H. Trussell, “The effect of texture on perception and measurement of whiteness,” AATCC Rev., 12, 61–68 (2012).

Uchida, H.

H. Uchida, “A new whiteness formula,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 202–209 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Uchida, “Whiteness formula dealing with tint and purity,” J. Color Sci. Asso. Jpn. 17, 226–233 (1994).

H. Uchida, “A study on the CIE whiteness formula,” J. Color Sci. Asso. Jpn. 14, 106–113 (1990).

Woodard, R.

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, “Basic concepts of colorimetry of fluorescent materials,” J. Color Appear. 1, 8–17 (1972).

Xu, C.

C. Xu, “The chemistry and perception of fluorescent white materials,” Ph.D. dissertation (North Carolina State University, 2009).

Zweidler, R.

R. Zweidler, “Why and how fluorescent whiteners work,” Ciba-Geigy Rev. 3, 38–44 (1971).

AATCC Rev. (1)

J. Lin, R. Shamey, and J. H. Trussell, “The effect of texture on perception and measurement of whiteness,” AATCC Rev., 12, 61–68 (2012).

Amer. Dyest. Rep. (1)

R. S. Hunter, “Instruments and test methods for control of whiteness in textile mills,” Amer. Dyest. Rep. 56, 80–87 (1967).

Ciba-Geigy Rev. (1)

R. Zweidler, “Why and how fluorescent whiteners work,” Ciba-Geigy Rev. 3, 38–44 (1971).

Color Res. Appl. (2)

H. Uchida, “A new whiteness formula,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 202–209 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Katayama and M. D. Fairchild, “Quantitative evaluation of perceived whiteness based on a color vision model,” Color Res. Appl. 35, 410–418 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Die Farbe (1)

R. Seve, “A bibliography on whiteness,” Die Farbe 26, 89–104 (1979).

J. Color Appear. (2)

G. Wyszecki, “Basic concepts of colorimetry of fluorescent materials,” J. Color Appear. 1, 8–17 (1972).

E. Allen, “Fluorescent colorants: true reflectance, quantum efficiency and match formulation,” J. Color Appear. 1, 28–32 (1972).

J. Color Sci. Asso. Jpn. (2)

H. Uchida, “A study on the CIE whiteness formula,” J. Color Sci. Asso. Jpn. 14, 106–113 (1990).

H. Uchida, “Whiteness formula dealing with tint and purity,” J. Color Sci. Asso. Jpn. 17, 226–233 (1994).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Rev. Prog. Color. (1)

R. Griesser, “Instrumental measurement of fluorescence and determination of whiteness: review and advances,” Rev. Prog. Color. 11, 25–36 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Text. Chem. Colour. (1)

F. Grum, “Whiteness and fluorescence,” Text. Chem. Colour. 13, 34–36 (1981).

Textile Res. J. (1)

R. Jafari and S. H. Amirshahi, “A comparison of the CIE and Uchida whiteness formulae as predictor of average visual whiteness evaluation of textiles,” Textile Res. J. 77, 756 (2007).

Other (14)

C. Xu, “The chemistry and perception of fluorescent white materials,” Ph.D. dissertation (North Carolina State University, 2009).

American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, “Test method 110–2011, whiteness of textiles,” in AATCC Technical Manual (AATCC, 2012), pp. 165–166.

American Society for Testing and Materials, “ASTM E308–06, standard practice for computing the colors of objects by using the CIE system,” in ASTM Standards on Color and Appearance, 8th ed. (ASTM, 2008), pp. 382–415.

Optronic Laboratories, Inc., OL Series 750 Automated Spectroradiometric Measurement System (Optronic Laboratories, Inc., 2002).

R. Anliker and G. Muller, Fluorescent Whitening Agents (Georg Thieme, 1975).

International Organization for Standardization and Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, “Publication 51.2, Standard method of assessing the spectral quality of daylight simulators for visual appraisal and measurement of colour,” ISO 23603:2005(E)/CIE S 012/E:2004 (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 2004).

R. H. Peters, Textile Chemistry, Vol. I: The Chemistry of Fibres (Elsevier, 1963).

R. H. Peters, Textile Chemistry, Vol. II: Purification of Fibers (Elsevier, 1967).

R. H. Peters, Textile Chemistry, Vol. III: The Physical Chemistry of Dyeing (Elsevier, 1975).

M. Lewin, Handbook of Fiber Chemistry, 3rd ed. (CRC Press, 2007).

R. S. Becker, Theory and Interpretation of Fluorescence and Phosphorescence (Wiley Interscience, 1969).

“CIE Colorimetry,” Publication CIE No. 15, 3rd ed. (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 2004).

American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, AATCC Technical Manual, Vol. 85 (AATCC, 2010).

J. Schanda, Colorimetry: Understanding the CIE System(Wiley, 2007), pp. 69–71.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SPD of standard illuminants D65 and D75 and the simulated daylight sources in the viewing booths, including the simulated daylight sources with a supplementary UV source.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Arrangement used to block approximately 25% of the UV radiation using opaque dark gray cardboard rings placed around the UV light bulb.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Visual assessment of optically brightened white samples under varying UV levels.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured spectral radiance curves of (a) PTFE plate, (b) untreated cotton substrate, (c) 0.025% FBA-treated white material, (d) 0.25% FBA-treated white material, and (e) 2.5% FBA-treated white material irradiated at various relative UV intensities as measured by a reflectance spectrophotometer using illuminant D65.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

CIE WI of white samples calculated from measurements with a reflectance spectrophotometer employing a D65 source filtered to contain various UV contents and calculated for (a) D65 and (b) D75 illuminants, and radiometric measurements for sources in the D65 and D75 viewing booth, respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Uchida WI of white samples (a) calculated from measurements with a reflectance spectrophotometer employing a D65 source filtered to contain various UV contents and (b) calculated for D65 and D75 illuminants, respectively; and radiometric measurements for sources in the D65 and D75 viewing booth, respectively.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Spectral irradiance of fluorescent white materials illuminated with (a) D65, (b) D65+UV, (c) D75, and (d) D75+UV sources in a SpectraLight III viewing booth determined radiometrically.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Comparison of spectral irradiance curves measured over the surface of (a) untreated, (b) 0.025% FBA-treated, (c) 0.25% FBA-treated, and (d) 2.5% FBA-treated white materials between D65 against D75 and D65+UV against D75+UV in SpectraLight III viewing booths.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Spectral irradiance curves measured for various illumination combinations in a SpectraLight III viewing booth

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Variations in total UV energy measured by summing up the spectral irradiance from the surface of optically brightened samples illuminated under different conditions in SpectraLight III viewing booths.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Quality of D65 Daylight Simulator in SpectraLight-III Booth

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Table 2. Quality of D75 Daylight Simulator in SpectraLight-III Booth

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Table 3. Mean Inter- and Intrasubject Variability (Coefficient of Variation) Expressed in PW Units in the Determination of PW

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Table 4. Effect of Variations in UV on Measured and Perceived CIE WI of Nonbrightened and (0–2.5%) FBA-Treated Samplesa

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Table 5. Effect of UV Content on PW of Nonbrightened and (0–2.5%) FBA-Treated Samples under D65 and D75 Illuminationsa

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Table 6. Some Useful Radiometric Units and Terms

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

W10=Y10+800(xn,10x10)+1700(yn,10y10)Limited to:40<W10<5Y10280,
TW,10=900(xn,10x10)650(yn,10y10)Limited to:4<TW,10<2.
W=W102(TW)2,
W=PW2(TW)2,
PW=(5Y275){800[0.2742+0.00127(100Y)x}0.82+1700[0.2762+0.00176(100Y)y]0.82.

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