Abstract

The performances of ideal high-order thermal ghost imaging, including conventional high-order ghost imaging, background-subtracted high-order ghost imaging (BSGI), and intensity fluctuation high-order ghost imaging (IFGI), are compared in this paper. The detailed quality analyses of the three high-order ghost imaging algorithms are demonstrated. The signal-to-background ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio of the pattern-normalized high-order ghost imaging with an arbitrary-pixel object are deduced, which are in great agreement with the experimental results. Experimental results indicate that the best performance is achieved by the lowest-order BSGI or the lowest-order IFGI.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, “Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429–R3432 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon ghost interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, “Two-photon coincidence imaging with a classical source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, “Ghost imaging with thermal light comparing entanglement and classical Correlation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. H. Shih, “Two-photon imaging with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Basano and P. Ottonello, “Experiment in lensless ghost imaging with thermal light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091109 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. H. Zhang, Q. Wei, X. Shen, Y. F. Liu, H. L. Liu, J. Cheng, and S. S. Han, “Lensless Fourier-transform ghost imaging with classical incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 021803(R) (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. H. Chen, Q. Liu, K. H. Luo, and L. A. Wu, “Lensless ghost imaging with true thermal light,” Opt. Lett. 34, 695–697 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. L. Liu, X. Shen, D. M. Zhu, and S. S. Han, “Fourier-transform ghost imaging with pure far-field correlated thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 053808(R) (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. D’Angelo, A. Valencia, M. H. Rubin, and Y. Shih, “Resolution of quantum and classical ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 013810 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Wen, S. Du, and M. Xiao, “Improving spatial resolution in quantum imaging beyond the Rayleigh diffraction limit using multiphoton W entangled states,” Phys. Lett. A 374, 3908–3911 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. H. Rubin and Y. Shih, “Resolution of ghost imaging for nondegenerate spontaneous parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 033836 (2008).
  14. Y. F. Bai and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging with thermal light by third-order correlation,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 043828 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. H. Ou and L. M. Kuang, “Ghost imaging with third-order correlated thermal light,” J. Phys. B 40, 1833–1844 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S. H. Zhang, L. F. Lin, L. Gao, and K. G. Wang, “Enhancing visibility and resolution in Nth-order intensity correlation of thermal light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. B. Liu and Y. H. Shih, “Nth-order coherence of thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 023819 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Zhou, J. Simon, J. B. Liu, and Y. H. Shih, “Third-order correlation function and ghost imaging of chaotic thermal light in the photon counting regime,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043831 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Q. Liu, X. H. Chen, K. H. Luo, W. Wu, and L. A. Wu, “Role of multiphoton bunching in high-order ghost imaging with thermal light sources,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 053844 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. X. H. Chen, I. N. Agafonov, K. H. Luo, Q. Liu, R. Xian, M. V. Chekhova, and L. A. Wu, “High-visibility, high-order lensless ghost imaging with thermal light,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1166–1168 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Hu Li, Z. Chen, J. Xiong, and G. Zeng, “Periodic diffraction correlation imaging without a beam-splitter,” Opt. Express 20, 2956–2966 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. W. C. Chan, M. N. O’Sullivan, and R. W. Boyd, “High-order thermal ghost imaging,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3343–3345 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. W. C. Chan, M. N. O’Sullivan, and R. W. Boyd, “Optimization of thermal ghost imaging: high-order correlations vs. background subtraction,” Opt. Express 18, 5562–5573 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. L. Gong and S. S. Han, “A method to improve the visibility of ghost images obtained by thermal light,” Phys. Lett. A 374, 1005–1008 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y. Shih, “Can two-photon correlation of chaotic light be considered as correlation of intensity fluctuations?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  26. F. Ferri, D. Magatti, L. A. Lugiato, and A. Gatti, “Differential ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 253603 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2010 (6)

X. H. Chen, I. N. Agafonov, K. H. Luo, Q. Liu, R. Xian, M. V. Chekhova, and L. A. Wu, “High-visibility, high-order lensless ghost imaging with thermal light,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1166–1168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. W. C. Chan, M. N. O’Sullivan, and R. W. Boyd, “Optimization of thermal ghost imaging: high-order correlations vs. background subtraction,” Opt. Express 18, 5562–5573 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Gong and S. S. Han, “A method to improve the visibility of ghost images obtained by thermal light,” Phys. Lett. A 374, 1005–1008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, L. A. Lugiato, and A. Gatti, “Differential ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 253603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wen, S. Du, and M. Xiao, “Improving spatial resolution in quantum imaging beyond the Rayleigh diffraction limit using multiphoton W entangled states,” Phys. Lett. A 374, 3908–3911 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, J. Simon, J. B. Liu, and Y. H. Shih, “Third-order correlation function and ghost imaging of chaotic thermal light in the photon counting regime,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043831 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

Q. Liu, X. H. Chen, K. H. Luo, W. Wu, and L. A. Wu, “Role of multiphoton bunching in high-order ghost imaging with thermal light sources,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 053844 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Chen, Q. Liu, K. H. Luo, and L. A. Wu, “Lensless ghost imaging with true thermal light,” Opt. Lett. 34, 695–697 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Liu and Y. H. Shih, “Nth-order coherence of thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 023819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. W. C. Chan, M. N. O’Sullivan, and R. W. Boyd, “High-order thermal ghost imaging,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3343–3345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S. H. Zhang, L. F. Lin, L. Gao, and K. G. Wang, “Enhancing visibility and resolution in Nth-order intensity correlation of thermal light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Rubin and Y. Shih, “Resolution of ghost imaging for nondegenerate spontaneous parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 033836 (2008).

2007 (4)

Y. F. Bai and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging with thermal light by third-order correlation,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 043828 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Ou and L. M. Kuang, “Ghost imaging with third-order correlated thermal light,” J. Phys. B 40, 1833–1844 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Zhang, Q. Wei, X. Shen, Y. F. Liu, H. L. Liu, J. Cheng, and S. S. Han, “Lensless Fourier-transform ghost imaging with classical incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 021803(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Liu, X. Shen, D. M. Zhu, and S. S. Han, “Fourier-transform ghost imaging with pure far-field correlated thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 053808(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

L. Basano and P. Ottonello, “Experiment in lensless ghost imaging with thermal light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y. Shih, “Can two-photon correlation of chaotic light be considered as correlation of intensity fluctuations?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. H. Shih, “Two-photon imaging with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D’Angelo, A. Valencia, M. H. Rubin, and Y. Shih, “Resolution of quantum and classical ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 013810 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, “Ghost imaging with thermal light comparing entanglement and classical Correlation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, “Two-photon coincidence imaging with a classical source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, “Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429–R3432 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon ghost interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Agafonov, I. N.

Bache, M.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, “Ghost imaging with thermal light comparing entanglement and classical Correlation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y. F.

Y. F. Bai and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging with thermal light by third-order correlation,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 043828 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Basano, L.

L. Basano and P. Ottonello, “Experiment in lensless ghost imaging with thermal light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bennink, R. S.

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, “Two-photon coincidence imaging with a classical source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bentley, S. J.

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, “Two-photon coincidence imaging with a classical source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berardi, V.

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y. Shih, “Can two-photon correlation of chaotic light be considered as correlation of intensity fluctuations?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

Brambilla, E.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, “Ghost imaging with thermal light comparing entanglement and classical Correlation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cao, D. Z.

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S. H. Zhang, L. F. Lin, L. Gao, and K. G. Wang, “Enhancing visibility and resolution in Nth-order intensity correlation of thermal light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K. W. C.

Chekhova, M. V.

Chen, X. H.

Chen, Z.

Cheng, J.

M. H. Zhang, Q. Wei, X. Shen, Y. F. Liu, H. L. Liu, J. Cheng, and S. S. Han, “Lensless Fourier-transform ghost imaging with classical incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 021803(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

D’Angelo, M.

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. H. Shih, “Two-photon imaging with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D’Angelo, A. Valencia, M. H. Rubin, and Y. Shih, “Resolution of quantum and classical ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 013810 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Du, S.

J. Wen, S. Du, and M. Xiao, “Improving spatial resolution in quantum imaging beyond the Rayleigh diffraction limit using multiphoton W entangled states,” Phys. Lett. A 374, 3908–3911 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferri, F.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, L. A. Lugiato, and A. Gatti, “Differential ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 253603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gao, L.

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S. H. Zhang, L. F. Lin, L. Gao, and K. G. Wang, “Enhancing visibility and resolution in Nth-order intensity correlation of thermal light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gatti, A.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, L. A. Lugiato, and A. Gatti, “Differential ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 253603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, “Ghost imaging with thermal light comparing entanglement and classical Correlation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gong, W. L.

W. L. Gong and S. S. Han, “A method to improve the visibility of ghost images obtained by thermal light,” Phys. Lett. A 374, 1005–1008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, S. S.

W. L. Gong and S. S. Han, “A method to improve the visibility of ghost images obtained by thermal light,” Phys. Lett. A 374, 1005–1008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Zhang, Q. Wei, X. Shen, Y. F. Liu, H. L. Liu, J. Cheng, and S. S. Han, “Lensless Fourier-transform ghost imaging with classical incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 021803(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Liu, X. Shen, D. M. Zhu, and S. S. Han, “Fourier-transform ghost imaging with pure far-field correlated thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 053808(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Bai and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging with thermal light by third-order correlation,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 043828 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Klyshko, D. N.

D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon ghost interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kuang, L. M.

L. H. Ou and L. M. Kuang, “Ghost imaging with third-order correlated thermal light,” J. Phys. B 40, 1833–1844 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Hu

Lin, L. F.

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S. H. Zhang, L. F. Lin, L. Gao, and K. G. Wang, “Enhancing visibility and resolution in Nth-order intensity correlation of thermal light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. L.

M. H. Zhang, Q. Wei, X. Shen, Y. F. Liu, H. L. Liu, J. Cheng, and S. S. Han, “Lensless Fourier-transform ghost imaging with classical incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 021803(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Liu, X. Shen, D. M. Zhu, and S. S. Han, “Fourier-transform ghost imaging with pure far-field correlated thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 053808(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. B.

Y. Zhou, J. Simon, J. B. Liu, and Y. H. Shih, “Third-order correlation function and ghost imaging of chaotic thermal light in the photon counting regime,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043831 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Liu and Y. H. Shih, “Nth-order coherence of thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 023819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

Liu, Y. F.

M. H. Zhang, Q. Wei, X. Shen, Y. F. Liu, H. L. Liu, J. Cheng, and S. S. Han, “Lensless Fourier-transform ghost imaging with classical incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 021803(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lugiato, L. A.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, L. A. Lugiato, and A. Gatti, “Differential ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 253603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, “Ghost imaging with thermal light comparing entanglement and classical Correlation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luo, K. H.

Magatti, D.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, L. A. Lugiato, and A. Gatti, “Differential ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 253603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O’Sullivan, M. N.

Ottonello, P.

L. Basano and P. Ottonello, “Experiment in lensless ghost imaging with thermal light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ou, L. H.

L. H. Ou and L. M. Kuang, “Ghost imaging with third-order correlated thermal light,” J. Phys. B 40, 1833–1844 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pittman, T. B.

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, “Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429–R3432 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, M. H.

M. H. Rubin and Y. Shih, “Resolution of ghost imaging for nondegenerate spontaneous parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 033836 (2008).

M. D’Angelo, A. Valencia, M. H. Rubin, and Y. Shih, “Resolution of quantum and classical ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 013810 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scarcelli, G.

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y. Shih, “Can two-photon correlation of chaotic light be considered as correlation of intensity fluctuations?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. H. Shih, “Two-photon imaging with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sergienko, A. V.

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, “Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429–R3432 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon ghost interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shen, X.

M. H. Zhang, Q. Wei, X. Shen, Y. F. Liu, H. L. Liu, J. Cheng, and S. S. Han, “Lensless Fourier-transform ghost imaging with classical incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 021803(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Liu, X. Shen, D. M. Zhu, and S. S. Han, “Fourier-transform ghost imaging with pure far-field correlated thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 053808(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Y.

M. H. Rubin and Y. Shih, “Resolution of ghost imaging for nondegenerate spontaneous parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 033836 (2008).

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y. Shih, “Can two-photon correlation of chaotic light be considered as correlation of intensity fluctuations?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. D’Angelo, A. Valencia, M. H. Rubin, and Y. Shih, “Resolution of quantum and classical ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 013810 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Y. H.

Y. Zhou, J. Simon, J. B. Liu, and Y. H. Shih, “Third-order correlation function and ghost imaging of chaotic thermal light in the photon counting regime,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043831 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Liu and Y. H. Shih, “Nth-order coherence of thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 023819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. H. Shih, “Two-photon imaging with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon ghost interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, “Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429–R3432 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J.

Y. Zhou, J. Simon, J. B. Liu, and Y. H. Shih, “Third-order correlation function and ghost imaging of chaotic thermal light in the photon counting regime,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043831 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Strekalov, D. V.

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, “Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429–R3432 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of two-photon ghost interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600–3603 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Valencia, A.

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. H. Shih, “Two-photon imaging with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D’Angelo, A. Valencia, M. H. Rubin, and Y. Shih, “Resolution of quantum and classical ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 013810 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. G.

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S. H. Zhang, L. F. Lin, L. Gao, and K. G. Wang, “Enhancing visibility and resolution in Nth-order intensity correlation of thermal light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Q.

M. H. Zhang, Q. Wei, X. Shen, Y. F. Liu, H. L. Liu, J. Cheng, and S. S. Han, “Lensless Fourier-transform ghost imaging with classical incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 021803(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wen, J.

J. Wen, S. Du, and M. Xiao, “Improving spatial resolution in quantum imaging beyond the Rayleigh diffraction limit using multiphoton W entangled states,” Phys. Lett. A 374, 3908–3911 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L. A.

Wu, W.

Q. Liu, X. H. Chen, K. H. Luo, W. Wu, and L. A. Wu, “Role of multiphoton bunching in high-order ghost imaging with thermal light sources,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 053844 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xian, R.

Xiao, M.

J. Wen, S. Du, and M. Xiao, “Improving spatial resolution in quantum imaging beyond the Rayleigh diffraction limit using multiphoton W entangled states,” Phys. Lett. A 374, 3908–3911 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, J.

Hu Li, Z. Chen, J. Xiong, and G. Zeng, “Periodic diffraction correlation imaging without a beam-splitter,” Opt. Express 20, 2956–2966 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Cao, J. Xiong, S. H. Zhang, L. F. Lin, L. Gao, and K. G. Wang, “Enhancing visibility and resolution in Nth-order intensity correlation of thermal light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, G.

Zhang, M. H.

M. H. Zhang, Q. Wei, X. Shen, Y. F. Liu, H. L. Liu, J. Cheng, and S. S. Han, “Lensless Fourier-transform ghost imaging with classical incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 021803(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. H.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Varying curves of the SBR(Gm,n,p).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) SBR(Gm,n,p=40). (b) CNR(Gm,n,p=40).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Images retrieved in the conventional high-order thermal ghost imaging with different power order m and n by using the simulated thermal light patterns.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Images retrieved in the conventional high-order thermal ghost imaging with different power order m and n by using the detected thermal light patterns.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) CNR(m,n) of the high-order BSGI. (b) CNR(m,n) of the high-order IFGI.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Images retrieved in the high-order BSGI with different power order m and n by using the simulated thermal light patterns.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Images retrieved in the high-order IFGI with different power order m and n by using the simulated thermal light patterns.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Images retrieved in the high-order BSGI with different power order m and n by using the detected thermal light patterns.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Images retrieved in the high-order IFGI with different power order m and n by using the detected thermal light patterns.

Equations (22)

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Gm,n,p(x)=[So]m[Ir(x)]n,
SBR(Gm,n,p)=Gm,n,p(xin)Gm,n,p(xout).
CNR(Gm,n,p)=Gm,n,p(xin)Gm,n,p(xout)12σ2[Gm,n,p(xin)]+σ2[Gm,n,p(xout)],
f(x)={0.5,0<x<2,0,otherwise.
[Ii(x)]n=f([Ii(x)]n)[Ii(x)]nd[Ii(x)]=2nn+1,
Io(x1)mIr(x2)n=2m+nm+n+1,forx1=x2,
Io(x1)mIr(x2)n=2m+n(m+1)(n+1),forx1x2,
σ2[1Nj=1Nx(j)]=1Nσ2[x],
σ2[Gm=1,n,p(xin)]=22n+2N{12n+31(n+2)2+(p1)[13(2n+1)14(n+1)2]},
σ2[Gm=1,n,p(xout)]=22n+2N{p[13(2n+1)14(n+1)2]}.
SBR(Gm,n,p=1)=(m+1)(n+1)m+n+1.
SBR(Gm=1,n,p)=2n+1n+2+p1p,
CNR(Gm=1,n,p)=2N[n2(n+2)(n+1)]12n+31(n+2)2+(2p1)[13(2n+1)14(n+1)2].
SBR(Gm=2,n,p)=12n+1n+3+12n+1n+2(p1)+(p1)(3p2)3p2+p.
SBR(Gm=3,n,p)=8n+1n+4+12n+1n+2(p1)+n+1n+2(p1)(6p4)+p(p1)2p3+p2.
Gm,n,p(x)=[So]m[Ir(x)]n[So]m[Ir(x)]n,
Gm=1,n=1,p(x)=[ΔSo][ΔIr(x)]=[So][Ir(x)][So][Ir(x)],
ΔGm,n,p(x)=[ΔSo]m[ΔIr(x)]n.
f(x)={0.5,1<x<1,0,otherwise.
[Ii(x)]n={0,n=odd1n+1,n=even,
SBR(ΔGm,n,p=1)={m=odd,n=odd1+nm=odd,n=even1+mm=even,n=odd(m+1)(n+1)m+n+1m=even,n=even,
CNR(ΔGm,n,p=1){2N1m+n+112(m+n)+11(m+n+1)2+1(2m+1)(2n+1)m=odd,n=odd2N1m+n+11(m+1)(n+1)12(m+n)+11(m+n+1)2+1(2m+1)(2n+1)1(m+1)2+(n+1)2m=even,n=even0m+n=odd.

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