Abstract

The presence of a glare source in the visual field produces a veiling luminance (Lv), which generates a brightness reduction that can be expressed in terms of the glare index (V). The relation between the veiling luminance caused by glare and the apparent brightness reduction of a reference target has already been established for steady conditions. In this paper, the relationship is derived for transient glare. First, the relation is tested empirically, and then previous results concerning the effect of transient glare on brightness are summarized and analyzed. From this analysis, a power function relation between Lv and V is encountered.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Holladay, “Action of a light-source in the field of view in lowering visibility,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 1–15 (1927).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Vos, “Disability glare—a state of the art report,” CIE J. 3, 39–53 (1984).
  3. J. Vos, B. Cole, H. Bodmann, E. Colombo, T. Takeuchi, and T. van den Berg, “CIE equations for disability glare,” CIE 146 Tech. Rep., CIE Collection on Glare 2002 (Commission Internationale d’Eclairage, 2002).
  4. J. Schouten and L. Ornstein, “Measurements on direct and indirect adaptation by means of binocular vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 168–192 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Fry and M. Alpern, “The effect of a peripheral glare source upon the apparent brightness of an object,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 189–195 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  6. The value of s is obtained from the conversion of the original units used by the authors (foot-lamberts and foot-candles) to lux and cd/m2.
  7. B. Crawford, “Visual adaptation in relation to brief conditioning stimuli,” Proc. R. Soc. B 134, 283–302 (1947).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Colombo, J. Barraza, and L. Issolio, “Effect of brief exposure to glare on brightness perception in the scotopic-mesopic range,” Lighting Res. Technol. 32, 65–69 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Issolio, J. Barraza, and E. Colombo, “Time course of brightness under transient glare condition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 233–238 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Issolio and E. Colombo, “Brightness for different surround conditions: the effect of transient glare,” Percept. Psychophys. 68, 702–709 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Rossi, C. Rittenhouse, and M. Paradiso, “The representation of brightness in primary visual cortex,” Science 273, 1104–1107 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Rossi and M. Paradiso, “Neural correlates of perceived brightness in the retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, and striate cortex,” J. Neurosci. 19, 6145–6156 (1999).
  13. M. Kinoshita and H. Komatsu, “Neural representation of the luminance and brightness of a uniform surface in the macaque primary visual cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 86, 2559–2570 (2001).
  14. W. Geisler, “Adaptation, afterimages and cone saturation,” Vis. Res. 18, 279–289 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Adelson, “Saturation and adaptation in the rod system,” Vis. Res. 22, 1299–1312. (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Hayhoe, N. Benimoff, and D. Hood, “The time-course of multiplicative and substractive adaptation process,” Vis. Res. 27, 1981–1996 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. Issolio, J. Matranga, P. Barrionuevo, S. Comastri, G. Martin, and E. Colombo, “Brightness reduction as a function of the angular position of a glare source,” Opt. Pura Apl. 42, 33–39 (2009).
  18. P. Barrionuevo, E. Colombo, D. Corregidor, M. Jaén, and L. Issolio, “Evaluation of the intraocular diffusion through brightness reduction by glare using ectopic diffusers to simulate cataracts,” Opt. Appl. 40, 63–75 (2010).
  19. L. Franssen, J. Coppens, and T. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 768–776 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

P. Barrionuevo, E. Colombo, D. Corregidor, M. Jaén, and L. Issolio, “Evaluation of the intraocular diffusion through brightness reduction by glare using ectopic diffusers to simulate cataracts,” Opt. Appl. 40, 63–75 (2010).

2009 (1)

L. Issolio, J. Matranga, P. Barrionuevo, S. Comastri, G. Martin, and E. Colombo, “Brightness reduction as a function of the angular position of a glare source,” Opt. Pura Apl. 42, 33–39 (2009).

2006 (3)

L. Issolio and E. Colombo, “Brightness for different surround conditions: the effect of transient glare,” Percept. Psychophys. 68, 702–709 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Franssen, J. Coppens, and T. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 768–776 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Issolio, J. Barraza, and E. Colombo, “Time course of brightness under transient glare condition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 233–238 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Kinoshita and H. Komatsu, “Neural representation of the luminance and brightness of a uniform surface in the macaque primary visual cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 86, 2559–2570 (2001).

2000 (1)

E. Colombo, J. Barraza, and L. Issolio, “Effect of brief exposure to glare on brightness perception in the scotopic-mesopic range,” Lighting Res. Technol. 32, 65–69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Rossi and M. Paradiso, “Neural correlates of perceived brightness in the retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, and striate cortex,” J. Neurosci. 19, 6145–6156 (1999).

1996 (1)

A. Rossi, C. Rittenhouse, and M. Paradiso, “The representation of brightness in primary visual cortex,” Science 273, 1104–1107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

M. Hayhoe, N. Benimoff, and D. Hood, “The time-course of multiplicative and substractive adaptation process,” Vis. Res. 27, 1981–1996 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. Vos, “Disability glare—a state of the art report,” CIE J. 3, 39–53 (1984).

1982 (1)

E. Adelson, “Saturation and adaptation in the rod system,” Vis. Res. 22, 1299–1312. (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

W. Geisler, “Adaptation, afterimages and cone saturation,” Vis. Res. 18, 279–289 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

1947 (1)

B. Crawford, “Visual adaptation in relation to brief conditioning stimuli,” Proc. R. Soc. B 134, 283–302 (1947).
[CrossRef]

1939 (1)

1927 (1)

Adelson, E.

E. Adelson, “Saturation and adaptation in the rod system,” Vis. Res. 22, 1299–1312. (1982).
[CrossRef]

Alpern, M.

Barraza, J.

L. Issolio, J. Barraza, and E. Colombo, “Time course of brightness under transient glare condition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 233–238 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Colombo, J. Barraza, and L. Issolio, “Effect of brief exposure to glare on brightness perception in the scotopic-mesopic range,” Lighting Res. Technol. 32, 65–69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barrionuevo, P.

P. Barrionuevo, E. Colombo, D. Corregidor, M. Jaén, and L. Issolio, “Evaluation of the intraocular diffusion through brightness reduction by glare using ectopic diffusers to simulate cataracts,” Opt. Appl. 40, 63–75 (2010).

L. Issolio, J. Matranga, P. Barrionuevo, S. Comastri, G. Martin, and E. Colombo, “Brightness reduction as a function of the angular position of a glare source,” Opt. Pura Apl. 42, 33–39 (2009).

Benimoff, N.

M. Hayhoe, N. Benimoff, and D. Hood, “The time-course of multiplicative and substractive adaptation process,” Vis. Res. 27, 1981–1996 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bodmann, H.

J. Vos, B. Cole, H. Bodmann, E. Colombo, T. Takeuchi, and T. van den Berg, “CIE equations for disability glare,” CIE 146 Tech. Rep., CIE Collection on Glare 2002 (Commission Internationale d’Eclairage, 2002).

Cole, B.

J. Vos, B. Cole, H. Bodmann, E. Colombo, T. Takeuchi, and T. van den Berg, “CIE equations for disability glare,” CIE 146 Tech. Rep., CIE Collection on Glare 2002 (Commission Internationale d’Eclairage, 2002).

Colombo, E.

P. Barrionuevo, E. Colombo, D. Corregidor, M. Jaén, and L. Issolio, “Evaluation of the intraocular diffusion through brightness reduction by glare using ectopic diffusers to simulate cataracts,” Opt. Appl. 40, 63–75 (2010).

L. Issolio, J. Matranga, P. Barrionuevo, S. Comastri, G. Martin, and E. Colombo, “Brightness reduction as a function of the angular position of a glare source,” Opt. Pura Apl. 42, 33–39 (2009).

L. Issolio, J. Barraza, and E. Colombo, “Time course of brightness under transient glare condition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 233–238 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Issolio and E. Colombo, “Brightness for different surround conditions: the effect of transient glare,” Percept. Psychophys. 68, 702–709 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Colombo, J. Barraza, and L. Issolio, “Effect of brief exposure to glare on brightness perception in the scotopic-mesopic range,” Lighting Res. Technol. 32, 65–69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Vos, B. Cole, H. Bodmann, E. Colombo, T. Takeuchi, and T. van den Berg, “CIE equations for disability glare,” CIE 146 Tech. Rep., CIE Collection on Glare 2002 (Commission Internationale d’Eclairage, 2002).

Comastri, S.

L. Issolio, J. Matranga, P. Barrionuevo, S. Comastri, G. Martin, and E. Colombo, “Brightness reduction as a function of the angular position of a glare source,” Opt. Pura Apl. 42, 33–39 (2009).

Coppens, J.

L. Franssen, J. Coppens, and T. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 768–776 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Corregidor, D.

P. Barrionuevo, E. Colombo, D. Corregidor, M. Jaén, and L. Issolio, “Evaluation of the intraocular diffusion through brightness reduction by glare using ectopic diffusers to simulate cataracts,” Opt. Appl. 40, 63–75 (2010).

Crawford, B.

B. Crawford, “Visual adaptation in relation to brief conditioning stimuli,” Proc. R. Soc. B 134, 283–302 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Franssen, L.

L. Franssen, J. Coppens, and T. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 768–776 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fry, G.

Geisler, W.

W. Geisler, “Adaptation, afterimages and cone saturation,” Vis. Res. 18, 279–289 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hayhoe, M.

M. Hayhoe, N. Benimoff, and D. Hood, “The time-course of multiplicative and substractive adaptation process,” Vis. Res. 27, 1981–1996 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Holladay, L.

Hood, D.

M. Hayhoe, N. Benimoff, and D. Hood, “The time-course of multiplicative and substractive adaptation process,” Vis. Res. 27, 1981–1996 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Issolio, L.

P. Barrionuevo, E. Colombo, D. Corregidor, M. Jaén, and L. Issolio, “Evaluation of the intraocular diffusion through brightness reduction by glare using ectopic diffusers to simulate cataracts,” Opt. Appl. 40, 63–75 (2010).

L. Issolio, J. Matranga, P. Barrionuevo, S. Comastri, G. Martin, and E. Colombo, “Brightness reduction as a function of the angular position of a glare source,” Opt. Pura Apl. 42, 33–39 (2009).

L. Issolio, J. Barraza, and E. Colombo, “Time course of brightness under transient glare condition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 233–238 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Issolio and E. Colombo, “Brightness for different surround conditions: the effect of transient glare,” Percept. Psychophys. 68, 702–709 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Colombo, J. Barraza, and L. Issolio, “Effect of brief exposure to glare on brightness perception in the scotopic-mesopic range,” Lighting Res. Technol. 32, 65–69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jaén, M.

P. Barrionuevo, E. Colombo, D. Corregidor, M. Jaén, and L. Issolio, “Evaluation of the intraocular diffusion through brightness reduction by glare using ectopic diffusers to simulate cataracts,” Opt. Appl. 40, 63–75 (2010).

Kinoshita, M.

M. Kinoshita and H. Komatsu, “Neural representation of the luminance and brightness of a uniform surface in the macaque primary visual cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 86, 2559–2570 (2001).

Komatsu, H.

M. Kinoshita and H. Komatsu, “Neural representation of the luminance and brightness of a uniform surface in the macaque primary visual cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 86, 2559–2570 (2001).

Martin, G.

L. Issolio, J. Matranga, P. Barrionuevo, S. Comastri, G. Martin, and E. Colombo, “Brightness reduction as a function of the angular position of a glare source,” Opt. Pura Apl. 42, 33–39 (2009).

Matranga, J.

L. Issolio, J. Matranga, P. Barrionuevo, S. Comastri, G. Martin, and E. Colombo, “Brightness reduction as a function of the angular position of a glare source,” Opt. Pura Apl. 42, 33–39 (2009).

Ornstein, L.

Paradiso, M.

A. Rossi and M. Paradiso, “Neural correlates of perceived brightness in the retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, and striate cortex,” J. Neurosci. 19, 6145–6156 (1999).

A. Rossi, C. Rittenhouse, and M. Paradiso, “The representation of brightness in primary visual cortex,” Science 273, 1104–1107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rittenhouse, C.

A. Rossi, C. Rittenhouse, and M. Paradiso, “The representation of brightness in primary visual cortex,” Science 273, 1104–1107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, A.

A. Rossi and M. Paradiso, “Neural correlates of perceived brightness in the retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, and striate cortex,” J. Neurosci. 19, 6145–6156 (1999).

A. Rossi, C. Rittenhouse, and M. Paradiso, “The representation of brightness in primary visual cortex,” Science 273, 1104–1107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schouten, J.

Takeuchi, T.

J. Vos, B. Cole, H. Bodmann, E. Colombo, T. Takeuchi, and T. van den Berg, “CIE equations for disability glare,” CIE 146 Tech. Rep., CIE Collection on Glare 2002 (Commission Internationale d’Eclairage, 2002).

van den Berg, T.

L. Franssen, J. Coppens, and T. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 768–776 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Vos, B. Cole, H. Bodmann, E. Colombo, T. Takeuchi, and T. van den Berg, “CIE equations for disability glare,” CIE 146 Tech. Rep., CIE Collection on Glare 2002 (Commission Internationale d’Eclairage, 2002).

Vos, J.

J. Vos, “Disability glare—a state of the art report,” CIE J. 3, 39–53 (1984).

J. Vos, B. Cole, H. Bodmann, E. Colombo, T. Takeuchi, and T. van den Berg, “CIE equations for disability glare,” CIE 146 Tech. Rep., CIE Collection on Glare 2002 (Commission Internationale d’Eclairage, 2002).

CIE J. (1)

J. Vos, “Disability glare—a state of the art report,” CIE J. 3, 39–53 (1984).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

L. Franssen, J. Coppens, and T. van den Berg, “Compensation comparison method for assessment of retinal straylight,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 768–776 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

M. Kinoshita and H. Komatsu, “Neural representation of the luminance and brightness of a uniform surface in the macaque primary visual cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 86, 2559–2570 (2001).

J. Neurosci. (1)

A. Rossi and M. Paradiso, “Neural correlates of perceived brightness in the retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, and striate cortex,” J. Neurosci. 19, 6145–6156 (1999).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Lighting Res. Technol. (1)

E. Colombo, J. Barraza, and L. Issolio, “Effect of brief exposure to glare on brightness perception in the scotopic-mesopic range,” Lighting Res. Technol. 32, 65–69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Appl. (1)

P. Barrionuevo, E. Colombo, D. Corregidor, M. Jaén, and L. Issolio, “Evaluation of the intraocular diffusion through brightness reduction by glare using ectopic diffusers to simulate cataracts,” Opt. Appl. 40, 63–75 (2010).

Opt. Pura Apl. (1)

L. Issolio, J. Matranga, P. Barrionuevo, S. Comastri, G. Martin, and E. Colombo, “Brightness reduction as a function of the angular position of a glare source,” Opt. Pura Apl. 42, 33–39 (2009).

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

L. Issolio and E. Colombo, “Brightness for different surround conditions: the effect of transient glare,” Percept. Psychophys. 68, 702–709 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. B (1)

B. Crawford, “Visual adaptation in relation to brief conditioning stimuli,” Proc. R. Soc. B 134, 283–302 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

A. Rossi, C. Rittenhouse, and M. Paradiso, “The representation of brightness in primary visual cortex,” Science 273, 1104–1107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vis. Res. (3)

W. Geisler, “Adaptation, afterimages and cone saturation,” Vis. Res. 18, 279–289 (1978).
[CrossRef]

E. Adelson, “Saturation and adaptation in the rod system,” Vis. Res. 22, 1299–1312. (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Hayhoe, N. Benimoff, and D. Hood, “The time-course of multiplicative and substractive adaptation process,” Vis. Res. 27, 1981–1996 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. Vos, B. Cole, H. Bodmann, E. Colombo, T. Takeuchi, and T. van den Berg, “CIE equations for disability glare,” CIE 146 Tech. Rep., CIE Collection on Glare 2002 (Commission Internationale d’Eclairage, 2002).

The value of s is obtained from the conversion of the original units used by the authors (foot-lamberts and foot-candles) to lux and cd/m2.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Layout of the experimental device.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Temporal diagram for the stimuli and for the glare source presentations.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Glare index ( V ) as a function of the glare source eccentricity angle ( θ ).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

L m / L r ratio as a function of glare illuminance at the cornea ( E ) for θ = 10 ° and for the two considered subjects, JB (male, 30 years old) and LI (male, 30 years old).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Relation between the logarithm of glare index, and the logarithm of glare source illuminance. Data under steady conditions are obtained from the results of Fry and Alpern [5] for six angles (0.75°, 1.0°, 1.5°, 2.5°, 3.5°, and 4.5°); for each angle there are 13 measured illuminances, and they are represented using alternately filled, and empty symbols, the straight lines fitting them being continuous. Our data obtained under transient conditions for an angle equal to 10° are represented using crosses, and the straight line fitting them is dotted.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

L m / L r ratio as a function of the glare source eccentricity angle ( θ ), for E = 60 lx and for the five considered subjects, JM (female, 26 years old), PB (male, 28 years old), LI (male, 40 years old), RR (male, 31 years old), and CL (female, 30 years old). The mean of the data is also plotted.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Relation between the logarithm of glare index and the logarithm of glare source eccentricity angle. Results corresponding to steady conditions for 7 illuminance levels (1.37, 5.48, 13.7, 54.8, 137, 611, and 1153 lx) of the 13 levels measured by Fry and Alpern [5] are represented using alternately filled and empty symbols, and the straight lines fitting them are continuous (to simplify data interpretation, only 7 illuminances are considered, but they cover most of the range studied by these authors and contain data for every considered angle except in the case E = 1153 , where the angle θ = 0.75 ° is missing). Our data obtained under transient conditions for illuminance equal to 60 lx are represented using crosses, and the straight line fitting them is dotted.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Glare Source Angles and Illuminances to Keep E / θ 2 Constant

Tables Icon

Table 2. Slopes ( b ) and y -Intercepts ( A ) Corresponding to the Straight Lines Fitted in Fig. 5

Tables Icon

Table 3. Slopes ( m ) and y -Intercepts ( D ) Corresponding to the Straight Lines Fitted in Fig. 7

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L v = k E θ n ,
L v = s E θ n ,
V = L r L m 1
V = a E b ,
V = d θ m ,
V = ( L v a 1 / b s d n / m ) b m / m b n .
q = b m ( m b n ) ,
p = ( a 1 / b s d n / m ) b m / ( m b n ) ,
V = p L v q .
V = p L v 0.3 .

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